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# sense organ diseases

From Wikipedia

WaterSense

WaterSense is a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency program designed to encourage water efficiency in the United States through the use of a special label on consumerproducts. It was launched in June, 2006.

## Background

WaterSense is a partnership program sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with the goal of protecting the future of the US's water supply. By promoting and enhancing the market for water efficient products and services, WaterSense makes every drop count by leveraging relationships with key utility, manufacturer and retail partners across the U.S.

WaterSense is not a regulatory program, but rather a voluntary program. EPA develops specifications for water efficient products through a public process. If a manufacturer makes a product that meets those specifications, the product is eligible for third-party testing to ensure the stated efficiency and performance criteria have been met. If the product passes the test, the manufacturer is rewarded with the right to put the WaterSense label on that product.

WaterSense makes it easy for consumers to differentiate among products that use less water and reinforces that saving water is easy and does not require a major lifestyle change.

## Products

Toilets (HETs), bathroomsinkfaucets (and accessories), flushing urinals, single family new homes, showerheads and irrigation professionals who have undergone training by WaterSense-labeled certification programs are all products/services that are readily available to consumers.

Products that seek the WaterSense label must:

-Achieve national water savings

-Provide measurable results

-Perform as well as or better than similar products in the same category

-Be water efficient, using at least 20 percent less water than EPA's fixture specific water use baseline

## Partners

To help get products on shelves and spread the word about WaterSense, EPA recruits partners in several different categories including:

-Utilities, communities, state and local governments

-Manufacturers

Retailers/distributors

-Organizations that provide qualified certification programs

-Certified professionals

Partner responsibilities include:

-Promoting WaterSense as well as water efficiency

-Adhering to WaterSense partner logo guidelines

-Providing annual data

-Granting EPA rights to use partner name on the EPA web site or alongside other program promotional efforts.

WaterSense also utilizes promotional partners who endorse and publicize the program among their constituents. Promotional partners include utilities, state and local governments, trade associations, and other non-governmental organizations.

Landscape irrigation professionals who are certified by WaterSense-labeled certification programs can also become partners.

## Specifications

EPAâ€™s first specification, released in January, 2007, was written for WaterSense labeled Toilets. To date, final specifications have also been written for bathroom sink faucets, flushing urinals, new single family homes, showerheads and certification programs for irrigation professionals.

A draft specifications has been issued for landscape irrigation controllers.

Specifications for pre-rinse spray valves and water softeners are currently under development.

• [http://www.epa.gov/watersense The Official WaterSense Web Site]
• [http://www.epa.gov/watersense/products Available WaterSense-Labeled Products]

Liver disease

Infectious disease

An infectious disease is a clinically evident illness resulting from the presence of pathogenicbiological agents, including pathogenic viruses, pathogenic bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular parasites, and aberrant proteins known as prions. These pathogens are able to cause disease in animals and/or plants. Infectious pathologies are also called communicable diseases or transmissible diseases due to their potential of transmission from one person or species to another by a replicating agent (as opposed to a toxin).

Transmission of an infectious disease can occur through one or more of diverse pathways including physical contact with infected individuals. These infecting agents may also be transmitted through liquids, food, body fluids, contaminated objects, airborne inhalation, or through vector-borne spread. Transmissible diseases which occur through contact with an ill person or their secretions, or objects touched by them, are especially infective, and are sometimes referred to as contagious diseases. Infectious (communicable) diseases which usually require a more specialized route of infection, such as vector transmission, blood or needle transmission, or sexual transmission, are usually not regarded as contagious, and thus are not as amenable to medical quarantine of victims.

The term infectivitydescribes the ability of an organism to enter, survive and multiply in the host, while the infectiousness of a disease indicates the comparative ease with which the disease is transmitted to other hosts. Aninfection however, is not synonymous with an infectious disease, as an infection may not cause important clinical symptoms or impair host function.

## Classification

Among the almost infinite varieties of microorganisms, relatively few cause disease in otherwise healthy individuals. Infectious disease results from the interplay between those few pathogens and the defenses of the hosts they infect. The appearance and severity of disease resulting from any pathogen depends upon the ability of that pathogen to damage the host as well as the ability of the host to resist the pathogen. Infectious microorganisms, or microbes, are therefore classified as either primary pathogens or as opportunistic pathogens according to the status of host defenses.

Primary pathogens cause disease as a result of their presence or activity within the normal, healthy host, and their intrinsic virulence (the severity of the disease they cause) is, in part, a necessary consequence of their need to reproduce and spread. Many of the most common primary pathogens of humans only infect humans, however many serious diseases are caused by organisms acquired from the environment or which infect non-human hosts.

