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Library classification

A library classification is a system of coding and organizing library materials (books, serials, audiovisual materials, computer files, maps, manuscripts, realia) according to their subject and allocating a call number to that information resource. Similar to classification systems used in biology, bibliographic classification systems group entities together that are similar, typically arranged in a hierarchical tree structure. A different kind of classification system, called a faceted classification system, is also widely used which allows the assignment of multiple classifications to an object, enabling the classifications to be ordered in multiple ways.


Library classification forms part of the field of library and information science. It is a form of bibliographic classification (library classifications are used in library catalogs, while "bibliographic classification" also covers classification used in other kinds of bibliographic databases). It goes hand in hand with library (descriptive) cataloging under the rubric of cataloging and classification, sometimes grouped together as technical services. The library professional who engages in the process of cataloging and classifying library materials is called a cataloguer or catalog librarian. Library classification systems are one of the two tools used to facilitate subject access. The other consists of alphabetical indexing languages such as Thesauri and Subject Headings systems.

Library classification of a piece of work consists of two steps. Firstly the "aboutness" of the material is ascertained. Next, a call number (essentially a book's address), based on the classification system in use at the particular library will be assigned to the work using the notation of the system.

It is important to note that unlike subject heading or thesauri where multiple terms can be assigned to the same work, in library classification systems, each work can only be placed in one class. This is due to shelving purposes: A book can have only one physical place. However in classified catalogs one may have main entries as well as added entries. Most classification systems like the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and Library of Congress classification also add a cutter number to each work which adds a code for the author of the work.

Classification systems in libraries generally play two roles. Firstly they facilitate subject access by allowing the user to find out what works or documents the library has on a certain subject. Secondly, they provide a known location for the information source to be located (e.g. where it is shelved).

Until the 19th century, most libraries had closed stacks, so the library classification only served to organize the subject catalog. In the 20th century, libraries opened their stacks to the public and started to shelve the library material itself according to some library classification to simplify subject browsing.

Some classification systems are more suitable for aiding subject access, rather than for shelf location. For example, UDC which uses a complicated notation including plus, colons are more difficult to use for the purpose of shelf arrangement but are more expressive compared to DDC in terms of showing relationships between subjects. Similarly faceted classification schemes are more difficult to use for shelf arrangement, unless the user has knowledge of the citation order.

Depending on the size of the library collection, some libraries might use classification systems solely for one purpose or the other. In extreme cases a public library with a small collection might just use a classification system for location of resources but might not use a complicated subject classification system. Instead all resources might just be put into a couple of wide classes (Travel, Crime, Magazines etc.). This is known as a "mark and park" classification method, more formally called reader interest classification.


There are many standard system of library classification in use, and many more have been proposed over the years. However in general, Classification systems can be divided into three types depending on how they are used.

In terms of functionality, classification systems are often described as

  • enumerative: produce an alphabetical list of subject headings, assign numbers to each heading in alphabetical order

library classification is the technical process

  • hierarchical: divides subjects hierarchically, from most general to most specific
  • faceted or analytico-synthetic: divides subjects into mutually exclusive orthogonal facets

There are few completely enumerative systems or faceted systems, most systems are a blend but favouring one type or the other. The most common classification systems, LCC and DDC, are essentially enumerative, though with som

Franklin Library

The Franklin Library, the distributing arm of the publishing division, The Franklin Press, of The Franklin Mint, was the United States' largest distributor of great books produced in fine bindings for book collectors, similar to Easton Press, until it closed in 2000. The books were designed and bound by The Sloves Organization, Ltd., an affiliate of the mint, whose bindery was one of the few in the world devoted exclusively to the crafting of fine leather book bindings.

The Franklin Mint purchased the Sloves Book Bindery in New York City to help jumpstart its book division in the 1970s. The most recent book offerings were produced by R.R. Donnelly for The Franklin Library.


