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A New Theory of the Earth

A New Theory of the Earth was a book written by William Whiston, in which he presented a description of the divine creation of the Earth and a posited global flood. He also postulated that the earth originated from the atmosphere of a comet and that all major changes in earth's history could be attributed to the action of comets. It was published in 1696 and was well-received by intellectuals of the day such as Isaac Newton and John Locke. Summary of the book The book is organized as follows: Introduction, discussing the text of Creation according to Genesis Book I: Lematta, discussing the premises and assumptions on which his argument is based; Book II: Hypotheses, discussing his model for the origin of the Earth; Book III: Phaenomena, discussing evidence predicted by his model; Book IV: Solutions, discussing how his model explains the evidence; Appendix: An abstract of his theory drawn from various sources. Introduction In the introduction, Whiston discusses the Mosaic account of creation. He argues for a literal interpretation of Genesis, writing: "We must never forsake the plain, obvious, easy and natural sense, unless where the nature of the thing itself, parallel places, or evident reason, afford a solid and sufficient reason for so doing." In so doing, he challenges allegorical and mythological interpretations of Genesis, concluding that: "The Mosaic Creation is not a nice and philosophical account of the origin of all things; but a historical and true representation of the formation of our single Earth out of a confused Chaos, and of the successive and visible changes thereof each Day, till it became the habitation of mankind." (p.3) He interprets the Genesis account of creation as being only of the preparation of the Earth for mankind, and not as an account of creation from nothing (ex nihilo). He draws this from the text, as the account speaks of the waters that existed before God's first creative act on the first day, implying that the Earth predates Genesis chapter one. He interprets the account of "placing the heavenly bodies in the firmament" as simply being a consequence of the terrestrial frame of reference, for the heavenly bodies do in fact revolve about the Earth from the perspective of a man standing on the Earth. He describes his Arianism, or the view that Jesus is subordinate to God but first in creation, a view considered heretical within much of Christianity. He also asserts that it is very reasonable to believe that man may well be simply one of many intelligent beings, and certainly not the highest before God. He wrote that humanity was fallen, and currently in a miserable state akin to probation. He concludes the introduction with his three Postulata: "The obvious or literal sense of scripture is the true and redal one, where no evidence reason can be given to the contrary. That which is clearly accountable in a natural way, is not, without reason to be ascribed to a miraculous power. What ancient tradition asserts of the constitution of nature, or of the origin and primitive states of the world, is to be allowed for true, where ‘tis fully agreeable to scripture, reason, and philosophy." Book I: Lemmata Whiston begins by arguing for the existence of a human soul. He argues that the Newtonian laws of motion provide that matter may never move spontaneously, but only when acted upon by an outside force. He notes that humans, animals, and plants are able to move spontaneously, and concludes that they must be more than "mere matter," but, especially in the case of humans, is evidence of an incorporeal soul. Books II, III, and IV: Phenomena In the next sections of his book, Whiston goes on to describe his theory of the creation of the Earth, and the flood. He asserted that the Earth was originally a comet, which God formed from its initial "chaos and void" into a habitable planet. He also argued that the flood itself was caused when the Earth passed through the tail of a comet, which, it was known by that time, are composed largely of water. His analysis was very detailed, and similar ideas were promoted in the 1960s by other creationists postulating causes for the global flood. However, many of them are in direct conflict with contemporary scientific understandings; and comets are not mentioned in flood accounts. Bibliographic Information

Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics, also known as quantum physics or quantum theory, is a branch of physics providing a mathematical description of the dual particle-like and wave-like behaviour and interaction of matter and energy.

It departs from classical mechanics primarily at the atomic and sub-atomic scales, the so-called quantum realm. In special cases some of quantum mechanical processes are macroscopic, but these emerge only at extremely low or extremely high energies or temperatures.

The term was coined by Max Planck, and derives from the observation that some physical quantities can be changed only by discrete amounts, or quanta, as multiples of the Planck constant, rather than being capable of varying continuously or by any arbitrary amount. For example, the angular momentum, or more generally the action, of an electron bound into an atom or molecule is quantized. Although an unbound electron does not exhibit quantized energy levels, one which is bound in an atomic orbital has quantized values of angular momentum. In the context of quantum mechanics, the wave–particle duality of energy and matter and the uncertainty principle provide a unified view of the behavior of photons, electrons and other atomic-scale objects.

