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Direct action

Direct action is activity undertaken by individuals, groups, or governments to achieve political, economic, or social goals outside of normal social/political channels. Direct action can include nonviolent and violent activities which target persons, groups, or property deemed offensive to the direct action participant. Examples of nonviolent direct action include strikes, workplace occupations, sit-ins, sabotage, property destruction and graffiti. Violent direct actions include assault and murder. By contrast, grassroots organizing, electoralpolitics, diplomacy and negotiation or arbitration do not constitute direct action. Direct actions are sometimes a form of civil disobedience, but some (such as strikes) do not always violate criminal law.

The rhetoric of Martin Luther King and Mohandas Gandhi promoted non-violentrevolutionary direct action as a means to social change. Names for these include "Satya-Graha", meaning "truth-force" in sanskrit.

Direct action participants aim to either:

  • obstruct another political agent or political organization from performing some practice to which the activists object; or,
  • solve perceived problems which traditional societal institutions (corporations, governments, powerful churches or establishment trade unions) are not addressing to the satisfaction of the direct action participants.

In general, direct action is often used by those seeking social change, in some cases, revolutionary change. It is central to autonomism and has been advocated by a variety of marxists and anarchists, including syndicalism, anarcho-communism, insurrectionary anarchism, green anarchism, Marxist Humanists, anarcho-primitivist and pacifists.


Direct action tactics have been around for as long as conflicts have existed, but the theory of direct action developed primarily in the context of revolutionary struggles. Lenin discussed changes in the aims of direct action in Certain Features of the Historical Development of Marxism in 1910. Other noted historical practitioners of direct action include the US Civil Rights Movement, the Global Justice Movement, the Suffragettes, revolutionary Che Guevara, and certain environmentaladvocacy groups.

American anarchist Voltairine de Cleyre wrote a famous essay called "Direct Action" in 1912 which is widely cited today. In this essay, de Cleyre points to historical examples such as the Boston Tea Party and the american anti-slavery movement, noting that "direct action has always been used, and has the historical sanction of the very people now reprobating it."

In his 1920 book, Direct Action,William Mellor placed direct action firmly in the struggle between worker and employer for control "over the economic life of society." Mellor defined direct action "as the use of some form of economic power for securing of ends desired by those who possess that power." Mellor considered direct action a tool of both owners and workers and for this reason he included within his definition lockouts and cartels, as well as strikes and sabotage. However, by this time the US anarchist and feministVoltairine de Cleyre had already given a strong defense of direct action, linking it with struggles for civil rights:

"...the Salvation Army, which was started by a gentleman named William Booth was vigorously practising direct action in the maintenance of the freedom of its members to speak, assemble, and pray. Over and over they were arrested, fined, and imprisoned ... till they finally compelled their persecutors to let th

Directed graph

A directedgraphor digraph is a pair G=(V,A) (sometimes G=(V,E)) of:

  • a setV, whose elements are called vertices or nodes,
  • a set A of ordered pairs of vertices, called arcs, directed edges, or arrows (and sometimes simply edges with the corresponding set named E instead of A).

It differs from an ordinary or undirected graph, in that the latter is defined in terms of unordered pairs of vertices, which are usually called edges.

Sometimes a digraph is called a simple digraph to distinguish it from a directed multigraph, in which the arcs constitute a multiset, rather than a set, of ordered pairs of vertices. Also, in a simple digraph loops are disallowed. (A loop is an arc that pairs a vertex to itself.) On the other hand, some texts allow loops, multiple arcs, or both in a digraph.

Basic terminology

An arc e = (x, y) is considered to be directed from x to y; y is called the head and x is called the tail of the arc; y is said to be a direct successor of x, and x is said to be a direct predecessor of y. If a path made up of one or more successive arcs leads from x to y, then y is said to be a successor of x, and x is said to be a predecessor of y. The arc (y, x) is called the arc (x, y) inverted.