From its founding in 1973 until it closed permanently in 2000, the Franklin Library was one of the two largest publishers in the United States of leather bound books. Today, the high quality leather books produced by the Franklin Library are sought after by collectors. The books were arranged in several series consisting of 50-100 books each. Customers subscribed to a particular series and received one book per month, as long as their subscription remained current, until the entire series had been delivered. Thus, it could take over eight years to complete a 100 book set, such as The 100 Greatest Books Ever Written series.

Today, the books can only be acquired on the secondary market. The eBay community is one of the largest online auction sites in which collectors are able to purchase and sell Franklin Library books, both individually and in lots. Most titles are also easily obtainable on abebooks, Biblio.com, Amazon, and similar sites, or from booksellers and bookshops specializing in antiquarian or collectible books.

Although most of the Franklin Library collections were issued in the full leather bindings (at about $28 to $45 per book), some were simultaneously issued in alternate binding materials, such as "faux leather" -- also called "leatherette" or imitation leather ($19 per book). Like the best-bound books, these particular better-bound books were printed on archival paper or acid-free paper to prevent yellowing or tanning. They bindings were gold stamped/decorated and the page edges were gilt in gold to protect the paper from damage due to humidity. Other books (like the Franklin Mystery Series) were issued in quarter bound leather ($9 per book) -- consisting of a "coated cloth" cover with a leather spine.

Some of their earlier, smaller collections were bound in 'bonded leather' (made of leather strips and scraps). This has given rise to a myth that Franklin books bound in other than leather are somehow inferior in publishing standards (such as Easton Press). While some Franklin books are, in fact, not covered in 'real' leather, they are still considered to hold high standards of publishing quality.

Of course, the vast majority of their finer collections were bound in the highest degree of publishing bindings like genuine leather, silk pictorial end-pages and silk ribbons attached for a bookmark (like Easton Press). As a cost-cutting measure, Franklin Library Press went into satin or marbled moiré end sheets and satin ribbons in its Signed First Editions series.

In addition to the cost of the book, subscribers were expected to pay shipping & handling charges as well as sales taxes. As time went on, later subscribers were asked to pay higher prices.

First Editions

Many publishers in the publishing world, including the original publisher of a book, issued "Limited First Editions" of certain books, especially those of popular authors or books that were particularly important due to award nominations, movie deals, or critical acclaim. Consequently, they represent a different category of books as compared to the typical "trade" edition books.

These "Limited First Editions" were issued in limited numbers (about 100 to 1000 and sometimes even more) and they were issued with a particular designation to set them apart by giving them a special distinction such as a special binding, a slipcase, hand-numbering, a signature by the author, or any combination (or all) of the above. Many of these 'special' editions were simultaneously published with the "trade" editions or were done sometimes later.

Some small press publishers actually bought the pages from the original publisher and placed them in a special binding of their own design, had them signed by the author, and had them numbered.

Others, like Easton Press, do their own printing also, using special paper, and they release the "Limited First Edition" up to a year or more after the "trade" edition has been published—something that had made a claim of a true "First Edition" somewhat questionable.

In the case of the Franklin Library, it was their policy to contract for the printing rights of the "First Edition" with both the author and the mass-market publisher first, thus making the Franklin Library edition a "true-first-edition" that was published prior to the "trade" edition. This is something that added considerably to the value of their books. To emphasize this difference or distinction, the Franklin Library "trade" editions bore a statement of "First trade edition" on the copyright page and had a disclaimer stating that "A signed first edition of this book has been privately printed by the Franklin Library Press." Thus, this statement acknowledged that the "First Edition" issued by the Franklin Library Press was indeed the first printing of the book and truly and accurately described as a "first edition."

A question often asked is: What is the difference between the "First Edition" and the "First Signed Edition"? The difference consists in the fact that a "first edition" contained a signed introduction that was printed along with the book, that is, a "print" of the signature but not a 'real' or authentic or personal signature done in ink by hand. The "First Signed Edition" series, something Franklin Library Press started doing in 1983, consisted of a hand-signed authentic and 'real' signature done by the author for that one particular book, usually done on a separate page that was then bound into the book. A separate and loosely placed tissue or onion-skin paper was placed over it to protect the printed pages.

