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World energy resources and consumption

In 2008, total worldwide energy consumption was 474 exajoules () with 80 to 90 percent derived from the combustion of fossil fuels. This is equivalent to an average power consumption rate of 15 terawatts (). Not all of the world's economies track their energy consumption with the same rigor, and the exact energy content of a barrel of oil or a ton of coal will vary with quality.

Despite advances in efficiency and sustainability, of all the energy created since the industrial revolution, more than half has been consumed in the last two decades.

In 2009, world energy consumption decreased for the first time in 30 years (-1.1%) or 130Mtoe, as a result of the financial and economic crisis (GDP drop by 0.6% in 2009). This evolution is the result of two contrasting trends. Energy consumption growth remained vigorous in several developing countries, specifically in Asia (+4%). Conversely, in OECD, consumption was severely cut by 4.7% in 2009 and was thus almost down to its 2000 levels. In North America, Europe and CIS, consumptions shrank by 4.5%, 5% and 8.5% respectively due to the slowdown in economic activity. China became the world's largest energy consumer (18% of the total) since its consumption surged by 8% during 2009 (from 4% in 2008). Oil remained the largest energy source (33%) despite the fact that its share has been decreasing over time. Coal posted a growing role in the world's energy consumption: in 2009, it accounted for 27% of the total.

Most of the world's energy resources are from the sun's rays hitting earth. Some of that energy has been preserved as fossil energy, some is directly or indirectly usable; for example, via wind, hydro- or wave power. The term solar constant is the amount of incoming solar electromagnetic radiation per unit area, measured on the outer surface of Earth's atmosphere, in a plane perpendicular to the rays. The solar constant includes all types of solar radiation, not just visible light. It is measured by satellite to be roughly 1366 watts per square meter, though it fluctuates by about 6.9% during a year—from in early January to in early July, due to the Earth's varying distance from the sun, and by a few parts per thousand from day to day. For the whole Earth, with a cross section of , the total energy rate is 174 petawatts (), plus or minus 3.5%. This value is the total rate of solar energy received by the planet; about half, 89 PW, reaches the Earth's surface.

The estimates of remaining non-renewable worldwide energy resources vary, with the remaining fossil fuels totaling an estimated 0.4 YJ (1 YJ = 1024J) and the available nuclear fuel such as uranium exceeding 2.5 YJ. Fossil fuels range from 0.6-3 YJ if estimates of reserves of methane clathrates are accurate and become technically extractable. Mostly thanks to the Sun, the world also has a renewable usable energy flux that exceeds 120 PW (8,000 times 2004 total usage), or 3.8 YJ/yr, dwarfing all non-renewable resources.

Consumption

Primary energy

The United StatesEnergy Information Administration regularly publishes a report on world consumption for most types of primary energy resources.

Fossil fuels

The twentieth century saw a rapid twentyfold increase in the use of fossil fuels. Between 1980 and 2006, the worldwide annual growth rate was 2%. According to the US Energy Information Administration's 2006 estimate, the estimated 471.8 EJ total consumption in 2004 was divided as follows, with fossil fuels supplying 86% of the world's energy:

Coal fueled the industrial revolution in the 18th and 19th century. With the advent of the automobile, airplanes and the spreading use of electricity, oil became the dominant fuel during the twentieth century. The growth of oil as the largest fossil fuel was further enabled by steadily dropping prices from 1920 until 1973. After the oil shocks of 1973 and 1979, during which the price of oil increased from 5 to 45 US dollars per barrel, there was a shift away from oil. Coal, natural gas, and nuclear became the fuels of choice for electricity generation and conservation measures increased energy efficiency. In the U.S. the average car more than doubled the number of miles per gallon. Japan, which bore the brunt of the oil shocks, made spectacular improvements and now has the highest energy efficiency in the world. From 1965 to 2008, the use of fossil fuels has continued to grow and their share of the energy supply has increased. From 2003 to 2008, coal, which is one of the dirtiest sources of energy, was the fastest growing fossil fuel..

Nuclear power

As of December 2009, the world had 436 reactors. Since commercial nuclear energy began in the mid 1950s, 2008 was the first year that no new nuclear power plant was connected to the grid, although two were connected in 2009.

