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The phonograph, record player, or gramophone is a device that was most commonly used from the late 1870s through the 1980s for playing soundrecordings. The recordings played on such a device generally consist of wavy lines that are either scratched, engraved, or grooved onto a rotating cylinder or disc. As the cylinder or disc rotates, a needle or other similar object on the device traces the wavy lines and vibrates, reproducing sound waves.

The device traces back to the phonautograph, invented by Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville in 1857, which could only create visual images of sound. It was not until 1877 when Thomas Edison successfully conceived the principle of recording and reproducing sound, and demonstrated the phonograph for the first time. Edison's early devices recorded sound onto a tinfoil sheet phonograph cylinder. Alexander Graham Bell's Volta Laboratory made several improvements in the 1880s, including the use of wax-coated cardboard cylinders, and a cutting stylus that moved from side to side in a "zig zag" pattern across the record. Then at the turn of the century, Emile Berliner initiated the transition from phonograph cylinders to gramophone records: flat, double-sided discs with a spiral groove running from the periphery to near the center. Other improvements were made throughout the years, including modifications to the turntable and its drive system, the needle and stylus, and the sound and equalization systems.

The gramophone record was one of the dominant audio recording formats throughout much of the 20th Century. However, that status was eventually replaced by the Compact Disc and other digital recording formats.


Usage of these terms is not uniform across the English-speaking world (see below). In more modern usage, this device is often called a turntable, record player, or record changer. When used in conjunction with amixer as part of a DJ set up, they are often called decks.

The term phonograph ("sound writer") is derived from the Greek words (meaning "sound" or "voice" and transliterated as phonē) and (meaning "writing" and transliterated as graphē). Similar related terms gramophone and graphophone have similar root meanings. The coinage, particularly the use of the -graph root, may have been influenced by the then-existing words phonographic and phonography, which referred to a system of phonetic shorthand; in 1852 The New York Timescarried an advertisement for "Professor Webster's phonographic class", and in 1859 the New York State Teachers' Association tabled a motion to "employ a phonographic recorder" to record its meetings.

F. B. Fenby was the original author of the word. An inventor in Worcester, Massachusetts, he was granted a patent in 1863 for an unsuccessful device called the "Electro-Magnetic Phonograph". His concept detailed a system that would record a sequence of keyboard strokes onto paper tape. Although no model or workable device was ever made, it is often seen as a link to the concept of punched paper for player piano rolls (1880s), as well as Herman Hollerith's punch card tabulator (used in the 1890 United States census), a distant precursor of the modern computer.

Arguably, any device used to record sound or reproduce recorded sound could be called a type of "phonograph", but in common practice it has come to mean historic technologies of sound recording.

In the late 19th and early 20th century, "Phonograph", "Gramophone", "Graphophone", "Zonophone" and the like were still brand names specific to different makers of sometimes very different (i.e., cylinder and disc) machines, so considerable use was made of the generic term talking machine, especially in print. "Talking machine" had earlier been used to refer to complicated devices which produced a crude imitation of speech by simulating the workings of the vocal chords, tongue and lips, a potential source of confusion both then and now.

United Kingdom

In British English, gramophone referred to any sound reproducing machine using 78 rpm gramophone records, as disc records were popularized in the UK by the Gramophone Company. The term phonograph was usually restricted to devices playing cylinder records.

Gramophone generally referred to a wind-up machine. After the introduction of the softer vinyl records, 33 1�3 rpm LPs and 45 rpm EPs, the common name became record player or turntable initially as part of a system that included radio (radiogram) and, later, might also play cassettes. From about 1960 such a system began to be described as a hi-fi or stereo (most systems being stereophonic by the mid-1960s).

United States

In American English, "phonograph", properly specific to machines made by Edison, was sometimes used in a generic sense as early as the 1890s to include cylinder-playing machines made by others, but it was then considered strictly incorrect to apply it to the upstart Gramophone, a very different machine which played discs. "Talking machine" was the comprehensive generic term, but in the early 20th Century the general public was increasingly applying the word "phonograph" indiscriminately to both cylinder and disc machines and to the records they played.


From Yahoo Answers

Question:the ability to roll your tongue is determined by a single dominant gene, R. If, in a stable population (i.e in HWE) 36% of people cannot roll their tongues, what is the frequency of the recessive gene, r? What is the frequency of the tongue rolling gene?

