Interaction between Biotic and Abiotic Factors
The structure and function of an ecosystem are controlled by variety biotic and abiotic factors. Interactions between biotic and abiotic factors allow a species to flourish or decline or even lead to extinction. Both factors determine the where a species can flourish. There is always a limiting factor that places an upper limit on the size of population. These factors that limit a population can be biotic, like availability of food or abiotic like availability of water. Often human influences often act as limiting factors.
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Answers:Abiotic Factors: 1. Temperature: affects the organism's metabolism, The normal range is between 0 degrees and 50 degrees centigrade. 2. Water: adaptations for water homeostasis and conservation play a large role in determining a species' habitat range. 3. Light: The sun is the major energy source of nearly all ecosystems. Availability of light can determine habitat. In aquatic environments, water selectively reflects and absorbs certain wavelengths of light. As a result of this most photosynthesis occurs near the surface of the water. Animal and plant behavior is often sensitive to photo periods. 4. Soil: Physical structure, pH, and mineral composition of soil limit distribution of plants and have an effect on the animals that feed on them. 5. Wind: Increases the effects on temperature by increasing heat loss by evaporation and convection. 6. Natural Disasters: Fire, hurricanes, typhoons, volcanic eruptions can devastate biological communities. Terrestrial Biomes: Most often named for the predominant vegetation but each is also characterized by animals adapted to that particular environment. a). biomes blend into each other without sharp boundaries. b). May contain several communities represented in one biome. c). Prevailing climate, particular temperature and rainfall, is most important factor in determining what kind of biome develops. A. Tropical Forest (rain forest): found near the equator, temp varies little from 25 degrees C. and day light varies from 12 hours by less than one hour. Lowlands receive very little rain fall, and develop thorn forests. Nearer the equator regions have distinct wet and dry seasons and tropical deciduous forests occur. Trees relief following heavy rains. Near the equator, where rainfall is abundant , and the dry season lasts less than a few months is tropical rain forest. Contain more plant and animal species than any other community. Competition is strong for light, soil is poor due to the rapid recycling of nutrients. Animals are mostly tree dwellers. B. Savanna: is a grassland with scattered individual trees. Found covering: Central South America, central and South Africa, and parts of Australia. Soil is generally porous with a thin humus layer. 3 distinct seasons: cool and dry; hot and dry, and warm and wet in that order. Frequent fires inhibit invasion of trees. Large herbivores ( giraffes, zebras) are commonly most active. C. Desert: is characterized by low precipitation less than 30 cm / year, not by temperature: both cold and hot deserts exist. Hot deserts occur in S.W. USA, W. South America, North Africa, Middle East, Central Australia. Cold deserts occur: E. Argentina, central Asia, and west of the Rocky Mountains. Reptiles and seed eaters are common. Cacti and succulents are also common. D. Chaparral: scrub land are regions of dense, spiny shrubs, with tough evergreen leaves found along coasts where cool ocean currents circulate offshore making mild rainy winters and long hot dry summers. Mediterranean , California coastline, Chile, S.W. Africa, and S.W. Australia. Deer, snakes, fruit eating birds are common. E. Temperate Grasslands: similar to savanna but occur in cold regions. Veldts of S. Africa, the pusta of Hungary, pampas of Uruguay and Argentina, steppes of Russia, and the plains of the USA, are examples. F. Temperate Forests: grow throughout the mid latitude regions that contain enough moisture to support large broad-leaved, deciduous trees. Occur in Eastern US, Middle Europe, and E. Asia. There is a 5-6 month growing season, very cold winters, and very hot summers. High precipitation and evenly distributed through out the year. Soil rich in nutrients. G. Taiga: ( coniferous or boreal forest) is characterized by harsh winters and occasionally warm summers. N. America, Europe, Asia, and at high elevations in more temperate latitudes. Soil thin and acidic. It forms slowly. H. Tundra: is the northern most limits of plant growth and at high altitudes plant forms are limits to shrubs and mat-like vegetation. Arctic Tundra: encircles the North Pole. Brief warm summers are marked with nearly 24 hours of sunlight. Permafrost, saturated soil prevent large plants from growing. Alpine Tundra: occurs at high elevations at all latitudes.
Answers:First of all: Biotic;Living.... So competition between different grasses. Think 'niche'. Other animals which live there, for example, 'grazing'. All the animals which live there. Abiotic - Water, temperature, pH, wind speed, soil etc. Interact?.... Well, more water, more transpiration, more grasses, too much competition?. Here is the basics, you should have enough of your own knowledge to be able to expand on it. Hope this helped!