The series

Due to overlapping series themes, the same title may appear in more than one series, but ordinarily with a differently designed binding. Many of the book collections issued by the Franklin Library were "open" or "trade" editions, therefore, no edition figures are available.

Here is a list of the individual series:

100 Greatest Books of All Time (leather, 1974–1982, $28.00; leatherette, 1973–1986, $19.00); First Edition Society (leather, 1976–1980); Pulitzer Prize Classics series (leather, 1975–1982); 100 Greatest Masterpieces of American Literature (leather, 1976–1984, $35.00); 60 Signed Limited Editions ('Signed 60' series, leather, 1977–1982, $45.00) - (the most spectacular collection); Collected Stories of the World's Greatest Writers (leather, 1977–1985); Greatest Books of the Twentieth Century (leather, 1977–1982, $39.00); World's Best-Loved Books (leather, 1977–1986, $39.00); Great Books of the Western World (leather, 1978–1985); World's Great Books Family Library (quarter-bound, 1979–1984); Heirloom Library of the World's Greatest Books (quarter-bound, 1979–1983); Oxford Library of the World's Great Books (leather and quarter-bound, 1981–1985); Great Books of the World's Greatest Writers (cloth, 1981–1985); Signed First Edition Society (leather, 1983–2000);

Classification of discontinuities

Continuous functions are of utmost importance in mathematics and applications. However, not all functions are continuous. If a function is not continuous at a point in its domain, one says that it has a discontinuity there. The set of all points of discontinuity of a function may be a discrete set, a dense set, or even the entire domain of the function.

This article describes the classification of discontinuities in the simplest case of functions of a single real variable taking real values.

Classification of discontinuities

Consider a real valued function ƒ of a real variable x, defined in a neighborhood of the point x0 in which ƒ is discontinuous. Then three situations may be distinguished:

  1. The one-sided limit from the negative direction
    L^{-}=\lim_{x\rarr x_0^{-}} f(x)

    and the one-sided limit from the positive direction

    L^{+}=\lim_{x\rarr x_0^{+}} f(x)

    at x_0 exist, are finite, and are equal to L=L^{-}=L^{+}. Then, if ƒ(x0) is not equal to L, x0 is called a removable discontinuity. This discontinuity can be 'removed to make ƒ continuous at x0', or more precisely, the function

    g(x) = \begin{cases}f(x) & x\ne x_0 \\ L & x = x_0\end{cases}

    is continuous at x=x0.

  2. The limits L^{-} and L^{+} exist and are finite, but not equal. Then, x0 is called a jump discontinuity or step discontinuity. For this type of discontinuity, the function ƒ may have any value in x0.
  3. One or both of the limits L^{-} and L^{+} does not exist or is infinite. Then, x0 is called an essential discontinuity, or infinite discontinuity. (This is distinct from the term essential singularitywhich is used when studyingfunctions of complex variables.)

The term removable discontinuity is sometimes incorrectly used for cases in which the limits in both directions exist and are equal, while the function is undefined at the point x_0. This use is improper because continuity and discontinuity of a function are concepts defined only for points in the function's domain. Such a point not in the domain, is properly named a removable singularity.

The oscillation of a function at a point quantifies these discontinuities as follows:

  • in a removable discontinuity, the distance that the value of the function is off by is the oscillation;
  • in a jump discontinuity, the size of the jump is the oscillation (assuming that the value at the point lies between these limits from the two sides);
  • in an essential discontinuity, oscillation measures the failure of a limit to exist.


1. Consider the function

f(x)=\begin{cases}x^2 & \mbox{ for } x< 1 \\ 0 & \mbox { for } x=1 \\ 2-x& \mbox{ for } x>1\end{cases}

Then, the point x_0=1 is a removable discontinuity.