Organisms which cause an infectious disease in a host with depressed resistance are classified as opportunistic pathogens. Opportunistic disease may be caused by microbes that are ordinarily in contact with the host, such as pathogenic bacteria or fungi in the gastrointestinal or the upper respiratory tract, and they may also result from (otherwise innocuous) microbes acquired from other hosts (as in Clostridium difficilecolitis) or from the environment as a result of traumatic introduction (as in surgical wound infections or compound fractures). An opportunistic disease requires impairment of host defenses, which may occur as a result of genetic defects (such as Chronic granulomatous disease), exposure to antimicrobial drugs or immunosuppressive chemicals (as might occur following poisoning or cancerchemotherapy), exposure to ionizing radiation, or as a result of an infectious disease with immunosuppressive activity (such as with measles, malaria or HIV disease). Primary pathogens may also cause more severe disease in a host with depressed resistance than would normally occur in an immunosufficient host.

One way of proving that a given disease is "infectious", is to satisfy Koch's postulates (first proposed by Robert Koch), which demands that the infectious agent be identified only in patients and not in healthy controls, and that patients who contract the agent also develop the disease. These postulates were first used in the discovery that Mycobacteria species cause tuberculosis. Koch's postulates cannot be met ethically for many human diseases because they require experimental infection of a healthy individual with a pathogen produced as a pure culture. Often, even diseases that are quite clearly infectious do not meet the infectious criteria. For example, Treponema pallidum, the causativespirochete of syphilis, cannot be

Disease registry

Disease registries are collections of secondary data related to patients with a specific diagnosis, condition, or procedure. Registries are different from indexes in that they contain more extensive data.

In its most simple form, a disease registry could consist of a collection of paper cards kept inside "a shoe box" by an individual physician. Most frequently registries vary in sophistication from simple spreadsheets that only can be accessed by a small group of physicians to very complex databases that are accessed online across multiple institutions.

They can provide health providers (or even patients) with reminders to check certain tests in order to reach certain quality goals.

## Disease Registries versus Electronic Medical Records

Registries are less complex and simpler to setup than Electronic Medical Records that according to a recent survey are only used by 9% of small offices where almost half of the US doctors work.

An electronic medical record keeps track of all the patients a doctor follows but a registry only keeps track of a small sub population of patients with a specific condition.

## Types of medical conditions tracked by Disease Registries

More than 130 million Americans live with chronic diseases and chronic diseases account for 70% of all deaths in the US."The medical care costs of people with chronic diseases account for more than 75% of the nationâ€™s $2 trillion medical care costs." Registries target certain conditions because medical expenses are unevenly distributed: most health care expenses are spent treating patients with a few chronic conditions. For example, the 2002 expenses with diabetes in the US was$132 billion in 2002, and this was around 12% of the US medical budget. Diabetes accounts for 25% of the Medicare budget. Given this - diabetes is one of the conditions targeted by registries. Diabetes is also amenable to this because there is a target population that can be defined according to certain rules and there is evidence that certain tests like retina exams, LDL levels, HgbA1c levels can correlate with quality of care in diabetes.

Because of the diabetes impact, the New York City created a HgA1C Registry (NYCAR) to help health providers keep track of patients with diabetes.

Another example of disease registry is the New York State CABG Registry that tracks all cardiac bypass surgery performed in the state of New York

On a survey of 1040 US physician organizations published in Journal of the American Medical Association , diabetes registries are used by 40.3%, asthma registries are used by 31.2% of physician organizations, CHF registries are used by 34.8% and depression registries are used by 15.7%.

Other tests like pap smears are also useful to keep track in registries because there is evidence that when done annually in women of certain ages groups can detect and prevent cervical cancer.

Many of measures tracked are based on Evidence-based medicine and are defined and standardized by national organizations like the NCQA

## Medical Devices Registries

Countries like Australia, Britain, Norway and Sweden have national patient registries that track patients with artificial joints. "But the United States lacks such a national database, called a joint registry, that tracks how patients with artificial hips and knees fare. The risk in the United States that a patient will need a replacement procedure because of a flawed product or technique can be double the risk of countries with databases, according to Dr. Henrik Malchau of Massachusetts General Hospital.

"The use of joint registries has proven beneficial abroad. In Australia, regulators use such data to force manufacturers to justify why poorly performing hips or knees should remain available, and products have been withdrawn as a result. In Sweden several years ago, surgeons alerted by their national registry stopped using a badly flawed hip long before their American counterparts did. A few medical organizations here, like Kaiser Permanente, operate their own registries to good effect and the Hospital for Special Surgery in New York has recently set up a registry. Experts say that the United States wastes billions of dollars annually on medical treatments which may not work. But the financial and human consequences are also large when evidence exists but is not collected."