A directed graph G is called symmetric if, for every arc that belongs to G, the corresponding inverted arc also belongs to G. A symmetric loopless directed graph is equivalent to an undirected graph with the pairs of inverted arcs replaced with edges; thus the number of edges is equal to the number of arcs halved.

The orientation of a simple undirected graph is obtained by assigning a direction to each edge. Any directed graph constructed this way is called an oriented graph. A distinction between a simple directed graph and an oriented graph is that if x and y are vertices, a simple directed graph allows both (x, y) and (y, x) as edges, while only one is permitted in an oriented graph.

A weighted digraph is a digraph with weights assigned for its arcs, similarly to the weighted graph.

The adjacency matrix of a digraph (with loops and multiple arcs) is the integer-valued matrix with rows and columns corresponding to the digraph nodes, where a nondiagonal entry a_{ij} is the number of arcs from node i to node j, and the diagonal entry a_{ii} is the number of loops at node i. The adjacency matrix for a digraph is unique up to the permutations of rows and columns.

Another matrix representation for a digraph is its incidence matrix.

See Glossary of graph theory#Direction for more definitions.

Indegree and outdegree

For a node, the number of head endpoints adjacent to a node is called the indegree of the node and the number of tail endpoints is its outdegree.

The indegree is denoted \deg^-(v) and the outdegree as \deg^+(v). A vertex with \deg^-(v)=0 is called a source, as it is the origin of each of its incident edges. Similarly, a vertex with \deg^+(v)=0 is called a sink.

The degree sum formula states that, for a directed graph

\sum_{v \in V} \deg^+(v) = \sum_{v \in V} \deg^-(v) = |A|\, .

If for every node, , \deg^+(v) = \deg^-(v), the graph is called a balanced digraph.

Digraph connectivity

A digraph G is called weakly connected (or just connected) if the undirected underlying graph obtained by replacing all directed edges of G with undirected edges is a connected graph. A digraph is strongly connected or strong if it contains a directed path from u to v and a directed path from v to u for every pair of vertices u,v. The strong components are the maximal strongly connected subgraphs.

Classes of digraphs

An acyclic digraph (occasionally called a dag or DAG for "directed acyclic graph", although it is not the same as an orientation of an acyclic graph) is a directed graph with no directed cycles.

A rooted tree naturally defines an acyclic digraph, if all edges of the underlying tree are directed away from the root.

A tournament is an oriented graph obtained by choosing a direction for each edge in an undirected complete graph.

In the theory of Lie groups, a quiverQ is a directed graph serving as the domain of, and thus characterizing the shape of, a representationV defined as a functor, specifically an object of the functor categoryFinVctKF(Q) where F(Q) is the free category on Q consisting of paths in Q and FinVctK is the category of finite dimensional vector spaces over a field K. Representations of a quiver label its vertices with vector spaces and its edges (and hence paths) compatibly with linear transformations between them, and transform via natural transformations.

Definition of Sound

Definition of Sound was a London based dance musicgroup, consisting of Kevin Clark and Don Weekes, working with musicians Rex Brough (aka The Red King) and latterly, Mike Spencer. Their second and fourth singles, "Wear Your Love Like Heaven" (1991) and "Moira Jane's Café" (1992) were in the Top 40 in the UK Singles Chart. They also had several songs enter the U.S.BillboardHot Dance Club Playchart, including "Moira Jane's Café", which hit #1 in 1992.


Weekes, who had recorded with Coldcut's Matt Black, and was briefly a member of X Posse, was impressed with Clark's skills and soon the two were working together on material. They recorded a demo and, under the name Top Billin', released two underground hits, "Naturally" and "Straight From the Soul" on the Dance Yard record label. This led to a recording contract with Cardiac Records and their first album, Love and Life: A Journey With the Chameleons and single, "Now Is Tomorrow". Love and Life: A Journey With the Chameleons was named rap album of the year by Record Mirrorand had glowing reviews in Billboard,The Source, and otherStateside publications. Their second album The Lick got buried under record label takeovers, and Clark and Weeks signed a deal with Mercury and started making their third album, Experience (1996). According to the NMEit was "like the delayed hit of a powerful drug".