2. Consider the function

f(x)=\begin{cases}x^2 & \mbox{ for } x< 1 \\ 0 & \mbox { for } x=1 \\ 2-(x-1)^2& \mbox{ for } x>1\end{cases}

Then, the point x_0=1 is a jump discontinuity.

3. Consider the function

f(x)=\begin{cases}\sin\frac{5}{x-1} & \mbox{ for } x< 1 \\ 0 & \mbox { for } x=1 \\ \frac{0.1}{x-1}& \mbox{ for } x>1\end{cases}

Then, the point x_0=1 is an essential discontinuity (sometimes called infinite discontinuity). For it to be an essential discontinuity, it would have sufficed that only one of the two one-sided limits did not exist or were infinite. However, given this example the discontinuity is also an essential discontinuity for the extension of the function into complex variables.

The set of discontinuities of a function

The set of points at which a function is continuous is always a Gδ set. The set of discontinuities is an Fσ set.

The set of discontinuities of a monotonic function is at most countable. This is Froda's theorem.

Thomae's functionis discontinuous at every rational point, but continuous at every irrational point.

The indicator function of the rationals, also known as the Dirichlet function, isdiscontinuous everywhere.

Online Computer Library Center

OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. (OCLC) is "a nonprofit, membership, computer library service and research organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world’s information and reducing information costs". It was incorporated on July 6, 1967 as the not-for-profit Ohio College Library Center. More than 27,000 libraries in 86 countries and territories use OCLC services to locate, acquire, catalog, lend and preserve library materials. The organization was founded by Fred Kilgour, and its head office is located in Dublin, Ohio, U.S.


OCLC provides bibliographic, abstract and full-text information to anyone.

OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog (OPAC) in the world. WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. The Open WorldCat program makes records of library-owned materials in OCLC's WorldCat database available to Web users on popular Internet search, bibliographic, and bookselling sites. In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record.

Until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the [http://www.oclc.org/preservation/default.htm OCLC Preservation Service Center], with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, U.S.

Online database

OCLC has a database for cataloging and searching purposes which is used by librarians and the public. The current computer program, Connexion, was introduced in 2001, and its predecessor, OCLC Passport, was phased out in May 2005.

This database contains records in MAchine Readable Cataloging (MARC) format contributed by library catalogers worldwide who use OCLC as a cataloging tool. These MARC format records are then downloaded into the libraries' local catalog systems. This allows libraries to find and download records for materials to add to their local catalog without the lengthy process of cataloging each individually.

As of February 2007, their database contained over 1.1 billion cataloged items. It is the world's largest bibliographic database. Connexion is available to professional librarians as a computer program or on the web at [http://connexion.oclc.org/ connexion.oclc.org].

WorldCat is available to the public for searching a web-based service called [http://www.oclc.org/firstsearch/ FirstSearch], as well as through the [http://www.worldcat.org/ Open WorldCat] program.

The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988.

WebJunction is a division of OCLC funded by a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

[http://www.oclc.org/questionpoint/default.htm QuestionPoint] reference management service provides libraries with tools to communicate with users. This around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries.

Regional service providers

Regional service providers contract with OCLC to provide support and training for OCLC services. This chart represents only OCLC services.

Company acquisitions

OCLC acquired NetLibrary, the largest electronic content provider, in 2002 and sold it in 2010 to EBSCO Industries. OCLC owns 100% of the shares of OCLC PICA, a library automation systems and services company which has its headquarters in Leiden in the Netherlands and which was renamed "OCLC" at the end of 2007. In June 2006, the Research Libraries Group (RLG) merged into OCLC. On January 11, 2008, OCLC announced that it had purchased EZproxy. It has also acquired OAIster. The process started in January 2009 and from 31 October 2009, OAIster records are freely available via WorldCat.org.

