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A lesson plan is a teacher's detailed description of the course of instruction for an individual lesson. A daily lesson plan is developed by a teacher to guide class instruction. The detail of the plan will vary depending on the preference of the teacher, subject being covered, and the need and/or curiosity of children. There may be requirements mandated by the school system regarding the plan.
Developing a lesson plan
While there are many formats for a lesson plan, most lesson plans contain some or all of these elements, typically in this order:
- Title of the lesson
- Timerequired to complete the lesson
- List of required materials
- List of objectives, which may bebehavioral objectives (what thestudent can do at lesson completion) or knowledge objectives (what the student knows at lesson completion)
- The set (or lead-in, or bridge-in) that focuses students on the lesson's skills or concepts—these include showing pictures or models, asking leading questions, or reviewing previous lessons
- An instructional component that describes the sequence of events that make up the lesson, including the teacher's instructional input and guided practice the students use to try new skills or work with new ideas
- Independentpracticethat allows students to extend skills or knowledge on their own
- A summary, where the teacher wraps up the discussion and answers questions
- An evaluationcomponent, a test for mastery of the instructed skills or concepts—such as a set of questions to answer or a set of instructions to follow
- Analysis component the teacher uses to reflect on the lesson itself —such as what worked, what needs improving
- A continuity component reviews and reflects on content from the previous lesson
A well developed lesson plan
A well developed lesson plan reflects interests and needs of students. It incorporates best practices for the educational field. The lesson plan correlates with the teacher's philosophy of education, which is what the teacher feels is the purpose of educating the students.
Secondary English program lesson plans, for example, usually center around four topics. They are literary theme, elements of language and composition, literary history, and literary genre. A broad, thematic lesson plan is preferable, because it allows a teacher to create various research, writing, speaking, and reading assignments. It helps an instructor teach different literature genres and incorporate videotapes, films, and television programs. Also, it facilitates teaching literature and English together. School requirements and a teacher's personal tastes, in that order, determine the exact requirements for a lesson plan.
Unit plans follow much the same format as a lesson plan, but cover an entire unit of work, which may span several days or weeks. Modern constructivist teaching styles may not require individual lesson plans. The unit plan may include specific objectives and timelines, but lesson plans can be more fluid as they adapt to student needs and learning styles.
Setting an objective
The first thing a teacher must do is decide on the lesson plan's focus. The teacher creates one idea or question they want the students to explore or answer. Next, the teacher creates classroom activities that correlate with the established idea or question. This includes individual and group activities. Having established these activities, the teacher identifies what language arts skills the lesson plan must cover. After the teacher completes these activities, they must ensure the lesson plan adheres to the best practices used in language arts. This includes conducting research on what teaching methods result in a high success rate for students. The teacher must ensure the lesson plan goals are compatible with the developmental level of the students. The teacher must also ensure their student achievement expectations are reasonable.
Selecting lesson plan material
A lesson plan must correlate with the text book the class uses. The school usually selects the text books or provides teachers with a limited text book choice for a particular unit. The teacher must take great care and select the most appropriate book for the students.
Types of Assignments
The instructor must decide whether class assignments are whole-class, small groups, workshops, independent work, peer learning, or contractual:
- Whole-class—the teacher lectures to the class as a whole and has the class collectively participate in classroom discussions.
- Small groups—students work on assignments in groups of three or four.
- Workshops—students perform various tasks simultaneously. Workshop activities must be tailored to the lesson plan.
- Independent work—students complete assignments individually.
- Peer learning—students work together, face to face, so they can learn from one another.
- Contractual work—teacher and student establish an agreement that the student must perform a certain amount of work by a deadline.
These assignment categories (e.g. peer learning, independent, small groups) can also be used to guide the instructorâ€™s choice of assessment measures that can provide information about student and class comprehension of the material. As discussed by Biggs (1999), there are additional questions an instructor can consider when choosing which type of assignment would provide the most benefit to students. These include:
- What level of learning do the students need to attain before choosing assignments with varying difficulty levels?
- What is the amount of time the instructor wants the students to use to complete the assignment?
- How much time and effort does the instructor have to provide student grading and feedback?
- What is the purpose of the assignment? (e.g. to track student learning; to provide students with time to practice concepts; to practice
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Answers:If you are talking about pan pipes, the pitch is altered by the size of the resonance chamber. The frequency of the vibrations is determined by the length of the straw segment. Just like with bottles or tubes tuned by partial filling, the smaller space results in a smaller wavelength due to a higher vibrational rate. The resonant space controls the vibrational rate.
Answers:WHEN I DID THIS LESSON I USED THE SONG YOU ARE MY SUNSHINE TO AIDE W/ TEACHING THE TYPES OF CLOUDS. I KNOW FOR A FACT IT IS A 3RD GRADE GLE BECAUSE MY DAUGHTER IS IN 3RD GRADE.
Answers:well your idea is great. you can also integrate lesson of shapes + colors , you can use a non toxic clay since kids like playing and learning at the same time.. :) good luck
Answers:I OFTEN use music in class with both adults and kids, sometimes to talk about issues of social justice, sometimes for history (I've sung plenty of old songs with the kids that relate to historical events we might be talking about), sometimes for patterns, mathmatical constructs in art, etc. I've done square-dancing, circle-dancing, and other such things with great success with the kids. It gets their bodies moving, blood flowing, and oxygen to the brain. The only disappointment (and it's happened more than once) was when student volunteers chose to sit those times out, feeling it would be uncool to join the dance. Not so! Music and dance are very cool! You can even play pieces of the kids' own popular music and use them to discuss issues you may be dealing with in a certain subject area. It's a great way to bring a lesson you're teaching out into their "outside-lives". I love the idea of making musical instruments. My kids have loved that every time I did it. And depending on the instrument you choose, it does teach various math, science, etc. concepts. Have fun!! Get inspired!!