Annual generation of nuclear power has been on a slight downward trend since 2007, decreasing 1.8% in 2009 to 2558 TWh with nuclear power meeting 13–14% of the world's electricity demand.

Renewable energy

In 2008, renewable energy supplied around 19% of the world's energy consumption. The renewables sector has been growing significantly since the last years of the 20th century, and in 2009 the total new investment was estimated to have been 150 billion US dollars. This resulted in an additional 80 GW of capacity during the year.

Hydropower

Worldwide hydroelectricity installed capacity reached 816 GW in 2005, consisting of 750 GW of large plants, and 66 GW of small hydro installations. Large hydro capacity totaling 10.9 GW was added by China, Brazil and India during the year, but there was a much faster growth (8%) small hydro, with 5 GW added, mostly in China where some 58% of the world's small hydro plants are now located. China is the largest hydro power producer in the world, and continues to add capacity. In the Western world, although Canada is the largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world, the construction of large hydro plants has stagnated due to environmental concerns. The trend in both Canada and the United States has been to micro hydro because it has negligible environmental impacts and opens up many more locations for power generation. In Briti

Genetically modified food

Genetically modified foods (or GM foods) are foods derived from genetically modified organisms. Genetically modified organisms have had specific changes introduced into their DNA by genetic engineering techniques. These techniques are much more precise. than mutagenesis (mutation breeding) where an organism is exposed to radiation or chemicals to create a non-specific but stable change. Other techniques by which humans modify food organisms include selective breeding; plant breeding, and animal breeding, and somaclonal variation.

GM foods were first put on the market in the early 1990s. Typically, genetically modified foods are transgenic plant products: soybean, corn, canola, and cotton seed oil. Animal products have also been developed, although as of July 2010 none are currently on the market. In 2006 a pig was controversially engineered to produce omega-3 fatty acids through the expression of a roundworm gene. Researchers have also developed a genetically-modified breed of pigs that are able to absorb plant phosphorus more efficiently, and as a consequence the phosphorus content of their manure is reduced by as much as 60%.

Critics have objected to GM foods on several grounds, including safety issues, ecological concerns, and economic concerns raised by the fact that these organisms are subject to intellectual property law.

Method

Genetic modification involves the insertion or deletion of genes. In the process of cisgenesis, genes are artificially transferred between organisms that could be conventionally bred. In the process of transgenesis, genes from a different species are inserted, which is a form of horizontal gene transfer. In nature this can occur when exogenous DNA penetrates the cell membrane for any reason. To do this artificially may require transferring genes as part of an attenuated virus genome or physically inserting the extra DNA into the nucleus of the intended host using a microsyringe, or as a coating on gold nanoparticles fired from a gene gun. However, other methods exploit natural forms of gene transfer, such as the ability of Agrobacterium to transfer genetic material to plants, and the ability of lentiviruses to transfer genes to animal cells.

Development

The first commercially grown genetically modified whole food crop was a tomato (called FlavrSavr), which was modified to ripen without softening, by Calgene, later a subsidiary of Monsanto. Calgene took the initiative to obtain FDA approval for its release in 1994 without any special labeling, although legally no such approval was required. It was welcomed by consumers who purchased the fruit at a substantial premium over the price of regular tomatoes. However, production problems and competition from a conventionally bred, longer shelf-life variety prevented the product from becoming profitable. A tomato produced using similar technology to the Flavr Savr was used by Zeneca to produce tomato paste which was sold in Europe during the summer of 1996. The labeling and pricing were designed as a marketing experiment, which proved, at the time, that European consumers would accept genetically engineered foods. Currently, there are a number of food species in which a genetically modified version exists (percent modified are mostly 2009/2010 data).

In addition, various genetically engineered micro-organisms are routinely used as sources of enzymes for the manufacture of a variety of processed foods. These include alpha-amylase from bacteria, which converts starch to simple sugars, chymosin from bacteria or fungi that clots milk protein for cheese making, and pectinesterase from fungi which improves fruit juice clarity.

