lesson plans for the last lecture
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A lesson plan is a teacher's detailed description of the course of instruction for an individual lesson. A daily lesson plan is developed by a teacher to guide class instruction. The detail of the plan will vary depending on the preference of the teacher, subject being covered, and the need and/or curiosity of children. There may be requirements mandated by the school system regarding the plan.
Developing a lesson plan
While there are many formats for a lesson plan, most lesson plans contain some or all of these elements, typically in this order:
- Title of the lesson
- Timerequired to complete the lesson
- List of required materials
- List of objectives, which may bebehavioral objectives (what thestudent can do at lesson completion) or knowledge objectives (what the student knows at lesson completion)
- The set (or lead-in, or bridge-in) that focuses students on the lesson's skills or concepts—these include showing pictures or models, asking leading questions, or reviewing previous lessons
- An instructional component that describes the sequence of events that make up the lesson, including the teacher's instructional input and guided practice the students use to try new skills or work with new ideas
- Independentpracticethat allows students to extend skills or knowledge on their own
- A summary, where the teacher wraps up the discussion and answers questions
- An evaluationcomponent, a test for mastery of the instructed skills or concepts—such as a set of questions to answer or a set of instructions to follow
- Analysis component the teacher uses to reflect on the lesson itself —such as what worked, what needs improving
- A continuity component reviews and reflects on content from the previous lesson
A well developed lesson plan
A well developed lesson plan reflects interests and needs of students. It incorporates best practices for the educational field. The lesson plan correlates with the teacher's philosophy of education, which is what the teacher feels is the purpose of educating the students.
Secondary English program lesson plans, for example, usually center around four topics. They are literary theme, elements of language and composition, literary history, and literary genre. A broad, thematic lesson plan is preferable, because it allows a teacher to create various research, writing, speaking, and reading assignments. It helps an instructor teach different literature genres and incorporate videotapes, films, and television programs. Also, it facilitates teaching literature and English together. School requirements and a teacher's personal tastes, in that order, determine the exact requirements for a lesson plan.
Unit plans follow much the same format as a lesson plan, but cover an entire unit of work, which may span several days or weeks. Modern constructivist teaching styles may not require individual lesson plans. The unit plan may include specific objectives and timelines, but lesson plans can be more fluid as they adapt to student needs and learning styles.
Setting an objective
The first thing a teacher must do is decide on the lesson plan's focus. The teacher creates one idea or question they want the students to explore or answer. Next, the teacher creates classroom activities that correlate with the established idea or question. This includes individual and group activities. Having established these activities, the teacher identifies what language arts skills the lesson plan must cover. After the teacher completes these activities, they must ensure the lesson plan adheres to the best practices used in language arts. This includes conducting research on what teaching methods result in a high success rate for students. The teacher must ensure the lesson plan goals are compatible with the developmental level of the students. The teacher must also ensure their student achievement expectations are reasonable.
Selecting lesson plan material
A lesson plan must correlate with the text book the class uses. The school usually selects the text books or provides teachers with a limited text book choice for a particular unit. The teacher must take great care and select the most appropriate book for the students.
Types of Assignments
The instructor must decide whether class assignments are whole-class, small groups, workshops, independent work, peer learning, or contractual:
- Whole-class—the teacher lectures to the class as a whole and has the class collectively participate in classroom discussions.
- Small groups—students work on assignments in groups of three or four.
- Workshops—students perform various tasks simultaneously. Workshop activities must be tailored to the lesson plan.
- Independent work—students complete assignments individually.
- Peer learning—students work together, face to face, so they can learn from one another.
- Contractual work—teacher and student establish an agreement that the student must perform a certain amount of work by a deadline.
These assignment categories (e.g. peer learning, independent, small groups) can also be used to guide the instructorâ€™s choice of assessment measures that can provide information about student and class comprehension of the material. As discussed by Biggs (1999), there are additional questions an instructor can consider when choosing which type of assignment would provide the most benefit to students. These include:
- What level of learning do the students need to attain before choosing assignments with varying difficulty levels?
- What is the amount of time the instructor wants the students to use to complete the assignment?
- How much time and effort does the instructor have to provide student grading and feedback?
