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Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory is a model in chemistry used to predict the shape of individual molecules based upon the extent of electron-pair electrostatic repulsion. It is also named Gillespie-Nyholm theory after its two main developers. The acronym "VSEPR" is sometimes pronounced "vesper" for ease of pronunciation; however, the phonetic pronunciation is technically more correct.
The premise of VSEPR is that the valence electron pairs surrounding an atom mutually repel each other, and will therefore adopt an arrangement that minimizes this repulsion, thus determining the molecular geometry. The number of electron pairs surrounding an atom, both bonding and nonbonding, is called its steric number.
VSEPR theory is usually compared and contrasted with valence bond theory, which addresses molecular shape through orbitals that are energetically accessible for bonding. Valence bond theory concerns itself with the formation of sigma and pi bonds. Molecular orbital theory is another model for understanding how atoms and electrons are assembled into molecules and polyatomic ions.
VSEPR theory has long been criticized for not being quantitative, and therefore limited to the generation of "crude", even though structurally accurate, molecular geometries of covalent molecules. However, molecular mechanicsforce fields based on VSEPR have also been developed.
The idea of a correlation between molecular geometry and number of valence electrons (both shared and unshared) was first presented in a Bakerian Lecture in 1940 by Nevil Sidgwick and Herbert Powell at the University of Oxford. In 1957 Ronald Gillespie and Ronald Sydney Nyholm at University College London refined this concept to build a more detailed theory capable of choosing between various alternative geometries.
VSEPR theory mainly involves predicting the layout of electron pairs surrounding one or more central atoms in a molecule, which are bonded to two or more other atoms. The geometry of these central atoms in turn determines the geometry of the larger whole.
The number of electron pairs in the valence shell of a central atom is determined by drawing the Lewis structure of the molecule, expanded to show all lone pairs of electrons, alongside protruding and projecting bonds. Where two or more resonance structures can depict a molecule, the VSEPR model is applicable to any such structure. For the purposes of VSEPR theory, the multiple electron pairs in a multiple bond are treated as though they were a single "pair".
These electron pairs are assumed to lie on the surface of a sphere centered on the central atom, and since they are negatively charged, tend to occupy positions that minimizes their mutual electrostatic repulsions by maximising the distance between them. The number of electron pairs therefore determine the overall geometry that they will adopt.
For example, when there are two electron pairs surrounding the central atom, their mutual repulsion is minimal when they lie at opposite poles of the sphere. Therefore, the central atom is predicted to adopt a linear geometry. If there are 3 electron pairs surrounding the central atom, their repulsion is minimized by placing them at the vertices of a triangle centered on the atom. Therefore, the predicted geometry is trigonal. Similarly, for 4 electron pairs, the optimal arrangement is tetrahedral.
This overall geometry is further refined by distinguishing between bonding and nonbonding electron pairs. A bonding electron pair is involved in a sigma bond with an adjacent atom, and, being shared with that other atom, lies farther away from the central atom than does a nonbonding pair (lone pair), which is held close to the central atom by its positively-charged nucleus. Therefore, the repulsion caused by the lone pair is greater than the repulsion caused by the bonding pair. As such, when the overall geometry has two sets of positions that experience different degrees of repulsion, the lone pair(s) will tend to occupy the positions that experience less repulsion. In other words, the lone pair-lone pair (lp-lp) repulsion is considered to be stronger than the lone pair-bonding pair (lp-bp) repulsion, which in turn is stronger than the bonding pair-bonding pair (bp-bp) repulsion. Hence, the weaker bp-bp repulsion is preferred over the lp-lp or lp-bp repulsion.
This distinction becomes important when the overall geometry has two or more non-equivalent positions. For example, when there are 5 electron pairs surrounding the central atom, the optimal arrangement is a trigonal bipyramid. In this geometry, two positions lie at 180Â° angles to each other and 90Â° angles to the other 3 adjacent positions, whereas the other 3 positions lie at 120Â° to each other and at 90Â° to the first two positions. The first two positions therefore experience more repulsion than the last three positions. Hence, when there are one or more lone pairs, the lone pairs will tend to occupy the last three positions first.
The difference between lone pairs and bonding pairs may also be used to rationalize deviations from idealized geometries. For example, the H2O molecule has four electron pairs in its valence shell: two lone pairs and two bond pairs. The four electron pairs are spread so as to point roughly towards the apices of a tetrahedron. However, the bond angle between the two O-H bonds is only 104.5Â°, rather than the 109.5Â° of a regular tetrahedron, because the two lone pairs (whose density or probability envelopes lie closer to the oxygen nucleus) exert a greater mutual repulsion than the two bond pairs.