The mathematical formulations of quantum mechanics are abstract. Similarly, the implications are often counter-intuitive in terms of classical physics. The centerpiece of the mathematics is the wavefunction (defined by Schrödinger's wave equation), which describes the probability amplitude of the position and momentum of a particle. Mathematical manipulations of the wavefunction usually involve the bra-ket notation, which requires an understanding of complex numbers and linear functionals. The wavefunction treats the object as a quantum harmonic oscillator and the mathematics is akin to that of acoustic resonance.

Many of the results of quantum mechanics do not have models that are easily visualized in terms of classical mechanics; for instance, the ground state in the quantum mechanical model is a non-zero energy state that is the lowest permitted energy state of a system, rather than a traditional classical system that is thought of as simply being at rest with zero kinetic energy.

Fundamentally, it attempts to explain the peculiar behaviour of matter and energy at the subatomic level—an attempt which has produced more accurate results than classical physics in predicting how individual particles behave. But many unexplained anomolies remain.

Historically, the earliest versions of quantum mechanics were formulated in the first decade of the 20th Century, around the time that atomic theory and the corpuscular theory of light as interpreted by Einstein first came to be widely accepted as scientific fact; these latter theories can be viewed as quantum theories of matter and electromagnetic radiation.

Following Schrödinger's breakthrough in deriving his wave equation in the mid-1920s, quantum theory was significantly reformulated away from the old quantum theory, towards the quantum mechanics of Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, Wolfgang Pauli and their associates, becoming a science of probabilities based upon the Copenhagen interpretation of Niels Bohr. By 1930, the reformulated theory had been further unified and formalized by the work of Paul Dirac and John von Neumann, with a greater emphasis placed on measurement, the statistical nature of our knowledge of reality, and philosophical speculations about the role of the observer.

The Copenhagen interpretation quickly became (and remains) the orthodox interpretation. However, due to the absence of conclusive experimental evidence there are also many competing interpretations.

Quantum mechanics has since branched out into almost every aspect of physics, and into other disciplines such as quantum chemistry, quantum electronics, quantum optics and quantum information science. Much 19th Century physics has been re-evaluated as the classical limit of quantum mechanics and its more advanced developments in terms of From Yahoo Answers

Question:I read what thermal expansion is and I read what the kinetic theory of matter is. I saw how they relate, the kinetic theory explains the relationship between temperature and volume, and thermal expansion is caused by a change in TEMPERATURE (matter changes in VOLUME) but how does the kinetic theory help explain thermal expansion? help me !

Answers:Particles with more kinetic energy impact other particles and on average knock them further away at each contact. That results in the particles being spread apart farther, which is another way of saying that the density decreases and the volume increases.


Answers:lol. i'm looking for it aswell for my science exam :| (: this is the most i could find on it from the internet... The kinetic-molecular theory states: 1) All matter is composed of very small particles called atoms,ions or molecules. 2) All of these small particles are in constant motion, even at the coldest temperature whether vibratory or translatory. 3) The kinetic energy of the particles is a measure of temperature. The greater the number of impacts the greater will be the pressure and vice-versa. 4) These particles collide but the total energy remains same and this is from my school notes >> everything is made up of molecules in motion >> they must collide in order to react >> they must collide with a minimum in order to react i don't really know how it relates to anything :| sorry! goodluck! (:

Question:3. List 2 Examples for each of the three common states of matter.(Solid, Liquid, and Gas. 4. Rank the following in order of increasing strength of roces between molecules: a. honey b. marble c. water d. candle wax e. nitrogen gas 6. Predict which two of the folowing involve the same energy transfer: Assume that the same substance and the same mass is involved in all 4 provesses. a. melting b. evaporation c. sublimination d. condensation 7. Describe the energy transfers that occur when ice melts and water vapor condenses to form liquid water. Portray each state of matter and the change of state using a computer-drawing program. 8. Describe a characteristic of gases, and use the kinetic theory to explain how a dog could find you by your scent. Thanks, please answer as many questions as possible. Best answer goes to who answers all of them best. You dont have to do number 7.

