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Green Revolution refers to a series of research, development, and technology transfer initiatives, occurring between the 1940s and the late 1970s, that increased agriculture production around the world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s.
The initiatives involved the development of high-yielding varieties of cereal grains, expansion of irrigation infrastructure, modernization of management techniques, distribution of hybridized seeds, synthetic fertilizers, and pesticides to farmers.
The term "Green Revolution" was first used in 1968 by former USAID director William Gaud, who noted the spread of the new technologies and said, "These and other developments in the field of agriculture contain the makings of a new revolution. It is not a violent Red Revolution like that of the Soviets, nor is it a White Revolution like that of the Shah of Iran. I call it the Green Revolution."
The agricultural development begun in Mexico by Norman Borlaug in 1943 had been judged as a success and the Rockefeller Foundation sought to spread it to other nations. The Office of Special Studies in Mexico became an informal international research institution in 1959, and in 1963 it formally became CIMMYT, The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.
In 1961 India was on the brink of mass famine. Borlaug was invited to India by the adviser to the Indian minister of agriculture M. S. Swaminathan. Despite bureaucratic hurdles imposed by India's grain monopolies, the Ford Foundation and Indian government collaborated to import wheat seed from CIMMYT. Punjab was selected by the Indian government to be the first site to try the new crops because of its reliable water supply and a history of agricultural success. India began its own Green Revolution program of plant breeding, irrigation development, and financing of agrochemicals.
India soon adopted IR8 - a semi-dwarf rice variety developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) that could produce more grains of rice per plant when grown with certain fertilizers and irrigation. In 1968, Indian agronomist S.K. De Datta published his findings that IR8 rice yielded about 5 tons per hectare with no fertilizer, and almost 10 tons per hectare under optimal conditions. This was 10 times the yield of traditional rice. IR8 was a success throughout Asia, and dubbed the "Miracle Rice". IR8 was also developed into Semi-dwarf IR36.
In the 1960s, rice yields in India were about two tons per hectare; by the mid-1990s, they had risen to six tons per hectare. In the 1970s, rice cost about $550 a ton; in 2001, it cost under $200 a ton. India became one of the world's most successful rice producers, and is now a major rice exporter, shipping nearly 4.5 million tons in 2006.
IR8 and the Philippines
In 1960, the Government of the Republic of the Philippines with Ford and Rockefeller Foundations established IRRI (International Rice Research Institute). A rice crossing between Dee-Geo-woo-gen and Peta was done at IRRI in 1962. In 1966, one of the breeding lines became a new cultivar, IR8. IR8 required the use of fertilizers and pesticides, but produced substantially higher yields than the traditional cultivars. Annual rice production in the Philippines increased from 3.7 to 7.7 million tonnes in two decades. The switch to IR8 rice made the Philippines a rice exporter for the first time in the 20th century. But the heavy pesticide use reduced the number of fish and frog species found in rice paddies.
In 1970, foundation officials proposed a worldwide network of agricultural research centers under a permanent secretariat. This was further supported and developed by the World Bank; on May 19, 1971, the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research was established, co-sponsored by the FAO, IFAD and UNDP. CGIAR, has added many research centers throughout the world.
CGIAR has responded, at least in part, to criticisms of Green Revolution methodologies. This began in the 1980s, and mainly was a result of pressure from donor organizations. Methods like Agroecosystem Analysis and Farming System Research have been adopted to gain a more holistic view of agriculture. Methods like Rapid Rural Appraisal and Participatory Rural Appraisal have been adopted to help scientists understand the problems faced by farmers and even give farmers a role in the development process.
Problems in Africa
There have been numerous attempts to introduce the successful concepts from the Mexican and Indian projects into Africa. These programs have generally been less successful. Reasons cited include widespread corruption, insecurity, a lack of infrastructure, and a general lack of will on the part of the governments. Yet environmental factors, such as the availability of water for irrigation, the high diversity in slope and soil types in one given area are also reasons why the Green Revolution is not so successful in Africa.
The Green revolution greatly influenced many parts of the world.
A recent program in western Africa is attempting to introduce a new high-yield variety of rice known as "New Rice for Africa"(NERICA). NERICAs yield about 30% more rice under normal conditions, and can double yields with small amounts of fertilizer and very basic irrigation. However the program has been beset by problems getting the rice into the hands of farmers, and to date the only success has been in Guinea where it currently accounts for 16% of rice cultivation.