Growing GM crops

Between 1997 and 2009, the total surface area of land cultivated with GMOs had increased by a factor of 80, from 17,000 km2 (4.2 million acres) to 1,340,000 km2 (331 million acres).

Although most GM crops are grown in North America, in recent years there has been rapid growth in the area sown in developing countries. For instance in 2009 the largest increase in crop area planted to GM crops (soybeans) was in Brazil (214,000 km2 in 2009 versus 158,000 km2 in 2008.) There has also been rapid and continuing expansion of GM cotton varieties in India since 2002. (Cotton is a major source of vegetable cooking oil and animal feed.) In 2009 84,000 km2 of GM cotton were harvested in India.

In India, GM cotton yields in Andhra Pradesh were no better than non-GM cotton in 2002, the first year of commercial GM cotton planting. This was because there was a severe drought in Andhra Pradesh that year and the parental cotton plant used in the genetic engineered variant was not well suited to extreme drought. Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu had an average 42% increase in yield with GM cotton in the same year. Drought resistant variants were developed and, with the substantially reduced losses to insect predation, by 2009 87% of Indian cotton was GM. Though disputed the economic and environmental benefits of GM cotton in India to the individual farmer have been documented.

In 2009, countries that grew 95% of the global transgenic crops were the United States (46%), Brazil (16%), Argentina (15%), India (6%), Canada (6%), China (3%), Paraguay (2%) and South Africa

Sustainable agriculture

Sustainable agriculture is the practice of farming using principles of ecology, the study of relationships between organisms and their environment. It has been defined as "an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will last over the long term:

  • Satisfy human food and fiber needs
  • Make the most efficient use of non-renewable resources and on-farm resources and integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls
  • Sustain the economic viability of farm operations
  • Enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole.â€�

Sustainable Agriculture in the United States was addressed by the 1990 farm bill. More recently, as consumer and retail demand for sustainable products has risen, organizations such as Food Alliance and Protected Harvest have started to provide measurement standards and certification programs for what constitutes a sustainably grown crop.

Farming and Natural Resources

The physical aspects of sustainability are partly understood. Practices that can cause long-term damage to soil include excessive tillage (leading to erosion) and irrigation without adequate drainage (leading to salinization). Long-term experiments have provided some of the best data on how various practices affect soil properties essential to sustainability. There is a federal agency, USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service that specializes in providing technical and financial assistance for those interested in pursing natural resource conservation and production agriculture as compatible goals.

The most important factors for an individual site are sun, air, soil and water. Of the four, water and soil quality and quantity are most amenable to human intervention through time and labour.

Although air and sunlight are available everywhere on Earth, crops also depend on soilnutrients and the availability of water. When farmers grow and harvest crops, they remove some of these nutrients from the soil. Without replenishment, land suffers from nutrient depletion and becomes either unusable or suffers from reduced yields. Sustainable agriculture depends on replenishing the soil while minimizing the use of non-renewable resources, such as natural gas (used in converting atmospheric nitrogen into synthetic fertilizer), or mineral ores (e.g., phosphate). Possible sources of nitrogen that would, in principle, be available indefinitely, include:

  1. recycling crop waste and livestock or treated humanmanure
  2. growing legume crops and forages such as peanuts or alfalfa that form symbioses with nitrogen-fixingbacteria called rhizobia
  3. industrial production of nitrogen by the Haber Process uses hydrogen, which is currently derived from natural gas, (but this hydrogen could instead be made by electrolysis of water using electricity (perhaps from solar cells or windmills)) or
  4. genetically engineering (non-legume) crops to form nitrogen-fixing symbioses or fix nitrogen without microbial symbionts.

The last option was proposed in the 1970s, but is only recently becoming feasible. Sustainable options for replacing other nutrient inputs (phosphorus, potassium, etc.) are more limited.

More realistic, and often overlooked, options include long-term crop rotations, returning to natural cycles that annually flood cultivated lands (returning lost nutrients indefinitely) such as the Flooding of the Nile, the long-term use of biochar, and use of crop and livestock landraces that are adapted to less than ideal conditions such as pests, drought, or lack of nutrients.

Crops that require high levels of soil nutrients can be cultivated in a more sustainable manner if certain fertilizer management practices are adhered to.