Answers:Hmm didn't know that was dominant. So we have two genes. According to mendel that means we need to employ a 9:7 ratio, where 9/16ths of the total population will have the dominant gene and 7/16th will not. 74% = 9/16ths 36% = 7/16ths 7/16 = 0.4375 (If you were mapping this you would multiply by 100)

Question:I need help making a trihybrid test cross for two individuals who are each heterozygous for earlobes (dominant E, recessive e); PTC tasting (dominant T, recessive t); and tongue rolling (dominant R, recessive r). Also, what would the ratios of all possible genotypes and phenotypes be? I get that there's 64 boxes in the punnett square, but that's as much as I have to go on. Thanks!

Answers:Each of the individuals will make 8 different types of gamete ETR ETr EtR Etr eTR eTr etR etr Make an 8 by 8 Punnett square and join the gametes as you would with a normal square Hint - the first line will read EETTRR EETTRr EETtRR EETtRr EeTTRR EeTTRr EeTtRR EeTtRr Go John H

Question:1.A gel electrophoresis comparison of a mother and daughter would be more similar than between a brother and sister. True False 2.A recessive gene is always expressed. True False 3.Do you think DNA evidence is enough to convict a person of a crime? Give two reasons to support your opinion. 4.Tongue Rolling is a dominant characteristic. If you can NOT roll your tongue you have two recessive genes for tongue rolling. If one parent is heterozygous for tongue rolling (Tt) and the other can not roll their tongue (tt), what is the percent chance that the offspring can roll their tongue? 5.What does heterozygous describe? A gene that is not expressed when paired with a dominant allele. A trait produced from two different alleles. A trait produced from two alleles that are alike. The different forms that genes can be.

Answers:1. False (90%) 2. Surely FALSE 3. No cuz there might be other people's DNA's in the crime scene? -You think of the other one. 4. Use a P. Grid (don't be lazy) 5. The second option... kthyxbye

Question:Lets see if you can get these questions right. [thx in advance] Multiple Choice 1. The result of one human cell after meiosis is two identical cells four cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent four cells, each with forty-four autosomes and two sex chromosomes one cell with an extra twenty-first chromosome 2. A gamete is defined as a sex cell having forty-four autosomes and two sex chromosomes a normal body cell chromosomal separation in mitosis 3. During metaphase I of meiosis I the chromosomes line up single file in the center of the cell chromosomes pull apart DNA replicates chromosomes line up across from their homologue 4. What organisms did Gregor Mendel do his experiments on? rabbits fruit flies pea plants mice 5. A trait that is not expressed when paired with a dominant allele is the definition of recessive dominant heterozygote homozygote 6. Describe the following genotype: Aa homozygous recessive dominant, recessive heterozygous homozygous dominant 7. The physical expression of a gene is the definition of dominant recessive genotype phenotype 8. In the trait for pea shape, round is dominant over wrinkled. What are the genotype possibilities and ratio for the following cross: Rr x Rr? 3 round: 1 wrinkled 1 RR: 2 Rr: 1 rr 2 Rr: 2 rr 4 Rr = 4 round 9. The heterozygous individual for an autosomal dominant trait is a carrier does not have the disorder has the disorder is immune to the disorder 10. The heterozygote of red/white flower color which was co-dominant would be white red and white red pink 11. The heterozygote of red/white flower color which was incompletely dominant would be white red and white red pink 12. A characteristic that is derived from many genes is called a polygenic trait co-dominant incompletely dominant multiple alleles 13. Which of the following traits cannot be studied using normal dominance in humans? eye position earlobe shape dimples height tongue rolling 14. Tall is dominant over short for plant height. What is the phenotypic result of the following cross: Tt x Tt? all tall 3 tall: 1 short 2 tall: 2 short 1 tall: 3 short 15. Which term means the genetic make-up of an organism for a certain trait? phenotype homozygous heterozygous genotype 16. Which of the following traits is not polygenic for humans? height skin color earlobe attachment hair color 17. What is the genotype of an organism that is a carrier for any autosomal recessive trait? BB Bb bb 18. Huntington's disease is an example of a(n) polygenic trait dihybrid cross autosomal dominant trait autosomal recessive trait 19. When dihybrid crosses are used more than one trait is involved an organism is heterozygous for a trait one organism is dominant and the other is recessive a gamete does not go through meiosis 20. Which of the following is an autosomal recessive trait? dwarfism albinism Huntington's disease skin color

Answers:1b 2a 3a 4c 5a 6c 7d 8a 9c 10d 11b 12a 13a 14b 15d 16c 17b 18c 19a 20b I hope you have the decency to pick me for best answer after I've done your homework for you. What are you going to do for the exam?