After a famine in 2001 and years of chronic hunger and poverty, in 2005 the small African country of Malawi launched the Agricultural Input Subsidy Program by which vouchers are given to smallholder farmers to buy
An heirloom plant, heirloom variety, or (especially in the UK) heirloom vegetable is a cultivar that was commonly grown during earlier periods in human history, but which is not used in modern large-scale agriculture. Many heirloom vegetables have kept their traits through open pollination, while fruit varieties such as apples have been propagated over the centuries through grafts and cuttings. The trend of growing heirloom plants in gardens has been growing in popularity in the United States and Europe over the last decade.
Before the industrialization of agriculture, a much wider variety of plant foods was grown for human consumption. In modern agriculture in the industrialized world, most food crops are now grown in large, monocultural plots. In order to maximize consistency, few varieties of each type of crop are grown. These varieties are often selected for their productivity, their ability to withstand mechanical picking and cross-country shipping, and their tolerance to drought, frost, or pesticides. Heirloom gardening is a reaction against this trend. In the Global South, heirloom plants are still widely grown, for example in the home gardens of South and Southeast Asia.
Motivation to grow
Heirloom growers have different motivations. Some people grow heirlooms for historical interest, while others want to increase the available gene pool for a particular plant for future generations. Some select heirloom plants due to an interest in traditional organic gardening. Many simply want to taste the different varieties of vegetables, or see whether they can grow a rare variety of plant.
The definition of the use of the word heirloom to describe plants is highly debated.
One school of thought places an age or date point on the cultivars. For instance, one school says the cultivar must be over 100 years old, others 50 years, and others prefer the date of 1945 which marks the end of World War II and roughly the beginning of widespread hybrid use by growers and seed companies or industrial agriculture. Many gardeners consider 1951 to be the latest year a plant can have originated and still be called an heirloom, since that year marked the widespread introduction of the first hybrid varieties. It was in the 1970s that hybrid seeds began to proliferate in the commercial seed trade. Some heirloom plants are much older, some being apparently pre-historic.
Another way of defining heirloom cultivars is to use the definition of the word "heirloom" in its truest sense. Under this interpretation, a true heirloom is a cultivar that has been nurtured, selected, and handed down from one family member to another for many generations.
Additionally, there is another category of cultivars that could be classified as "commercial heirlooms," cultivars that were introduced many generations ago and were of such merit that they have been saved, maintained and handed down - even if the seed company has gone out of business or otherwise dropped the line. Additionally, many old commercial releases have actually been family heirlooms that a seed company obtained and introduced.
Regardless of a person's specific interpretation, most authorities agree that heirlooms, by definition, must be open-pollinated. They may also be open pollinated varieties that were bred and stabilized using classic breeding practices. While there are no genetically modified tomatoes available for commercial or home use, it is generally agreed that no genetically modified organisms can be considered heirloom cultivars. Another important point of discussion is that without the ongoing growing and storage of heirloom plants, the seed companies and the government will control all seed distribution. Most, if not all, hybrid plants, if regrown, will not be the same as the original hybrid plant, thus ensuring the dependency on seed distributors for future crops.
Typically, heirlooms have adapted over time to whatever climate and soil they have grown in. Due to their genetics, they are often resistant to local pests, diseases, and extremes of weather.
Heirloom roses are sometimes collected (nondestructively as small leaf cuttings) from vintage homes and from cemeteries, where they were once planted at gravesites by mourners and left undisturbed in the decades since. Modern production methods and the rise in population have largely supplanted this practice.
UK and EU law and national lists
In the UK and Europe, it is thought that many Heritage vegetable varieties (perhaps over 2000) have been lost since the 1970s, when EU laws were passed to make it illegal to sell any vegetable cultivar that is not on a national list of any EU country. This was set up to help in eliminating dishonest seed suppliers selling one seed as another, and to keep any one variety true. Thus there were stringent tests to assess varieties, with a view to ensuring they remain the same from one generation to the next.
These tests (called DUS) encompass Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability. But since some heritage cultivars are not necessarily uniform from plant to plant, or indeed within a single plant - a single cultivar - this has been a sticking point. Distinctness has been a problem, moreover, because many cultivars have several names, perhaps coming from different areas or countries (eg. Carrot cultivar 'Long Surrey Red' is also genuinely known as 'Red Intermediate', 'St. Valery' and 'Chertsey'.). However, it has been ascertained that some of these varieties that look similar are in fact different cultivars. On the other hand, two that were known to be different cultivars were almost identical to each other; thus the one would be dropped from the national list in order to clean it up.
