Interaction between Biotic and Abiotic Factors






The structure and function of an ecosystem are controlled by variety biotic and abiotic factors. Interactions between biotic and abiotic factors allow a species to flourish or decline or even lead to extinction. Both factors determine the where a species can flourish. There is always a limiting factor that places an upper limit on the size of population. These factors that limit a population can be biotic, like availability of food or abiotic like availability of water. Often human influences often act as limiting factors.

Ecosystems refers to interactions of organisms with each other and with biogeochemical factors, all these factors collectively represent the environment. Interactions in an ecosystem include species-species interactions like predation and competition. Interactions can be species-abiotic factor interaction like limitations to resources and responses and also physiological stress.

All living organisms like plants and animals depend on abiotic factors like food, shelter and breeding site. Plants require non-living components like water, carbon dioxide and energy from the sun for photosynthesis. The plant is consumed by herbivorous organisms or parasite. Plants also depend on mineral and nutrients on soil. Plant, a biotic factor interacts with the abiotic components. The non-living factors and living factors influence each other. The type of soil and climatic conditions determine the type of vegetation and fauna found in that region.

Non-living components like water, air, soil, energy, and gases are essential factors of an ecosystem. Energy is obtained from sun and the energy enters into ecosystem through the plants by the process of photosynthesis. The process also requires carbon, water, and also minerals. Animals feed on these plants and move matter and energy through the system. Most of the primary products are decomposed by the decomposers.

In a food web, the organisms that produce food are known as primary producers. The primary consumers or the secondary producers are the organisms like herbivores which feed on the primary producers. Carnivorous animals are the secondary consumers that feed on the primary consumers. This sequence transfers energy and matter through the food chain.
Thus, abiotic and biotic components interact with each and among themselves in an ecosystem. These factors play an important role in the maintenance of the ecosystem.