vernier callipers experiment
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This site has some detail about how to read micrometres (one hundredth of a millimetre) using vernier callipers.
A variation to the more traditional caliper is the inclusion of a vernier scale; this makes it possible to directly obtain a more precise measurement.
Vernier calipers can measure internal dimensions (using the uppermost jaws in the picture at right), external dimensions using the pictured lower jaws, and depending on the manufacturer, depth measurements by the use of a probe that is attached to the movable head and slides along the centre of the body. This probe is slender and can get into deep grooves that may prove difficult for other measuring tools.
The vernier scales will often include both metric and Imperial measurements on the upper and lower part of the scale.
Vernier calipers commonly used in industry provide a precision to a hundredth of a millimetre (10 micrometres), or one thousandth of an inch.
A more accurate instrument used for the same purpose is the micrometer.
Question:All come under simple pendulum experiment
Value of 1 MSD = S what is a msd ??? What is s
Total number of VSD=N what is VSD and N
LC=S/N what is a LC
What is CVD
Answers:MSD :Main Scale Division
S: Value of 1 main Scale Division
VSD : Vernier Scale Division
N: No. of divisons on Vernier scale
LC: Least Count
Start with a clean and dry 100 ml plastic graduated cylinder. Add M&Ms until the graduated cylinder is about 3/4 full. Gently tap the graduated cylinder to "settle" the M&Ms. Read the volume of M&Ms in cm3 and record the value in Data Table 1.
"Pour" the M&Ms onto a clean, dry table or other flat surface. Use your hands to gently push the M&Ms into a solid circular shape, not a ring. You want to minimize the spaces between M&Ms while making sure that the M&Ms are "flat" on the surface. Now use the pictures of the vernier caliper to measure the diameter of the M&M "circle." Record this value in Table 1.
Steps 1 and 2 are repeated using a different number of M&Ms.
The thickness of three single M&Ms selected at random from the sample are measured directly using the vernier caliper, which is precise to a thousandths of a centimeter (If you place an M&M on a surface, the thickness is a measurement from top to bottom). We have recorded the values for you in Table 2.
Submit your work according to the directions at the bottom of the page. You will complete the tables as you answer the questions. Be sure to include the information in the Tables as requested below, so your instructor can check your calculations.
When you performed Step 2 of the procedure, you actually made a cylinder of M&Ms. The cylinder was rather "smushed," and the height of the cylinder was the thickness of an M&M. Recall that the equation for the volume of a cylinder is V = (3.14)r2h.
Rearrange the equation for "h." Show your work.
Using the data from Table 1 and your equation, calculate the average thickness (height) of an M&M for each trial. Record your calculated values in Table 1. Hint: Students often forget that they must use the radius, and not the diameter, in the equation. Copy Table 1 into the assignment.
You now have two values for the thickness of an M&M in Table 1. Determine the average M&M thickness using these values and record your value in Table 3.
You have just determined a value for the thickness of an M&M using the indirect method. What makes this method "indirect"?
When Step 4 of the procedure was performed, a vernier caliper was used to measure the thickness of an M&M.
Using the data from Table 2, calculate the average M&M thickness and record your value in Table 3. Copy Table 2 and Table 3 into the assignment.
You have just determined a value for the thickness of an M&M using the direct method. What makes this method "direct"?
Which method (indirect or direct) yields the "best" value for the average thickness of an M&M from the package? Explain the reasons for your choice.
Answers:This is a lab process. You have to actually do the experiment to produce the answers.
I can't help you, you have to do it exactly as listed.
Question:I know on a rough scale what to do but I'm confused on parts.
My experiment title will be something like: How PH affects the
digestion of starch in amylase
In my introduction i need to write about the biological knowledge/concepts on which my investigation is based on so: I could need some more information on: Extra cellular digestion, digestion of starch
My Aims I dont know really know how i can put in detail what im investigating...
Hypothesis, How am i supposed to do anything for this its basically the above.. My likely outcome would be?
Plain, the part im stuck the most with. I have the apparatus listed: Amayse, PH Buffer, Agor plates, iodine, pipette, pipette filler, beaker, petri dishes, vernier calipers, Universal Indicator Paper and a cork boarer.
The problem is i dont know what they all do, what would be my range of measurements, what will i measaure and im not sure how to do a step by step plan and how do i analyse my data
Results, conclusions and evualtion = done Please can people help explain bits and give me some useful reference links, because i'm stuck :(
Answers:OK, amylase is a protein and proteins function best at a certain temperatures and a certain pH. So, if you mess with the pH you will change the rate at which the protein functions. At low pH you might find no activity, then it increases with increasing pH, and then at some point the higher pH will also reduce the activity. The actual plot of the pH and the amount of activity of a particular enzyme depend on the enzyme. (see below 1st two refs for enzyme, temp and pH ref). You could include specific details about amylase from anywhere (ref 3 seems to have a nice into about the topic).
The last ref might have your stuff in it... here is what I know
-amylase is the enzyme
-the pH buffers are what you need to have the right pH for your various conditions.
-pipette for putting drops of this and that here and there
-beakers for mixing solutions
-calipers. don't they measure distances?
-indicator paper to measure the pH to be sure you have the right pH for your stuff
-a cork borer makes holes in things
While doing the exp., if you can, I might try 1st a broad range of pH, like 3,7,and 12. Then you could do your stuff in duplicates or triplicates to make sure that your results make sense. If two agree and the third is way different, maybe you made a mistake. You could focus in the next time you did the exp, like 4,5,6,7 and 8.That way in the end you have the broad general outline, and a nice tight curve with lots of points. Use your initial data to guide your next steps. That's the way everybody in science does it.
Try and plan ahead, but remember that you will make mistakes, so don't worry too much. Just keep good notes, and write down what you do so that later you can go back through it and write it up. the first time I do an experiment I usually make a mess of things, but after that I go and rewrite the protocol keeping in mind all that I learned the first time I did it. Have fun!
ps wear goggles and gloves with the high and low pH stuff.
Vernier Calliper & Micrometer Screw Gauge :
NXT Blind Student Assistant :We used LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT to create two programs that could be very useful to a blind student in a science course. The program speaks Vernier sensor readings or makes a tone with a frequency proportional to the sensor reading. The challenge was to help blind students do real lab experiments and make the solution affordable, easy, and compatible with sensors that are available in many high school and college science labs. We used a LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT program to speak sensor readings and make sounds. The solution yields concrete scientific results, making it easy to form relationships and draw conclusions. Our demonstration requires only a 1 meter square desktop area and 120-volt AC power. To demonstrate the usefulness of this program, we carried out two experiments. The first tested the pH of three liquids: orange juice, milk, and cola. By following these instructions, we determined the pH of the liquids were 4.0, 6.7, and 2.7, respectively. This could be done with any liquids in any lab experiment. With slight modification of the code, we could perform a titration experiment by making the NXT beep once the equivalence point is reached. In the second experiment, we wanted to observe the inverse-square law by using a light sensor and light source. The closer the light sensor was to the light source, the higher the reading was, and so the NXT made a higher pitch. Making a tone in this experiment was more useful than speaking a value, as it quickly allowed us to find ...