Another problem has been the fact that it is somewhat expensive to register and then maintain a cultivar on a national list. Therefore, if no seed-breeder or supplier thinks it will sell very well, no-one will maintain it on a list, and so the seed will not be re-bred by commercial seed breeders.
In recent years, p
Grain crops of the world include the food grains, the coarse or feed grains, and a few minor coarse grains. The food grains include rice (Oryza sativa ) and wheat (Triticum aestivum ); the coarse or feed grains are barley (Hordeum vulgare ), maize (Zea mays ), rye (Secale cereale ), oats (Avena sativa ), millets (Pennisetum and Setaria species), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare ), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum ), and triticale X (Triticosecale wittmack ). Except for buckwheat, virtually all of the grain crops are members of the grass family. The principal harvestable commodity of these crops is the grain. Grazing or hay production is a minor use of a few crops. All of the grain crops now are distributed worldwide, although each crop generally originated in a specific region: rice in Asia; wheat, barley, oats, and rye in the Fertile Crescent of the Mideast; maize in Central America; sorghum and the Pennisetum millets in Africa. Triticale is a human-made grain produced within the twentieth century by hybridizing wheat and rye. Total production of the two major food grains in 1999 was very similar: 589 Mmt (million metric tons) of rice from 153 Mha (million hectares) and 584 Mmt of wheat from 214 Mha. Much more rice is irrigated than wheat, which results in higher yields and accounts for the essentially equivalent production of rice from fewer hectares than wheat. Coarse grain production in 1999 was 900 Mmt, from 314 Mha. Maize, with 604 Mmt from 139 Mha, was by far the most prominent coarse grain. Rice is typically consumed as whole grain boiled white rice, while wheat is ground into flour for bread making. Coarse grains are generally fed directly to animals as whole or cracked grains, but small amounts of these crops also are used for food, usually as a ground product or in porridges, especially in the respective regions of origin, for example, maize in Central America, and sorghum and millets in Africa. Barley is used worldwide in brewing, while oats, maize, and wheat are used in many processed cereals. Rye is still used in bread making in Europe and the United States, but food use consumption of this crop declined dramatically fifty years ago when it was recognized that the fungal disease ergot that infects rye grains caused the mysterious malady known as St. Anthony's fire, which can result in convulsions and death. All of the grain crops are cultivated as annuals: rice, maize, sorghum, and Pennisetum millets as summer crops; while wheat, barley, oats, rye, and Setaria millets are cultivated both as winter crops and as spring crops. The winter versions are grown in mild climates while the spring versions are predominant in the northern regions, such as the former Soviet Union, the northern Great Plains of the United States, and northern China. Winter versions generally yield more than spring versions, because the growing season is much longer for the former. The Green Revolution refers to the shortening of the stems of rice and wheat, which began in the 1960s and which has often led to doubling of yields. Shorter stemmed versions of the other grain crops have also been produced, especially in sorghum. see also Agriculture, Modern; Agronomist; Borlaug, Norman; Corn; Economic Importance of Plants; Grasses; Green Revolution; Rice; Seeds; Wheat. J. Neil Rutger Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. FAO Statistical Databases. [Online] Available at http://apps.fao.org. Leonard, Warren H., and John H. Martin. Cereal Crops. New York: Macmillan, 1963.