## Cost-Effectiveness of Disease Registries

The cost-effectiveness of a disease registry is related with the cost-effectiveness of prevention of specific medical conditions. Increasing compliance through a registry with preventive measures like children vaccination or colonoscopy screening can actually be a cost-saving measure. "A mammogram every 2 years for women aged 50â€“69 costs only about \$9,000 per year of life saved. This cost compares favorably with other widely used clinical preventive services."

## Disease registries and Pay-for-Performance (P4P)

Registries can be associated with pay-for-performance (P4P) quality based contracts for individual doctors, groups of doctors or even all doctors in a country. For example the United Kingdom, rewards physicians according to 146 quality measures related with 10 chronic diseases that are tracked electronically.

In the United States, Medicare also started a 1.5% P4P contract based on health measures that can be tracked by disease registries.

## Technical Aspects of Data Tracking

The quality of a disease registry is based on the quality of data fed into it and all the processes involved in updating it and keeping its integrity. In every registry there is always a risk of "Garbage In, Garbage Out". Issues that can affect a registry and its acceptance by a physician group:

• Is the registry only updated centrally or can a physician update or correct it? For example, a physician doesn't want to get reminders from a registry regarding diabetes patients that died, moved to another state or left her/his practice.
• Most frequently, a list of patients with a certain condition (e.g. diabetes) is generated based on certain criteria. In the U.S., Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) criteria are set annually by the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA). These criteria, in order to avoid paper charts reviews are in most cases based on insurance claims. For example for diabetes, HEDIS selects an eligible population based on Age (18-75 years), continuous enrollment with a certain health insurer and certain "Events/diagnosis" from Pharmacy data (electronic), Insurance Claims data (electronic) or from medical records. Pharmacy data is based on a list of medications prescribed for diabetes Claims data is based on having two outpatient visits with a doctor or one inpatient hospital admission or one Emergency Room visit with the diagnosis of diabetes. Patients are excluded if they have polycystic ovaries or just gestational diabetes. Despite the strict criteria it is possible for physicians to have patients on their registries that are not truly diabetic.

Question:If this is true, then does this mean that the physical world is really not at all like how we perceive it to be through our 5 senses?

Answers:You could think of the brain as the "master" sensory organ. The eyes, ears, skin, etc. are all sensory organs that transmit information about the environment to the brain, but the brain interprets the signals and combines them into a coherent representation of the physical world. Without the brain, you would just have a bunch of meaningless, useless signals (and you would be dead...;) In some ways this is a philosophical question, but I don't believe the physical world is "not at all like" what we perceive it to be. Rather, we perceive only a small portion of the real world, but the part we can perceive is indeed accurate. If that WASN'T the case, we wouldn't be able to interact effectively with the physical world. For example, we can see, with our naked eyes, where an illuminated light bulb is. This is because receptors in our eyes react to part of the radiation emitted by the filament in the light bulb, and our brains know how to interpret this information to tell us where the light bulb is, what shape it is, how far we have to reach out to touch it, etc. Thus, we can accurately throw something at the light bulb and hit it, reach out to unscrew it, aim it so we can see the book we're reading, etc. Of course, the light bulb also emits a lot of radiation that we can't perceive without the aid of technology; "visible" light is only a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Does this mean the light bulb is not at all like how we perceive it? Of course not. Our perception of the light bulb is related to, and based upon, the actual light bulb. Just because we can't perceive every single bit of information about the light bulb doesn't mean the bits we CAN perceive are baseless. Just as a side note: we actually have many sensory modalities and sub-modalities on which to base our perceptions, not just five. In addition to touch, taste, smell, sight, and hearing, we have a sense of balance and acceleration (vestibular system), a sense of our body's position in space (proprioception), a sense of heat and cold, pressure and pain. We perceive the physical world through all of these modalities, and the brain is really quite good at synthesizing these very different kinds of information into a single coherent perception.

Question:What is the name of a disease causing organism? help please?

Question:What are the common disease of the reproductive organs? pls. answer it before Ferb.14, 2008 (valentines day) i know they are a lot but, i really need them madly. its for my report. please answer it completly, you;ll be great help if you do. please...im begging you.

Answers:No need to beg any one. They should all contribute. Ovaries: Ovarian cysts. Atrophy. Fallopian duct: Salpingitis. Uterus: Endometritis Testicle; Orcitis. General: Venereal diseases. ADS.

Question:why? i never really understood this. alcoholism is, by official definition, "a physical and emotional addiction to alcohol". howis that a disease? its an addiction. does that mean all addictions are diseases? everything you put into your body can change your mental state and change your brain. addiction to chocolate has been proven to change your brain, so is that a disease as well? please explain! my mom doesnt believe it is a disease. she believes that its simply and addiction, that can be given up if one learns self control. so...do you believe is it a disease, and if you believe it is a disease, why is it considered a disease?