hydrogenation of oleic acid
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Oleic acid is a mono-unsaturatedomega-9fatty acid in various animals and vegetables. It has the formula CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH. It is an odorless, colourless oil. The trans-isomer of oleic acid is called elaidic acid (hence the name elaidinization for a reaction that switches cis-isomers to trans-isomers). The term Oleic means related to, or derived from, oil or olive.
Triglyceride esters of oleic acid compose the majority of olive oil, although there may be less than 2.0% as actual free acid in the virgin olive oil, with higher concentrations making the olive oil inedible. It also makes up 59-75% of pecan oil, 36-67% of peanut oil, 15-20% of grape seed oil, sea buckthorn oil, and sesame oil, and 14% of poppyseed oil. It is also abundantly present in many animal fats, constituting between 37-56% of chicken and turkey fat, 44-47% of lard, etc.
Oleic acid is the most abundant fatty acid in human adipose tissue.
As an insect pheromone
Oleic acid is emitted by the decaying corpses of a number of insects, including bees and Pogonomyrmexants and triggers the instincts of living workers to remove the dead bodies from the hive. If a live bee or ant is daubed with oleic acid, it is dragged off as if it were dead. The oleic acid smell indicates to living insects how to avoid others that have succumbed to disease or places where predators lurk.
Production and chemical behavior
Oleic acid exhibits many of the reactions of carboxylic acids and alkenes. It is soluble in aqueous base to give salts called oleates. Iodine adds across the double bond. Hydrogenation of the double bond yields the saturated derivative called stearic acid. Oxidation at the double bond occurs slowly in air and is known as rancidification in foodstuffs and drying in coatings. Reduction of the carboxylic acid group yields oleyl alcohol. Ozonolysis of oleic acid is an important route to azelaic acid. The coproduct is nonanoic acid:
- H17C8CH=CHC7H14CO2H + 4"O" â†’ H17C8CO2H + HO2CC7H14CO2H
Esters of azelaic acid find applications in lubrication and plasticizers.
As an excipient in pharmaceuticals, oleic acid is used as an emulsifying or solubilizing agent in aerosol products.
Oleic acid may hinder the progression of ALD, or adrenoleukodystrophy, a fatal disease that affects the brain and adrenal glands. Oleic and monounsaturated fatty acid levels in the membranes of red blood cells have been associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Oleic acid may be responsible for the hypotensive (blood pressure reducing) effects of olive oil.
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Answers:The caboxylic end exists as the the carboxylate anion and is chelated to the hydrogen atoms of water which have a slight +ve charge.
Answers:Formula: you more or less answered your question yourself. It is any combination of glycerine esters with any combination of these acids. Reaction with NaOH is saponification, resulting in glycerine and the free acids (or more specifically, acid rests as dissolved salts). Reaction with hydrogen in the presence of Pt or Raney-Ni as catalysts will ultimately produce the triglycerides of the corresponding saturated acids. This is known as "hardening" of fats since saturated fatty acids tend to produce solid fats whereas unsaturated fatty acid triglycerides of comparable mass remain liquid at the same temperatures. Reaction with bromine will result in electrophile addition of Bromine on the double bonds of the unsaturated acids.
Answers:Palmitic acid is already a saturated fatty acid of 16 carbon atoms. The other two are 18 carbon-fatty acids with different degrees of unsaturation. So, the answer is (E) saturated fat with one palmitic acid and two stearic acids.
Answers:high oleic acid is from sun flower oil 21%and safflower contain 13% olive oil is rich source of oleic acidof 75%.