The history of agriculture (the production of food by plant cultivation and animal husbandry and control of productivity) can be organized around several themes (such as time, productivity, environmental impact, and genetic diversity). The most obvious is time and the sequence of events from gathering wild plants for food to crop plant domestication , to yield-enhanced hybrid seed. The origin of agriculture was around ten thousand years ago or approximately four hundred human generations back in time and prehistory, before written records were kept. What is known is based on evidence gathered from archaeological sites. Agriculture started independently in at least three places in the world, each with a distinctive cluster of plants drawn from the local flora: Mesoamerica (Mexico/Guatemala: corn, beans, squash, papaya, tomatoes, chili, peppers), the Fertile Crescent (Middle East from the Nile Valley to the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers: wheat, barley, grapes, apples, figs, melons, lentils, dates), and north China (mid-reaches of the three-thousand-mile-long Yellow River: rice, soybeans, peaches, Chinese cabbages such as bok choy). From these regions and possibly others, notably Africa (sorghum, cowpeas, yams, oil palm), South America (potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, peanuts, pineapples), and a broad band of tropical southeast Asia (oranges, mangoes, bananas, coconuts, sugarcane), the invention of agricultures spread to encompass the entire world by two thousand years ago. The history of agriculture is not that of a single technology to produce food, but of an array of methodologies. Planting seed broadcast across plowed fields typifies most cereals (50 percent of human calories). Vegetables, legumes , and corn are planted from seed in rows separated by furrows. Seed agriculture usually consists of annuals that are typically planted as genetically uniform monocultures . Agriculture of the humid tropics has been more vegeculture than seed-based. These vegetatively propagated crops are usually perennials, productive over the entire year and found in polycultures that tend to mimic the forest ecosystem . The earliest agriculture of southeast Asia was typically based on roots and tubers such as yams and taro, tree crops such as coconut and banana, and perennials such as sugarcane. In the Americas, vegeculture developed with cassava, sweet potatoes, arrowroot, and peanuts, and moved up the eastern slopes of the Andes, ultimately domesticating the potato. These crops spread quickly throughout the world after European contact. Potatoes displaced wheat and barley in cold soils of northern Europe and bananas became the fruit of choice in the New World tropics. Seed agriculture dominates where either a pronounced dry season or a frost results in a single crop per year. In south China rice is the summer crop, sweet potato the winter crop. In India rice is the monsoon crop, wheat the winter crop. Sometimes intercropping (different crops in alternate rows) and relay planting (starting the next crop before the previous one is harvested) are part of the multiple-crops-per-year cycle. Sequential cropping is where one crop follows another without seasonal fallowing, sometimes in double-cropping but more often in triple-cropping. Fallowing is an important technology perfected in the Middle Ages as part of the crop rotation pattern. The first year a legume is planted and the soil is enriched by the nitrogen-fixing crop; the next year a cereal is planted. The third year the land is rested to regain soil moisture and restore soil health. This pattern approximates a natural ecosystem and is more sustainable over the long term than continuous cropping. The fallow crop rotation system maximizes resources but is not elastic enough to accommodate an increasing human population that has come to rely on continuous cropping or heavy use of inputs (such as fertilizer, pesticides, and irrigation) in single crop per year monocultures. Another theme is to measure the displacement of natural ecosystems of forest and grasslands by plowed cropland that supports an increasing human population. Only about five million people existed worldwide preagriculture, subsisting on hunting and gathering of wild animals and plants. Humans existed like any other wild animals in the biological world. Postagriculture, the human population grew slowly, but as people's mastery of food production technology developed (such as irrigation, weed control by hoe and plow, and planting crops in monocultures) and the number of crop plants increased, the world population climbed to an estimated 130 million people by the time of Christ, a twenty-five-fold increase from the Paleolithic pre-agriculture estimate. By 1650 the world population had reached a half billion, and half of these people were in settled urbanized villages, towns, and cities and not engaged in agriculture to produce their own food. All of the major food crops and domestic farm animals known today were known and used worldwide. The only significant crops added since 1650 are industrial crops such as rubber. Since the middle of the nineteenth century the population has increased from one billion to six billion, an increase that would not have been possible without increases in agricultural yields. Through breeding, plus the use of fossil fuels to plant, fertilize, and protect crops, the average yield of all plants and productivity per unit area has increased ten-to fiftyfold. At present humans produce and consume over a twenty-year period as much food as was produced in the eight thousand years between the development of agriculture and the sixteenth century. Nonetheless, of the six billion people in the world, over one billion are estimated to be malnourished, and half of these are seriously underfed, mostly due to poverty and the diminished affordability of agricultural products. An estimated fifty thousand to eighty thousand starve to death or are fatally compromised each dayâ€”a majority are children, in part because they are growing rapidly