Water

In some areas, sufficient rainfall is available for crop growth, but many other areas require irrigation. For irrigation systems to be sustainable they require proper management (to avoid salinization) and must not use more water from their source than is naturally replenished, otherwise the water source becomes, in effect, a non-renewable resource. Improvements in water well drilling technology and submersible pumps combined with the development of drip irrigation and low pressure pivots have made it possible to regularly achieve high crop yields where reliance on rainfall alone previously made this level of success unpredictable. However, this progress has come at a price, in that in many areas where this has occurred, such as the Ogallala Aquifer, the water is being used at a greater rate than its rate of recharge.

Several steps should be taken to develop drought-resistant farming systems even in "normal" years, including both policy and management actions: 1) improving water conservation and storage measures, 2) providing incentives for selection of drought-tolerant crop species, 3) using reduced-volume irrigation systems, 4) managing crops to reduce water loss, or 5) not planting at all.

Soil

Soil erosion is fast becoming the one of the worlds greatest problems. It is estimated that "more than a thousand million tonnes of southern Africa's soil are eroded every year. Experts predict that crop yields will be halved within thirty to fifty years if erosion continues at present rates." Soil erosion is not unique to Africa but is occurring worldwide. The phenomenon is being called Peak Soil as present large scale factory farming techniques are jeop


From Yahoo Answers

Question:Cultivation of two or more crops together in the same field is 1. Mixed Cropping 2. Intercropping 3. crop rotation 4. all the above

Answers:4. all the above. Mixed cropping is growing of two or more crops simultaneously, Inter cropping is growing of different crops in close proximity, Crop rotation is growing of different crops in subsequent seasons.

Question:Is it possible if all our governments , developed nations collectively lease the land , irrespective of political boundaries and start investing , growing crops ? This is some thing like , sharing the resources among us.

Answers:I have read somewhere in doctor clinic- prevention is better than cure, means if we save some money than it equal to earn money. This formula is also apply in food, normally we waste lots of food, stop wasting. # Step 1 Increase educational opportunities. Only 33 percent of farmers were high school graduates in 1964; by 1990, the number was 67 percent. Farmers will need to deal with increasingly complex agricultural practices and systems. # Step 2 Continue development of disease-resistant seed and plants and do more research on pesticides. From 1948-1996, pesticide use increased 6.42 percent per year, resulting in increased crop yields. # Step 3 Be aware of both positive and negative impacts on productivity. Fertilizer has increased crop yields but there are now more than 400 dead zones in the oceans where fish cannot live because of oxygen depletion, primarily caused by plant fertilizer contamination. # Step 4 Take care of agricultural land. More than 20 percent of the world's cultivated areas have severe land degradation caused by nutrient depletion, erosion and loss of water retention capacity. Reforestation and improved management is bringing some degraded lands back into productivity in North America, Europe and China, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization

Question:full details on agriculture: what methods they use? how do they cultivate? different crops they cultivate? what does the government provide them?

