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Saturation (chemistry)

In chemistry, saturation has six different meanings, all based on reaching a maximum capacity

  1. In physical chemistry, saturation is the point at which a solution of a substance can dissolve no more of that substance and additional amounts of it will appear as a precipitate. This point of maximum concentration, the saturation point, depends on the temperature of the liquid as well as the chemical nature of the substances involved. This can be used in the process of recrystallisation to purify a chemical: it is dissolved to the point of saturation in hot solvent, then as the solvent cools and the solubility decreases, excess solute precipitates. Impurities, being present in much lower concentration, do not saturate the solvent and so remain dissolved in the liquid. If a change in conditions (e.g. cooling) means that the concentration is actually higher than the saturation point, the solution has become supersaturated.
  2. In physical chemistry, when referring to surface processes, saturation denotes the degree of which a binding site is fully occupied. For example, base saturation refers to the fraction of exchangeable cations that are base cations. Similarly, in environmental soil science, nitrogen saturation means that an ecosystem, such as a soil, cannot store any more nitrogen.
  3. In organic chemistry, a saturated compound has no double or triple bonds. In saturated linear hydrocarbons, every carbon atom is attached to two hydrogen atoms, except those at the ends of the chain, which bear three hydrogen atoms. In the case of saturated methane, four hydrogen atoms are attached to the single, central carbon atom. Of simple hydrocarbons, alkanes are saturated, and alkenes are unsaturated. The degree of unsaturation specifies the amount of hydrogen that a compound can bind. The term is applied similarly to the fatty acid constituents of lipids, where the fat is described as saturated or unsaturated, depending on whether the constituent fatty acids contain carbon-carbon double bonds. Unsaturated is used when any carbon structure contains double or occasionally triple bonds. Many vegetable oils contain fatty acids with one (monounsaturated) or more (polyunsaturated) double bonds in them. The bromine number is an index of unsaturation.
  4. In organometallic chemistry, an unsaturated complex has fewer than 18 valence electrons and thus is susceptible to oxidative addition or coordination of an additional ligand. Unsaturation is characteristic of many catalysts because it is usually a requirement for substrate activation.
  5. In biochemistry, the term saturation refers to the fraction of total protein binding sites that are occupied at any given time.
  6. In thermodynamics, steam is considered to be saturated if the steam is at sufficient temperature to no longer be in equilibrium with liquid water. At the saturation temperature for a given pressure, cooling the steam will result in condensation and heating steam further will result in superheated steam. The quality (fraction of fluid in the vapor phase) of the steam at such a temperature and pressure is 1.

Saturated and unsaturated compounds

In organic chemistry, a saturated compound is a chemical compound that has of a chain of carbonatoms linked together by single bonds and has hydrogen atoms filling all of the other bonding orbitals of the carbon atoms. Alkanes are an example of saturated compounds. An unsaturated compound is a chemical compound that contains carbon-carbon double bonds or triple bonds, such as those found in alkenes or alkynes, respectively. Saturated and unsaturated compounds need not consist only of a carbon atom chain. They can have functional groups, as well. It is in this sense that fatty acids are classified as saturated or unsaturated. The amount of unsaturation of a fatty acid can be determined by finding its iodine number.

In a chain of carbons, such as a fatty acid, a double or triple bond will cause a kink in the chain. These kinks have macro-structural implications. Unsaturated fats tend to be liquid at room temperature, rather than solid, due to the kinks in the chain. The kinks prevent the molecules from packing closely together to form a solid. These fats are called oils and are present in fish and plants.

In other unsaturated hydrocarbons, the double bond between two carbons prevents rotation of the atoms about the bond, locking them into specific structural formations. When attached atoms occupy similar positions on each carbon, they are referred to as "cis", and when they are on opposite sides, they are called "trans". Most natural hydrocarbons exist in the cis state, but artificially manufactured hydrocarbons are trans. The body lacks the enzymes to properly break down the trans configuration. This is why trans fats are viewed as dangerous and unhealthy, as they tend to build up. Unsaturated compounds of the two formations are classified as geometric isomers of one another.

Green solutions

Green Solutions are the procedures, technologies, methods, and practices used by businesses and organizations to abate or resolve problems that are causing degradation of the Earth's environment, ecosystem, or natural resources. Example of green solutions are green projects, green technologies and production of Green energy like Biosphere Technology. Green solutions are the responses to increasing problems on environment due to human activities. These green solutions may also relate to actions or initiatives of individuals and businesses in mitigating the increasing environmental problems.

From Yahoo Answers

Question:we know that as temperature increases, the solubility of gases in liquids decreases. take this example. the solubility of a gas in 30 degrees celsius is 3g per 100 ml of water. if you got data which said that the solubility is 2g per 100ml of water, would that make the gas-liquid solution supersaturated or unsaturated?

Answers:If we know the real solubility is 3g/100mL and your solution is 2g/100mL then your solution is unsaturated.

Question:I need examples of an unsaturated solution, and a supersaturated solution please! (I already know what unsaturated and supersaturated solutions are, I just need to know what substances will mix with WATER to form these types of solutions.) Thanks sooooooo much!!!!

Answers:Salt or sugar in water is an example for unsaturated solution... Excess of these would lead in precipitation of the salt and becomes supersaturated....!!!

Question:How can an unsaturated solution of a solid in a liquid become saturated? How can a saturated solution of a solid in a liquid become supersaturated?

Answers:to saturate an unsaturated solution, you can either add more of the solute (stuff being dissolved) to the mixture to its saturation point, or lower the temerature of the solution. to make a saturated solution superaturated again add more solute or lower the temperature. http://www.nysedregents.org/testing/reftable/archreftable/ChemRef1-7.pdf look at the second page of the reference tables for the solubility curves of some basic substances.the place where the x and y axis intersect on the line of the substance is where its saturated. for example you can dissolve 80 grams of NaNO3 (sodium nitrate) in 100 grams of water at 10 degrees C. and it will be saturated. anything above the line (even just 81 grams! its supersaturated) is supersaturated so 90 grams of NaNO3 dissloved in 100 grams of water at 10 degrees C is SUPERSATURATED. anything below the line in unsaturated for example 50 grams of NaNO3 dissolved in 100 grams of water at 10 degrees C. is UNSATURATED (even if its 79 grams! its still unstaurated) also note the lines that go UP from left to right are solids, lines going DOWN from left to right are gases. just so you arent confused, gases are more soluble at LOWER temps. solids are more soluble at HIGHER temps. so LOWERING the temperature of a solution cosisting of a solid duissolved in a liquid will cause crystallization to occur, thus making the unsaturated solution saturated, or making the saturated solution supersaturated. sorry that i keep editing it i just want to make sure you understand and that i am as clear as possible.

Question:What would you do to change: a saturated solid/liquid solution to an unsaturated solution? a saturated gas/liquid solution to an unsaturated solution?

Answers:-heat the solution (increasing temperature increases solubility) -stir the mixture - crush the solids in the mixture to increase surface area to dissolve more hope this helps!

From Youtube

Another Stoichiometry Example in a Solution :Another Stoichiometry Example in a Solution