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A science fair is generally a competition where contestants present their science project results in the form of a report, display board, and models that they have created. Science fairs allow students in grade schools and high schools to compete in science and/or technology activities.
One of the main educational advantages of science fair is that it requires completing a larger project than can be easily included in the short periods provided in most schools. [http://www.dukegiftedletter.com/articles/vol6no1_connex.html] Although writing assignments that take a long time to complete and require multiple drafts are fairly common in US schools, large projects in the sciences (other than science fairs) are rare. Science fairs also provide a mechanism for students with intense interest in the sciences to be paired with mentors from nearby colleges and universities, so that they can get access to instruction and equipment that the local schools could not provide.
In the United States, science fairs first became popular in the early 1950s, with the ISEF, then known as the National Science Fair. Interest in the sciences was at a new high after the world witnessed the use of the first two atomic weapons and the dawn of television. As the decade progressed, science stories in the news, such as Jonas Salkâ€™s vaccine for polio and the launch of Sputnik, brought science fiction to reality and attracted increasing numbers of students to fairs.
The origins of the science fairs in the United States began almost thirty years before the first National Science Fair in Philadelphia in 1950. Its beginnings can be traced back to newspaper mogul E.W. Scripps in 1921. He fathered the Science Service, now known as Society for Science & the Public, in collaboration with The American Association for the Advancement of Science, the National Academy of Sciences, and the National Research Council. Scripps created the Science Service as a nonprofit organization to popularize science by explaining technical scientific findings in a jargon-free manner to the American public. Under the watchful editorial eyes of Edwin Slosson and Watson Davis, the original weekly mimeographed Science News Bulletin evolved by the end of 1920s into the Scientific News Letter, a weekly magazine.
Davis used his influence at the Science Service to forward science education for all American children. With sponsorship from the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company in 1941, Watson expanded the science club movement begun 14 years earlier by the American Institute of the City of New York into a national movement â€“Science Clubs of America. As a result of the Science Serviceâ€™s efforts, some 600,000 young scientists were organized into 25,000 science clubs. The early efforts of the science clubs were reported in dispatches appearing weekly in the science newsletter. The clubs were inclusive and very much based on the wonder of science and discovery.
The work of science clubs began to culminate in science fairs held locally as part of the science movement. A science fair was originally defined as the followings at the first national science fairs in Philadelphia in 1950.
During the first fifteen years, projects were marked by individual creativity, ingenuity and resourcefulness. Science News Letter contributor, Allen Long argued: â€œâ€¦getting into the competition is not hard. A student decides upon some project and builds an exhibit around it. The project can be something especially thought up for the fair. Frequently, however, the projects are the outgrowth of scientific hobbies the students have been pursuing in their spare time.â€� Several times during the period, the SNL printed advice on how to complete a project. The advice was void of the scientific method. Students were told to do the following: read widely, question others, and plan carefully, keeping complete records of all your work, both successful and apparently unsuccessful. In such a welcoming backdrop, a vast array of topics was explored and impressive science was conducted.
Some people pointed to the primary school experience as one factor which may actually discourage students from taking further interest in the sciences. [http://www.csun.edu/~lg48405/vsf/ch1/ch1_wha.html] They claim that traditional science fairs, as well as programs like the Westinghouse Science Honors Institute, place too much focus on competition, a charge which science fair supporters answer by pointing to the real life competitive nature of awarding scientific grants and even the Nobel Prize. A related source of criticism is the tendency for an inordinate amount of parental contribution to the projects, especially of winning projects. In the desire to see their children win the competition, many parents direct the children to choose projects far above a secondary student's capacity for understanding. Therefore, the parent or a connection of the parent with scientific or technical expertise will direct the development and execution of the project. Not only does this minimize the educational value of the project for the student, but also provides an unfair advantage to students whose parents have the technical connections and financial resources to invest in these projects. Often, prizes in science fairs do not go to the best science, but to technology that is currently fashionable (green technology or health-related projects, for example). Judges often over-compensate for the possibility of parental involvement and downgrade advanced students who do work beyond what most of their peers are capable of.