Answers:Sorry you will have to do some hard work and research on your own if you want to deserve those high marks :-) Type "agriculture in India" on www.google.com www.indianchild.com for background Agriculture in India is the means of livelihood of almost two thirds of the work force in the country. It has always been INDIA'S most important economic sector. The 1970s saw a huge increase in India's wheat production that heralded the Green Revolution in the country. The increase in post -independence agricultural production has been brought about by bringing additional area under cultivation, extension of irrigation facilities, use of better seeds, better techniques, water management, and plant protection. Dependence on India agricultural imports in the early 1960s convinced planners that India's growing population, as well as concerns about national independence, security, and political stability, required self-sufficiency in food production. This perception led to a program of agricultural improvement called the Green Revolution, to a public distribution system, and to price supports for farmers. The growth in food-grain production is a result of concentrated efforts to increase all the Green Revolution inputs needed for higher yields: better seed, more fertilizer, improved irrigation, and education of farmers. Although increased irrigation has helped to lessen year-to-year fluctuations in farm production resulting from the vagaries of the monsoons, it has not eliminated those fluctuations. Non traditional crops of India, such as summer mung (a variety of lentil, part of the pulse family), soyabeans, peanuts, and sunflowers, were gradually gaining importance. Steps have been taken to ensure an increase in the supply of non-chemical fertilizers at reasonable prices. There are 53 fertilizer quality control laboratories in the country. Realizing the importance of Indian agricultural production for economic development, the central Government of India has played an active role in all aspects of agricultural development. Planning is centralized, and plan priorities, policies, and resource allocations are decided at the central level. Food and price policy also are decided by the central government. Thus, although agriculture in India is constitutionally the responsibility of the states rather than the central government, the latter plays a key role in formulating policy and providing financial resources for agriculture. Expansion in crop production, therefore, has to come almost entirely from increasing yields on lands already in some kind of agricultural use. The monsoons, however, play a critical role in Indian agriculture in determining whether the harvest will be bountiful, average, or poor in any given year. One of the objectives of government policy in the early 1990s was to find methods of reducing this dependence on the monsoons. (above is from the website). BELOW IS MY OWN HARD WORK :-) One extremely ambitious plan hopes to link the rivers of India. Indian agriculture is fragmented into small land holdings. A lost of the work is therefor manual and not mecahnised. These small plots are cultivated by individuals using ploughs pulled by oxen. Agriculture is heavily dependent on water. Obviously the more regular the availability of water the more the number of crops that can be raised over a one year period. India's rural economy is heavily dependent on adequate rains during the monsoon season. Some larger farms do use mechanised ploughs pulled by mechanical tractors. Of course the first priority is to cultivate food crops like rice (boiled and eaten) and wheat (ground and baked as flat bread) which are the staple diet of Indians. Thereafter the farmer can consider growing "cash" crops for sale like cane (for sugar), oilseeds (edible oils), fibre (cottonseed), vegetables and fruit (horticulture). Milk production is also a huge rural activity. Government tries to support the farmer to the fullest extent possible. Most important all agricultural income is TAX FREE. Government provides subsidised inputs like seeds and fertiliser. It often guarantees a minimum purchase price (taking into account the cost of inputs). Government helps to develop water resources by building dams and canals. Sometimes (as a populist vote catching measure) it even waives off the farmer's water and electricity bills.

Question:Okay people I need to know if these answers are right so could u please check my work an if I got any wrong tell me the num# an correct answer I really need to pass with an A an I am trying my hardiest but this subject just aint for me. (MY ANSWERS ARE AT THE BOTTOM) 1. As the ocean floor spreads, other parts plunge into the mantle. This process is called A. subduction. B. plate tectonics. C. continental drift. D. paradigm shift. 2. Which one of the following is an example of a nonrenewable resource? A. Coal B. Wood C. Topsoil D. Water 3. The speed of P-waves and S-waves can help seismologists to determine the A. size of an earthquake. B. energy of an earthquake. C. distance to the epicenter of an earthquake. D. location of an earthquake. 4. Which one of the following types of volcanoes would be the most explosive? A. Volcanoes that contain small amounts of water B. Volcanoes that have thin magma C. Volcanoes that contain small amounts of carbon dioxide D. Volcanoes that have large amounts of silica 5. Mountains that formed when two continents collided are the A. Himalayas. B. Alps. C. Appalachian Mountains. D. Teton Mountains. 6. The place on Earth's surface directly above the point where movement first occurs in an earthquake is called the A. focus. B. stress point. C. deformation. D. epicenter. 7. The area where two neighboring tectonic plates move away from one another is called an area's _______ boundary. A. divergent B. convergent C. transform D. paradigm 8. Where do most volcanoes form? A. Along plate boundaries B. In the center of major continents C. Anywhere in the ocean floor D. In the North American continent 9. Fossil fuels are made from A. minerals. B. plants and animals. C. inorganic matter. D. water and gases. 10. Because of the high temperatures and extreme pressure, the rocks in the asthenosphere are A. soft and flowing. B. dense and solid. C. brittle and thick. D. molten and liquidy. 11. The Richter scale measures A. magnitude. B. intensity. C. distance. D. location. 12. Suppose the highest point in a landscape is 2,000 meters above sea level. The lowest point in the same landscape is 500 meters. The relief of this landscape is _______ meters. A. 400 B. 1,500 C. 2,500 D. 10,000 13. A mineral commonly used for melting ice on slippery winter surfaces is A. feldspar. B. hematite. C. halite. D. garnet. 14. What type of volcano has alternate layers of ash and lava? A. Shield B. Cinder cone C. Composite D. Caldera 15. Which one of the following pieces of evidence did Wegener use to support his theory of continental drift? A. The mid-ocean ridge is sinking into the ocean trenches. B. A similar fossil was found in Africa, South America, Australia, India, and Antarctica. C. The rock in the ocean floor is magnetized in the same direction. D. The age of the rocks in the sea floor is all the same. 16. Green plants produce oxygen and food through a process called A. burning. B. decay. C. respiration. D. photosynthesis. 17. The landform with the highest elevation is the A. valley. B. plateau. C. plain. D. mountain. 18. The largest layer of Earth is the A. crust. B. mantle. C. outer core. D. inner core. 19. How have scientists determined that the outer core of Earth is liquid? A. P-waves speed up in the outer core. B. P-waves don't travel through the outer core. C. S-waves come to a complete stop in the outer core. D. S-waves slow down and then speed up in the outer core. 20. The most common way for mountains to form is when A. two plates come together. B. folding occurs during plate collisions. C. two continents collide. D. volcanoes erupt. (1)A (2)A (3)C (4)D (5)A (6)D (7)A (8)A (9)B (10)A? (11)A? (12)B (13)C (14)C (15)B (16)D (17)D (18)B (19)D (20)A If you can please go to my other questions and look those over as well, Thank you