From Yahoo Answers

Question:My mother is doing a report for her grad. classes in library science and wants to know what people think about the importance of libraries in schools. They were not in place until about the 1960's. Does that mean that they were an important introduction or an unnecessary waste of money? Please give me your opinion. Thanks for all your answers, there has been a lot of opposition to putting libraries in schools, some don't even have them yet. Some are very advanced but some have hardly anything at all.

Answers:Numerous studies link student achievement and school libraries. Most recently, a study titled "Canadian School Libraries and Achievement Linked" in the journal "American Libraries", May 2006, Vol. 37 Issue 5, p25-26, revealed that "grade 3 and 6 students in schools with teacher-librarians are more likely to report that they enjoy reading, while schools without trained library staff tend to have lower achievement on the grade 3 and 6 reading tests." Another study titled "Impact of School Library Media Centers on Academic Achievement" in "SLMQ" Volume 22, Number 3, Spring 1994 has as one of its conclusions that "students at schools with better-funded Library media centers tend to achieve higher average reading scores, whether their schools and communities are rich or poor and whether adults in their community are well or poorly educated." This is an exciting conclusions because student achievement is often equated with socio-economic factors in the community. This study seems to indicate that a good school library can help equalize student achievement for rich and poor communities.

Question:Can anyone give me the complete classification of green algae that's found in ponds? I looked it up on wikipedia, but it only gave the kingdom...I'm not really sure which species to choose.

Answers:SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION KINGDOM Plant DIVISION Chlorophyta CLASS Chlorophyceae ORDER Chlorococcales FAMILY Hydrodictyaceae GENUS Pediastrum SPECIES Pediastrum boryanum Pediastrum boryanum and other green algae are important because they convert nitrogen from waste into a form other animals can use. Large amounts of algae in a body of water is also a sign that the water may be polluted. Since green algae does so well in water with lots of waste, there is a good chance that water is polluted when you see a lot of algae. Scientists use this information to identify polluted waters and to try to figure out ways to clean them up. Ecologist and evolutionary biologists have studied the diverse organisms of green algae and had classified under the following categories Chlorophyta: Prasinophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyceae. Streptophyta: Chlorokybales, Klebsormidiales, Zygnematales and Desmidiales, Coleochaetales, Charales, Embryophytes referred as higher plants. Chlorophyta is considered to be grouped as Charophyta which is represented as paraphylectic to higher plants.

Question:1) Why do IR graphs always look so messy? For example, according to literature, alkyne C---C peaks occur in the range between 2100-2260. But sometimes I get several peaks all of the same intensity within the range. How do I know which peak is the one? Does the number of bond stretches in a molecule always correspond to the same number of peaks? 2) I'm only starting out learning about organic synthesis, but I know the some molecules such as synthetic drugs contain very complex structures, with many different bond interactions and functional groups. In theory then, could any conceivable molecule be synthesized? For example, could a molecule with fifty aromatic rings be made as long as it is compatible with bonding principles?

Answers:The previous answer as to why the spectra are complex or "messy" is pretty good. The question is what should you do about it, especially in a situation where you will not have a comparison spectrum available. I would recommend starting from the functional groups that you know, and your text book's list of characteristic peaks for each then sitting down in your library with a book of spectra such as the Aldrich books of IR spectra and look up some examples of compounds containing each functional group so that you can see what they look like. I teach my students to consider three regions of the spectrum. The first is at the left or high frequency end between about 4000 and about 1400 cm-1 where most functional groups have characteristic absorptions. Look at the shapes of the bands and their strengths. The C_H stretch of a terminal alkyne and the O-H stretch of an H-bonded alcohol are in the same region, but one is strong and sharp and the other strong and broad. You can distinguish the C-H from the O-H in a glance. The fingerprint region from 1400 down to 1000 often has a lot of absorptions in it, but most are hard to intrpret or of limited value. However, if you see the O-H band, a second band in this region can often distinguish the classification of alcohol. The region from about1000 down to 600 is also rich in absorptions, but the stron C-H bends for sp2 C-H bonds are very useful for determining how and alkene or arene is substituted. Don't try to interpret every absorption. Learn the characteristic absorptions in the high energy end and how they look, but only go to the rest of the spectrum to look for specific things. In general, at the beginning level, choose stronger peaks over weaker ones. With the tools available to the modern synthetic organic chemist, it has been possible to synthesize some incredibly complex structures, usually because nature had synthexized them first. Specific cases have specific problems to be overcome. For example, the proposed 50 aromatic ring structuremay prove to be a challenge because structures along the way may not be soluble in any solvent suitable for the next step. Solving the problems encountered in a complex synthesis is one of the things synthetic chemists do to advance the science. It is alos the part that makes being a synthetic chemist fun!!