The "AXE method" of electron counting is commonly used when applying the VSEPR theory. The A represents the central atom and always has an implied subscript one. The X represents the number of sigma bonds between the central atoms and outside atoms. Multiple covalent bonds (
Key: LWBPNIJBHRISSS-NUQVWONBAX. Properties. Molecular formula, BeCl2 ... The linear shape of the monomeric form is as predicted by VSEPR theory. ...
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Answers:Theory: Arrhenius According to Arrhenius, if a molecular substance ionizes (forms ions) in water solution, and the only positive ion turns out to be a hydrogen ion (H+), then the substance is an acid. Example: HCl(aq) --> H+(aq) + Cl-(aq) In the above example, a molecule of hydrogen chloride, when dissolved in water, breaks up to produce a positive hydrogen ion and a negative chloride ion. Of course, I am leaving the role of water from this equation. Hydrogen chloride molecules and water molecules are highly polar. That means, that they both have oppositely charged ends that attract each other. When the positive end of HCl (the hydrogen end) attracts the negative end of H2O (the oxygen end), the oxygen rips the hydrogen atom (actually just the proton) off the hydrogen chloride molecule leaving the hydrogen's electron behind it. This extra electron gives the chlorine atom its negative charge transforming it into a chloride ion, while the water "adopts" the hydrogen (proton) that begins to share a pair of oxygen's electrons forming a covalent bond with it. Since a proton carries a positive charge, the entire resulting molecule becomes a positive polyatomic ion called the "hydronium ion". The complete equation for this reaction that includes water is HCl(aq) + H2O(l) --> H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq) H+ and H3O+ can be used interchangeably for the hydrogen ion, because hydronium ion (H3O+) is just a proton attached to a water molecule. A base, on the other hand, is a substance that either dissociates or ionizes in water to release hydroxide ions (OH-) as the only negative ions in water solution. Most bases are already ionic, since they usually contain a metallic (positive) ion. An ionic substance does not need to ionize (form ions) in water solution. It only dissociates. Polar water molecules are attracted to both the positve and the negative ions in the crystal, and surround them, separating them from one another, making the crystal dissolve and become part of the solution. Example: NaOH(s) --> Na+(aq) + OH-(aq) Note that the only negative ion that is released in water is OH- (hydroxide ion. This makes sodium hydroxide a base. Some bases (the weak kind) start out as molecules. When those molecules interact with water, some of them capture a proton (H+) from a water molecule and become positive polyatomic ions, while the rest of the water molecules without a proton become a hydroxide ions (OH-). Example: NH3(aq) + H2O(l) --> NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) In the above equation, an ammonia molecule takes a proton from a water molecule and becomes a positive ammonium ion, while the remaining part of the water molecule becomes a negative hydroxide ion. This makes ammonia a base. Theory: Bronsted-Lowry According to Bronsted-Lowry, an acid is a particle that donates a proton to another particle. The "particle" may be a molecule, an atom, or an ion. Example: HCl(aq) + H2O(l) --> H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq) In the above equation, hydrogen chloride molecule "donates" a proton (H+) to the water molecule. Therefore, HCl is defined as an "acid". However, donating something means donating it to something else that accepts the donation. That something is called a base. In the above example, water accepts the proton, and in so doing, it acts as a "base". Another example: NH3(aq) + H2O(l) --> NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) In the equation above, an ammonia molecule (NH3) takes (accepts) a proton from a water molecule. This makes the ammonia molecule a base, while the water molecule acts like an acid since it supplies (donates) the proton to the ammonia molecule. Note, that in the above examples, water acts sometimes as an acid, and sometimes as a base, depending what it is that water is interacting with. Theory: Lewis According to Lewis, an acid is any particle that accepts an electron pair. Example: H2O(l) + H+(aq) --> H3O+(aq) In the above example, a water molecule, accepts a proton. A proton does not have any electrons of its own. A water molecule is made up of a central oxygen atom that is surrounded by four pairs of electrons. Two of these pairs are shared with two hydrogen atoms respectively, leaving two unshared pairs. A proton moves in and begins to share one of those unshared pairs of electrons and forms a so-called coordinate-covalent bond with oxygen. Hydrogen ion (proton) is seen as a proton acceptor, and defined as an acid, while the water molecule that provides the electron pair is seen as and "electron pair donor", and therefore, a base.