Answers:Do your own homework. Sorry I couldnt help you.

Question:Im in the 7th grade and In Properties of Matter Can someone explain to me and give me examples of Viscosity Sublimation Chemical and Physical Property Phase Changes Freezing and Melting Point of Water Kinetic Molecular Theory Amorphous Condensation Malleable Desperate Help~ My finals is tommorrow and I just moved into a new school and havent learned about matter so please help. I want to cover and learn as much as I can so I can study. Please use examples to help me understand better. If you can't explain all then please explains ones you do know thank you thank you thank you!

Answers:Viscosity = resistance to flow. Syrup is more viscous than water. Sublimation = a phase change from solid to gas. Dry ice sublimates. Chemical property = a property determined by valence electrons. Reactivity. Physical property = a property determined by structure. Molecular weight. Phase changes = solid to liquid to gas. Freezing and boiling point of water. Water freezes at 0 Celsius (32 deg F) and boils at 100 Celsius (212 deg F). Kinetic molecular theory = the behavior of gas can be mathematically derived from the assumption that gas molecules are small, rigid spheres. Amorphous = having no discernible pattern of structure. Play doh. Condensation = phase change from the gas to the liquid phase. Dew. Malleable = not rigid. Iron.

From Youtube

Behaviour Of Perfect Gas And Kinetic Theory :Check us out at www.tutorvista.com A theory, largely the work of Count , James Prescott Joule, and James Clerk Maxwell, that explains the physical properties of matter in terms of the motions of its constituent particles. In a gas, for example, the pressure is due to the incessant impacts of the gas molecules on the walls of the container. If it is assumed that the molecules occupy negligible space, exert negligible forces on each other except during collisions, are perfectly elastic, and make only brief collisions with each other, it can be shown that the pressure p exerted by one mole of gas containing n molecules each of mass m in a container of volume V, will be given by: p=nm c2/3V , where c2 is the mean square speed of the molecules. As according to the gas laws for one mole of gas: pV=RT, where T is the thermodynamic temperature, and R is the molar gas constant, it follows that: RT=nm c2/3 Thus, the thermodynamic temperature of a gas is proportional to the mean square speed of its molecules. As the average kinetic energy of translation of the molecules is m c2/2, the temperature is given by: T=(m c2/2)(2n/3R) The number of molecules in one mole of any gas is the Avogadro constant, NA; therefore in this equation n=NA. The ratio R/NA is a constant called the Boltzmann constant (k). The average kinetic energy of translation of the molecules of one mole of any gas is therefore 3kT/2. For monatomic gases this is proportional to the internal energy (U) of the gas, ie U ...

Chemistry: States of Matter :www.mindbites.com Science is a method for categorizing the world around us. One way to do this is to categorize matter (anything that has mass and takes up space). Matter can be categorized by state (or phase) - whether it is a solid, a liquid, or a gas. A solid has a fixed shape and volume. A liqid has a fixed volume, but not shape. And a gas has neither a fixed volume or shape. In addition to its state, matter can be categorized as either pure or a mixture. Pure matter is made up of only one component. Pure substances are either elements, which are the fundamental building blocks of matter, or compunds, which are chemically bonded atoms. Mixtures are substances that can be separated by physical techniques and are either homogeneous or heterogeneous. Taught by Professor Gordon Yee, this lesson was selected from a broader, comprehensive course, Chemistry. This course and others are available from Thinkwell, Inc. The full course can be found at www.thinkwell.com The full course covers atoms, molecules and ions, stoichiometry, reactions in aqueous solutions, gases, thermochemistry, Modern Atomic Theory, electron configurations, periodicity, chemical bonding, molecular geometry, bonding theory, oxidation-reduction reactions, condensed phases, solution properties, kinetics, acids and bases, organic reactions, thermodynamics, nuclear chemistry, metals, nonmetals, biochemistry, organic chemistry, and more." Gordon Yee is an associate professor of chemistry at Virginia Tech in ...