Question:2) What difference does the number of kingdoms that are assigned make? 3) What is the reason for the different classification systems?

Answers:There are two reasons for classifying organisms: 1. scientific communication 2. advancing scientific knowledge Communication is easier if we all agree on what names to give a species. For example, Homo sapiens is recognized world wide as the scientific name for modern humans. That facilitates scientific communication, and it also allows researchers to find information quickly on what has been published about Homo sapiens. Since science builds upon existing knowledge, knowing what has already been discovered makes it easier to add to that knowledge. 2) It really does not matter how many kingdoms there are, because taxonomic ranks such as kingdom or empire are arbitrary. However, it would help if scientists can agree how many kingdoms there should be and which organisms should belong to which kingdom. 3) The reason for different classification systems is basically a difference in philosophy. Some biologists, who are known as cladists, believe that a taxon should consist of a single ancestor and all of its descendants. Other biologists, known as Darwinians since they are followers of Charles Darwin, believe that a taxon need not consist of all of the descendants of a common ancestor. As Darwin puts it, evolution is descent with modification. That means there is no evolution if there is no modification. Since there is modification, it is important to codify the amount of modification that has evolved. For example, all life on earth evolved from a common ancestor. However, there are some forms of life that has been modified so much that they should be placed in a different taxon than their ancestor and also life forms that resemble the ancestor more closely than they do. For example, most scientists recognize a taxon known as Eukaryota because these organisms, known commonly as eukaryotes, are so different from their prokaryotic ancestors and other prokaryotes, that they merit being placed in a different taxon. Hence the Darwinians advocate recognizing Prokaryota and Eukaryota as separate. Similarly Darwinians argue that birds and mammals are so different from reptiles that they should be classified in different taxa than reptiles. Darwinians therefore suggest recognizing Class Reptilia, Class Aves and Class Mammalia. The cladists, OTOH, think differently. Most of them choose to classify Aves and Reptilia in the same taxon, and they want to put mammals, therapsid reptiles and synapsid reptiles in the taxon Mammalia. As one can see, birds and reptiles being placed in the same taxon creates a heterogeneous taxon since birds are so different in many ways than reptiles such as turtles, lizards and snakes. Birds are, for example, feathered, and they are endothermic. Reptiles, OTOH, lack feathers and they are ectotherms. The cladists' "Mammalia" is also heterogeneous, as the synapsids and therapsids have more in common with reptiles than they do mammals. Synapsids and therapsids, for example, do not have hair. Since these different schools of taxonomic thought have irreconcilable differences, we have different classification systems being practiced by different schools, with no compromise possible. Because of these differences, taxonomic chaos has become the norm in recent years. There is a plethora of new names being proposed by the cladists, and many of these names are totally unnecessary, and they in fact makes scientific communication more difficult, if not impossible. In the process, it has also made scientific progress more difficult, as it has become much more difficult to retrieve published information because of the proliferation of names.

From Youtube

Fundamental Categories in Library Classification :Fundamental Categories in Library Classification

Postulational Approach To Library Classification :Postulational Approach To Library Classification