and do not get enough essential materials such as vitamin A or quality protein. Another theme is to realize how few crops currently feed the human population, considering that preagriculture humankind subsisted on a list of approximately five thousand wild edible plants. The agricultural crop list is short. One-half of the plant calories people consume come from three grasses: rice, wheat, and corn. Just over two dozen food plants account for 75 percent of all plant calories and 90 percent of arable land cultivated. This list includes six grasses: rice, wheat, corn, barley, oats, and sorghum; four legumes: soybeans, peanuts, common beans, and peas; two sugar crops: sugarcane and sugar beets; two tropical tree crops: bananas and coconuts; four starchy roots: potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, and yams; five fruits: tomatoes, grapes, apples, oranges, and mangoes; and two vegetables: cabbages and onions. These twenty-five crops literally stand between subsistence and starvation for the human population. This is an agricultural calorie list and does not recognize the extremely rich vitamin and mineral sources found in low-calorie vegetables and fruits. Also this list does not recognize the important regional foods of the world. For instance, the native American crop cranberries is extremely important to Americans at Thanksgiving but is insignificant on the world calorie chart (less than one-millionth of 1 percent). A dominant theme in the history of agriculture has been crop improvement and yield advancement through selection and exploitation of genetic diversity within the species and its close relatives. And now, there is bioengineering where a gene can come from anywhere in the biological world (genetically modified crops). The earliest stages of domesticated crops were probably not much more productive than the wild progenitors , but the act of cultivation and saving the seed to replant was a radical break with the past. Human selection (artificial selection) was replacing natural selection in shaping the plant. Traits associated with the domestication process are seeds and fruits that remain
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Answers:The USA grows so much rice that we also export it. Don't know where the other guy get's his information. Yes the rice and the seed are the same but it isn't processed for the kind you grow. Below is a link to get some. I live in Missouri a rice producing state right next to Arkansas. The Mississippi delta has proven to be an ideal location for rice and most rice in the U.S. is grown in that area. Arkansas is the number one producer of rice in the U.S. today. Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas and Missouri also produce rice. The old flood basin for the Sacramento River in Northern California has also proven to be a good location for rice, and California is now the number two producer of rice in the U.S. 1. Arkansas 2. Louisiana 3.Mississippi 4. Texas 5.Missouri 6. California (now the 2nd largest producer in th USA) http://www.sagevfoods.com/MainPages/Rice101/Production.htm#US The rice you need for growing is not the same as in the store but this link provides a way to try it. Grow Rice in a Bucket How would you like to grow your own rice? it's easy and fun! Your Mission Buy rice seeds! These two companies sell the kind of rice seeds you'll need to grow your rice. ((((Tell them that Kidsregen.org sent you!))))) Kitazawa Seed Co. Call (510) 595-1188 or email: email@example.com Garrett Farms Call (979) 922-8405 ***or email: firstname.lastname@example.org**** http://www.kidsregen.org/howTo.php?section=inGarden&ID=4
Answers:Click on the links below and read- http://www.unctad.org/infocomm/anglais/rice/crop.htm http://www.gmanews.tv/story/193411/hybrid-seeds-yield-35-more-rice-per-hectare-agriculture http://english.cri.cn/6966/2009/04/09/2001s472832.htm
Answers:Vegetables Dark green vegetables are good sources of folic acid. spinach, asparagus, collard greens, green peas, broccoli, romaine lettuce and turnip greens. Salads provide a good option as raw spinach leaves can be mixed with lettuce, greens and other foods that contain folic acid. Legumes and Nuts Dried legumes act as good sources of folic acid. Beans such as great northern beans and pinto beans, as well as black-eye peas and lentils are beneficial. Once cooked, beans offer a versatile source of folic acid. Canned baked beans are suitable as well. Additionally, sunflower seeds and dry-roasted peanuts can be added to healthy, folic acid-rich diet. Fruit Select fruit contains folic acid and can add variety to a folic acid-rich diet, such as raw avocados, oranges, cantaloupe, papaya, pineapple, banana and grapefruit. Unprocessed, raw fruit contains the most folic acid per serving, though fruit juices and purees are beneficial, as well. Orange juice, pineapple juice and tropical fruit juice blends, either fresh or from concentrate, can be substituted for fresh fruit, or added into a folic acid-rich diet. Meat Meat as a source of naturally occurring folic acid is limited, though beef liver, chicken giblets and other organ meats are good sources. Cooked organ meats can be combined with other folic acid-rich foods, such as green vegetables or legumes, for the most benefit and to add variety. Fortified Foods A variety of foods are enriched with folic acid to make consuming appropriate levels easier. Breakfast cereals are commonly fortified with folic acid, up to 100 percent of the recommended daily value. Additionally, wheat and white bread, white rice, flour and pasta are enriched with folic acid. The amount of folic acid added to foods can be identified by reading nutrition information located on the product packaging. Folic acid supplements are also available to use in conjunction with natural and fortified foods, if concerns over adequate folic acid intake arise.
Answers:The whole food proteins that you have listed are great sources of complete amino acids. In addition to whole food proteins you can also consume a high quality chemical free whey product as well.