Although they had no Billboard Hot 100 entries, the song "Now Is Tomorrow" (a #10 dance hit) climbed to #68 on the Hot 100 Airplay chart in 1991. Vocal duties on this single and some album tracks were handled by singer, Elaine Vassel.

After recording their fourth and final album for MCA/Universal, which was ultimately never released, they split up. Initially the final members Clark, Weekes and Spencer continued as a songwritingremix and production team. Clark went on to a career as a A&R manager for Parlophone and eventually Universal. He has worked with Beverley Knight, Jamelia, Tracie Spencer, Freestylers, Betty Boo and Beats International. His later career saw a move into music publishing with Clarkmusic. Mike Spencer went onto have successful a career producing, amongst others, Jamiroquai, Kylie MinogueAlphabeat and Newton Faulkner . Weekes, after the release of a solo album, left the music industry.



  • Love and Life: A Journey With the Chameleons (1991)
  • The Lick (1992)
  • Experience (1996)


  • "Dream Girl (1991)
  • "Wear Your Love Like Heaven" (1991) - UK #12, U.S. Dance #28
  • "Now is Tomorrow" (1991) UK #39, U.S. Dance #10
  • "Moira Jane's Cafe" (1992) UK #27, U.S. Dance #1
  • "What Are You Under" (1992) UK #68, U.S. Dance #4
  • "Can I Get Over" (1992) #61
  • "Boom Boom" (1995) UK #33
  • "Pass the Vibes" (1995) UK #17
  • "Child" (1996) UK #48

Don worked with Jamelia,beverly knight and the free stylers not kevin.

Music video

  • "Child" Directed by Dani Jacobs

From Yahoo Answers

Question:Hello everyone. I will be attending CSUN for the Fall '09 semester as an accountancy major. I've just recently finished all of my prerequisites for admission to the accountancy program. I've been curious about this for sometime now but I don't currently know any accounting majors personally. To get to the point, I took Financial Accounting I during the fall '06 semester (did well and received an A), however, I'm afraid that I've forgotten most of it since its been a pretty LONG two years for me. I took managerial/cost accounting this semester as well and also received an A. Basically my question is for anyone who is in or has completed an accounting program at a university. What are the Intermediate Financial Accounting courses like and what are the tests like? Are the tests in these intermediate accounting courses open book/note? I'm taking a few real estate and investing courses next semester since I applied too late for the Spring '09 semester. I will definitely have time to review my Financial Accounting I text pretty thoroughly. Would anyone out there who's been in my position recommend this? Also, if you can, please tell me what your intermediate accounting tests have been like with regard to format and content. Thank you very much. -Andrew

Answers:I didnt find the intermediate accounting hard at all, however, I had to help many of my classmates through. In my experience, as long as you know basic accounting principles, intermediate just builds off of them, youll be fine. By basic I mean, and understanding of debits and credits, and what accounts make up what sections of the financial statements, and how basic entries impact each.

Question:How do actin and intermediate filaments contribute to cell-cell adhesion between epithelial cells?