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Answers:How to Build a Simple Electric Motor By an eHow Contributor I want to do this! What's This? .. If you're looking for a science fair project, you may want to build this simple electric motor. An electromagnet results when the electrical current produced by the battery runs through the wire coil. The permanent magnet attracts its opposite pole and repels its like pole on the coil, which causes the coil spin. .Difficulty: Moderately Easy Instructions.Things You'll Need: Two large paper clips Five small round ceramic magnets Two feet of insulated, solid 20-gauge copper wire Masking tape Battery (D) Two electrical leads with clips on each end Wire strippers Black permanent marker Block of wood large enough to make the battery holder Four nails Hammer 1 Make a coil by winding the copper wire five times, creating loops that are about 1 inch in diameter. Do this in such a way that you end up with copper wire ends on opposing sides of the coil. Take the ends of the wire and wrap them around the coil several times to hold it together, leaving 2 inches extending from each side of the coil. When a current flows through this coil, it creates an electromagnet with a north and a south pole. 2 Strip the insulation off the ends of the 2 inches of wire sticking out from each side of the coil. Use a black permanent marker and color the top half of one of the copper wires. This is an important step because it allows the magnetic field to turn off for half of a spin on every turn of the coil. Inertia carries the rotating coil through the half turn past the paint, allowing the current to resume in the same direction as it was flowing. 3 Place the cup upside down with two magnets on top of each other in the center. Stack three more magnets inside the cup, underneath the ones you placed on top. This creates a magnetic field while holding all of the magnets in place. 4 Open out one end of each paper clip, forming a straight leg on each one that you then tape to opposite sides of the cup. Once you tape the paper clip into position, you will be able to cradle the coil wires in the bend of each paper clip. Adjusting the paper clips may take a few tries. The height of the clips should allow the coil to spin, clearing the magnets by 1/16 inch. Continue to adjust the coil and clips until the coil can spin freely, while remaining balanced and centered. 5 Construct a battery holder with a block of wood and four nails. A nail on each side of the battery holds it in place, and one on each ends serves as the battery terminals. Connect one electrical lead clip to a battery terminal (nail) and the other end to a paper clip. Do the same with the other electrical lead wire on the opposite side. 6 Spin the coil to get it going. It should continue spinning on its own. If it doesn't, go through a checklist to make sure the coil assembly is balanced, you've colored the top half of one of the wire ends with a black marker, and that the coil and magnets are close to each other, but not touching. . Read more: How to Build a Simple Electric Motor | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how_2247143_build-simple-electric-motor.html#ixzz15IAUZj1A
Answers:I went to the national science fair last year and I have a patent in the works for my project, so I think I'm fairly qualified to help you (lol). Yes, what your teachers have been telling you is true -- the science fair is just a really great learning experience that allows you to design your own experiment from start to finish and to determine your own results, rather than simply following step by step instructions (like in a class lab). I'm reluctant to give you a project idea that you can do to get a good grade / accurate results because you will learn more if you determine one on your own, but I do have some tips for you. My project took me over a year to complete (and I'm still fine-tuning it . . . long process), but you noted that you have a much more limited amount of time to utilize. Make sure that you make the best use of your time. I've seen the results of procrastination many times, and it is not something that you want to do. I would also recommend this website: http://www.all-science-fair-pr... Don't take one of their ideas right off of there, but modify it to fit your needs (word of caution: believe me, your teacher will know if you plagiarized -- don't do it!!!). Make sure that your project is well developed and that you really put a lot of time and thought into developing your analysis (and all parts of the project, for that matter =D) and make sure that your project display board is well thought out and designed neatly (don't just put your report on the board -- use shortened versions and lots of pictures help too) and use a paper cutter (if you don't have one, go to a copy shop to use one for free) to lay it out well. I'm sure you went over the scientific method in class (as well as how to assemble your project), but if you need more help, check out this website: http://www.ipl.org/div/projectguide/....... (very helpful!!). Have fun and good luck! I hope this helps you!
Answers:A fairly crude experiment you can do is as set out below. I've written the instructions so as to compare air, methane and carbon dioxide but you could of course just compare air and CO2. OBJECTIVE To compare the thermal properties of carbon dioxide, methane and air. EQUIPMENT 3 identical plastic bottles 3 temperature probes 3 pre-drilled bungs (optional, helpful) Stopwatch Carbon dioxide Methane 3 Clamp stands if you have access to them (not essential) Lamp (or other heat source) METHOD Clean and dry the bottles (they should be dry inside as well) Remove any labels Insert temp probes through the bungs. If you haven t got bungs then drill holes in the bottle caps and insert the temp probes through the hole, seal the edges of the hole with plastecine or similar. Fill one bottle with carbon dioxide. If you ve got a soda stream use that, if not put some indigestion tablets into a balloon containing some water, hold the neck of the balloon closed and wait for it to fill with carbon dioxide given off by the tablets. Fill the bottle with the carbon dioxide from the balloon. Fill one bottle with methane from the normal domestic gas supply. Seal all three bottles with the bung or the cap Secure a bottle in each of the clamp stands Place all three bottles equidistant from an indirect heat source such as a lamp (don t switch the lamp on yet) Wait until the temp in all three bottles is identical Switch on the lamp Take temperature readings from all three bottles for the next 30 minutes at one minute intervals Plot the results on a graph RESULTS This graph shows the results of an experiment we did a few years ago using just carbon dioxide and air, you should be able to achieve similar results in your experiment http://www.flickr.com/photos/trevorandclaire/4558810055/sizes/o/ CONCLUSION The experiment should demonstrate that carbon dioxide and methane will retain more heat than air. LIMITATIONS The experiment is quite basic and will not provide precise results, it should show there is a significant difference between the different gases when it comes to retaining heat and this is the essence of the greenhouse effect. The experiment does not explain why the greenhouse gases retain more heat than air, this is explained at the atomic level and isn t something that can be done at home. Here s an answer I provided a while back which explains the physics http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=AnmTuE2OjGAQAjTPTUDPiEnty6IX;_ylv=3?qid=20091204204454AAGi9b2&show=7#profile-info-6yLHYT9Caa
Answers:A 1 B 2 C 3 D 3 E 3