- What is the purpose of the assignment? (e.g. to track student learning; to provide students with time to practice concepts; to practice
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Answers:Divide kids up into teams of 3/4 and run a race, whoever collects the most trash from the playground, wins.
Answers:those are some tough, broad topics you have to address on a daily basis! and you're right--students hate lecturing, and who can blame them? here are some ideas: topic 1: have them perform a mock "town meeting," where all segments of society are represented. have a "guild" group, a couple of other groups (landowners, etc.), and have them discuss the topic of "the black death," and what should be done to help protect their town and its people. give each group an info sheet explaining who they are, what they believe, and where they are in the social structure of the town. give the students time to familiarize themselves with the material, then you, as moderator, conduct the "town meeting" about the black death. we did this in a history class once, and it was great! topic 2: when you discuss each of these topics, provide an example. e.g., language & lit--teach them how to say something in middle english, maybe from the canterbury tales. education--do a compare/contrast chart on the board b/t education then and now. architecture--if you can, bring in slides or a projector that has an internet connection to show them some buildings from this era. point out the specific features with a pointer. leave philosophy & science for last--discuss in general, then pick a major philosopher and a major scientist (often they were both, so if you could find one of those, even better!), and have them sit in a circle and have a philosophical debate about what that person taught, whether they agree/disagree, why/why not, etc. topic 3: go with the small groups again. assign each of them a country and they have to create a brief presentation (5 minutes) about the major points of their country. provide them with a guideline sheet (e.g., what information their presentations should include) and provide them with whatever resources they need to do this. when they're done, provide them with an "official" info sheet for future reference. topic 4: put all of the major talking points about these issues on individual sheets of paper or note cards. randomly distribute the sheets/cards to each student, have each student read their card and then have a brief discussion re: its contents. hope this helps, if even a little, and best of luck in your teaching career (from a fellow teacher)! :)
Answers:What grade(s) would the lesson focus on? You may want to look up the educational standards for Minnesota as a start. I've taught my 3rd grade class how to interpret maps, learn about communities, then eventually making their own map and building a model community out of that. (That's Quadrant D for those of you into the relationship/relevance stuff.) Start by asking "What is a community?" Lead the discussion that a community is a group of people working together for a common goal. Do this by asking "What do we need in a community?" Homes to live in, stores to shop at, banks, parks for recreation, gas stations, restaurants, etc. Let the students brainstorm the places their parents goes to for errands and business. What are places for the children? Schools, library, parks, perhaps video game store. Now you've got your community going. Students need to learn the map. It is abstract so you'd need plenty of examples. This book is a good start "Me on the Map" by Joan Sweeney. Teach the parts of a map (TODAL) T=Title O=Orientation (compass rose) D=Date (that the map was made/revised) A=Author (for point of view purposes) L=Legend (or Key) If you have internet, share Google Earth to compare and contrast a map with a real image. As a final assessment, allow the students to build their own community. They'd work in groups of 4-5 to make a map per group. Start with that list of places that were part of the community. Create a map of the fictious community on a large white construction paper. I used different size post-its to represent houses or businesses to keep scale. Those 1" x 1 1/2" post-its are homes. Slightly bigger may be restaurants or stores. Then those 6" ones might be Wal-Mart for example. Use meter sticks to trace out streets. The community doesn't need to have everything on the list, mainly places to work and live. The proportion of homes and businesses should roughly be equal. Don't forget TODAL on the maps! The fun begins. The class as a whole will now build a 3-D model of their community. Have them vote on the best map. Use that as the basis for the model. Don't stress to match it exactly to the map. Just allow the students to have fun building the model. Use those 1/2 pint milk cartons the students drink out of for lunch. Those would be the homes or small businesses. Bigger buildings might be 2-3 cartons put together. Using construction paper, and a bunch of students imagination, build your community! Remember the streets! Cut strips of black construction paper about 3" wide. Hot wheel cars are the perfect size for this community. Teach scale. People can't be as tall as houses and cars can't be THAT big. Assign one place per student. So in a class of 26, there would be roughly 13 homes and 13 businesses (which includes a school, library, police station, etc.) Get a large flattened card board to build everything on. Good luck!
Answers:Ok, you have a problem. Go to daveseslcafe.com and look at his lesson plans on directions in a city. >>