Answers:There are three major types of filaments: actin filaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules. There are various types of cell adhesions, namely desmosomes, hemidesmosomes, adherens junctions, tight junctions, gap junctions and focal adhesions. The adhesive structures are connected to intermediate filaments (desmosomes and hemidesmosomes) or actin filaments (adherens junctions, tight junctions and focal adhesions). At the plasma membrane, keratins of intermediate filaments interact with desmosomes via adapter proteins, causing cell-cell adhesion. Adherens junctions are constituted by transmembrane cadherin proteins and catenin-linker proteins that attach the junctions to the actin cytoskeleton. The extracellular parts of cadherin proteins from adjacent cells interact with each other in a calcium-dependent manner to form a junction. The cytosolic parts of cadherins connect to -catenin, which attaches to -catenin, a linker protein between the actin cytoskeleton and adherens junction. Adherens junctions have been shown to have a wide variety of functions apart from just acting as simple adhesional structures. Adherens junctions are known to activate Rho-GTPases and PI3-kinase in an adhesion-dependent manner. Desmosomes function as adhesive intercellular junctions and as linkers of intermediate filaments in epithelia. Desmosomes are composed of transmembrane desmosomal cadherins (desmocollins 1-3, desmogleins 1-3) and a linker protein called desmoplakin. Desmoplakin attaches the cytoplasmic parts of cadherins to the intermediate filament network. Furthermore, plakoglobin and plakophilin proteins have been demonstrated in the cytoplasmic part of the desmosome. Similarly to adherens junctions, desmosomal cadherins form junctions in a calcium-dependent manner. Desmosomes are thought to be especially important in forming mechanically stable cell junctions. Desmosomes are also involved in cell positioning. The formation of adherens junctions and desmosomes requires extracellular calcium to stimulate keratinocytes, causing re-organization of actin and intermediate filament networks and re-localization of adherens junctional and desmosomal proteins towards cell-cell borders. The assembly of adherens junctions occurs prior to the formation of desmosomes, and adherens junctions are needed for desmosome arrangement. Junctional assembly starts with the generation of filopodias, which penetrate and embed into adjacent cells. Adherens junctional proteins are clustered at the tip of the filopodia, and generate a two-row adhesion zipper. Desmosomes clamp the opposing cell surfaces together and stabilize the junction. Finally, directed actin polymerization pushes the two-row adhesion zipper into a single row. The cell-cell adhesion development can be divided into active and passive categories. The active part utilizes actin polymerization, bringing the opposing membranes together, and the passive part consists of the establishment of cadherin-cadherin adhesions by conformational changes.

Question:A plane can fly a certain distance in 5 hours against an 8-mile-per-hour headwind. Flying in the opposite direction with the same wind speed it can fly the same distance in 4 3/4 hours. Find the plane's airspeed, (which is the speed of the plane in still air). I need the answer soon. Thanks in advance!

Answers:Let V be the velocity of the plane in still air and W the velocity of the wind. Also note that velocity * time = distance. D = ( V - 8 ) ( 5 hours ) D = ( V + 8 ) ( 4.75 hours ) So ( V - 8 ) ( 5 ) = ( V + 8 ) ( 4.75 ) 5 V - 40 = 4.75 V + 38 .25 V = 78 V = 312 mph

Question:This question is what I'd call intermediate or advanced so I'm hoping someone in the field can help me here. I'm studying to become a personal trainer and I just had this question: The aerobic system burns the most fat; anaerobic glycolysis doesn't "burn" as much fat (it doesn't use fatty acids for the primary source of energy). However, if I'm on, say, a cycle and I'm exercising at 70 - 80% of max heart rate, or 80 - 90% (anaerobic) or max intensity, by definition I'm burning more calories (using more energy) but because my legs are exercising anaerobically, they aren't using fat for energy anymore. Does this have anything to do with losing fat in a practical sense? In other words, by exercising at a lower intensity and burning less calories in favor of the aerobic system, am I actually cutting more fat or is it better to stick with burning more calories because that's what matters at the end of the day? Thanks.

Answers:if you are heart healthy forget about training in the "fat burning zone" that's 1980's science. you want to exercise at around 70% of the VO2max or greater. when the body uses primary glucose during the exercise session it will utilize more free fatty acids in the hours after exercise, where the real fat burning takes place. hands down interval training is optimum for fat loss. when you exercise at or near maximum effort there is maximum release of growth hormone (GH). GH is the most powerful fat burning substance that the human body produces. t is also 2nd in it's anti-catabolic properties with insulin being the most anti-catabolic hormone. low intensity cardio has been proven time and time again to not be optimum for fat loss. there are hundreds of medical studies in the subject.

From Youtube

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Intermediate Algebra Exam 1 Review - 3 (Define and Evaluate a Rational Expression) :Definition of a rational expression. Evaluating a rational expression and stating its meaning.