Inorganic Acids List
We know that an acid shows the tendency to give hydrogen ions (H+) in their solution. On the contrary; bases can give OH- ions in solution. We can say that a compound will act as acid if it will give H+ ion in solution while it will act as base in the condition of hydroxy ion donation.
On the basis of their composition; acids can be classified as organic and inorganic acids or mineral acids. Inorganic acids or mineral acids are derived from inorganic compounds. In their aqueous solution; they have tendency to form hydrogen ions with conjugate base ions when dissolved in water. The inorganic acid list is too big but we can discuss some common examples such as nitric acid, sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid. Another name of mineral acids is bench acids.
The strength of mineral acids varies from acid to acid such as sulphuric acid is quite strong while boric acid is very weak acid. Like organic acids; they are also soluble in water but not dissolve with organic solvents. These acids are mainly used in different industrial areas for the synthesis of other inorganic and organic chemicals.
These acids are usually prepared on large scale such as sulphuric acid is prepared by contact process while Oswald process is used for the synthesis of nitric acid. They show corrosive properties such as dilute HCl is used to remove the deposits from the inner side of boilers.
This process is called as descaling. On the contrary; organic acids are composed of carbon and hydrogen which are bonded through covalent bonds. They have carboxy group (-COOH) with an alkyl group and commonly known as carboxylic acid.
They are also hydrogen ion donor which results the formation of carboxylate ion in solution such as formic acid (HCOOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), propanoic acid (CH3CH2COOH) etc.
Some common examples of mineral acids are hydrochloric acid (HCl), nitric acid (HNO3), phosphoric acid (H3PO4), sulphuric acid (H2SO4), boric acid (H3BO3), hydrofluoric acid (HF), hydrobromic acid (HBr) and perchloric acid (HClO4¬).
The solution of inorganic acids contains the hydrogen ions which show the ability to neutralise the basic or alkaline solution. It shows a certain color with appropriate indicator.
They can exit in gaseous or solid state also for example HCl can exit in both gaseous and liquid state. The anhydrides of inorganic acids are oxides of metalloid which can react with water to form an inorganic acid.
For example; The reaction of sulphur with oxygen results the formation of sulphur dioxide. The combination of sulphur dioxide with water forms sulphuric acid.
Let’s discuss some common applications of mineral acids. They are mainly used as intermediates and catalysts in several chemical reactions. They are also used in dye-stuff, metal- and woodworking, petroleum, textile and photography.
The aqueous solution of Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is used for the acidification in various industries, for refining ores of metals such as Sn & Ta, for the conversion of cornstarch to syrup and for the removal of scale from boilers.
It also acts as tanning agent in the leather industry. H2SO4 is mainly used in the manufacturing of parchment paper, extraction of uranium, purification of petroleum, and steel pickling, refining of vegetable oil and carbonization of wool fabrics.
Both H2SO4 and HClO4 are used in the explosives industry which Sulphamic acid acts as flame retardant in the wood and textile industries.
It is also a good bleaching agent and bactericide in the paper-pulp industry.