hydrogenation of 2 butene
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2-Butene is an acyclic alkene with four carbon atoms. It is the simplest alkene to shown cis/trans-isomerism (also known as (E/Z)-isomerism); that is, it exists as two geometrical isomers cis-2-butene ((Z)-2-butene), shown at the right, and trans-2-butene ((E)-2-butene), not shown.
It is a petrochemical, produced by the catalytic cracking of crude oil. Its main uses are in the production of gasoline (petrol) and butadiene, although some 2-butene is also used to produce the solvent butanone via hydration to 2-butanol followed by oxidation.
The two isomers are extremely difficult to separate by distillation because of the proximity of their boiling points (4 Â°C for cis and 1 Â°C for trans). The more elongated trans-molecule which has a tougher job to get its tail free from the liquid has the higher boiling point, the more rounded cis isomer escapes easier, thus having a lower boiling piont. However, separation is unnecessary in most industrial settings, as both isomers behave similarly in most of the desired reactions. A typical industrial 2-butene mixture is 70% (Z)-2-butene (cis-isomer) and 30% (E)-2-butene (trans-isomer). Butane and 1-butene are common impurities, present at 1% or more in industrial mixtures, which also contain smaller amounts of isobutene, butadiene and butyne.
1-Butene is stable in itself but polymerizes exothermically. It is highly flammable and readily forms explosive mixtures with air. It is, however, incompatible with: Metal salts, fluorine and other halogens, nitrogen oxides, boron trifluoride, hydrohalic acids, and strong oxidizing agents.
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Answers:e) 2-iodo-2-isopropylbutane; via a Markovnikov addition
Answers:C4H8 + H2 -> C4H10 1 mole of the alkene uses 1 mole of hydrogen moles of butene in 65 g = 65 / 56.10 = 1.15 moles moles of hydrogen = 1.15 moles = 1.15 x 2.016 = 2.318 g
Answers:The molar mass is about 56 g/mol (13,000 g)/(56 g/mol) = 232.14 mol There is one double bond per molecule, so you want to hydrogenate 232.24 mol of double bonds, for which you need 232.14 mol of H , or about 464.3 g of H : CH CH=CH CH + H CH CH CH CH
Answers:C4H8 --> C4H10 The molecular weight of butene is 4 x 12 + 8 x 1 = 56g/mole 30.0g / 56g/mole = 0.536 moles 0f butene (all isomers of butene are C4H8) You need 2 moles of hydrogen (1 mole of H2) to hydrogenate each mole of butene, so you need 1.07 moles of H, so 1.07g