Answers:we had all the same answers except i had a D for number 10....but if it was me i would put a question mark after my answer too.... hope it helps

From Youtube

Rural Challenges: Case Studies from South India :27 mins/ 14-18/ 2010 We visit several communities in Tamil Nadu to look at the causes of rural poverty. The resource covers the role of land ownership, subsistence farming, the caste system, climate, globalisation, lack of access to basic services, the plight of women. The programme shows the impacts of this poverty and what life is like in a poor rural area. It goes on to look at various ways this poverty can be alleviated, including: providing better access to education, health, improving farming methods, micro-credit schemes aimed at women and care of the orphan Elders left behind as the young migrate to the city. Teachers GuidanceExam board specification links The following links show how this programme matches different GCSE and AS/A2 specifications. 1GCSE specifications AQA GCSE Geography A Unit 2 The Development Gap *The role of international aid donors in encouraging sustainable development. * A case study of one development project. Edexcel GCSE Geography B Unit 2 Topic 6 Changing Countryside *An overview of the issues facing a rural area in a developing country eg changing farm economy or landholdings; changes in the global or national economy, or to food production. *Evaluate initiatives in a rural area in a developing country designed to address one or more of the issues above. Assess how this rural area could develop more sustainably in future. Unit 2 Topic 7 Development dilemmas *How economic development has led to economic differences within one developing ...

Paddy field in Gujarat (India) :(EN) Rice is the seed of the monocot plant Oryza sativa. As a cereal grain, it is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East and South Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and the West Indies. It is the grain with the second-highest worldwide production, after maize (corn).[1] Since a large portion of maize crops are grown for purposes other than human consumption, rice is the most important grain with regard to human nutrition and caloric intake, providing more than one fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by the human species.[2] A traditional food plant in Africa, its cultivation declined in colonial times, but its production has the potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development and support sustainable landcare. It helped Africa conquer its famine of 1203.[3] Rice is normally grown as an annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial and can produce a ratoon crop for up to 30 years.[4] The rice plant can grow to 1--1.8 m (3.3--5.9 ft) tall, occasionally more depending on the variety and soil fertility. It has long, slender leaves 50--100 cm (20--39 in) long and 2--2.5 cm (0.79--0.98 in) broad. The small wind-pollinated flowers are produced in a branched arching to pendulous inflorescence 30--50 cm (12--20 in) long. The edible seed is a grain (caryopsis) 5--12 mm (0.20--0.47 in) long and 2--3 mm (0.079--0.12 in) thick. Rice cultivation is well-suited to ...