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Animal nutrition

There are seven major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, fiber, minerals, protein, vitamin, and water.

These nutrient classes can be categorized as either macronutrients (needed in relatively large amounts) or micronutrients (needed in smaller quantities). The macronutrients are carbohydrates, fats, fiber, proteins, and water. The micronutrients are minerals and vitamins.

The macronutrients (excluding fiber and water) provide structural material (amino acids from which proteins are built, and lipids from which cell membranes and some signaling molecules are built), energy. Some of the structural material can be used to generate energy internally, and in either case it is measured in joules or calories (sometimes called "kilocalories" and on other rare occasions written with a capital C to distinguish them from little 'c' calories). Carbohydrates and proteins provide 17 kJ approximately (4 kcal) of energy per gram, while fats provide 37 kJ (9 kcal) per gram., though the net energy from either depends on such factors as absorption and digestive effort, which vary substantially from instance to instance. Vitamins, minerals, fiber, and water do not provide energy, but are required for other reasons. A third class dietary material, fiber (i.e., non-digestible material such as cellulose), seems also to be required, for both mechanical and biochemical reasons, though the exact reasons remain unclear.

Molecules of carbohydrates and fats consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) to complex polysaccharides (starch). Fats are triglycerides, made of assorted fatty acidmonomers bound to glycerol backbone. Some fatty acids, but not all, are essential in the diet: they cannot be synthesized in the body. Protein molecules contain nitrogen atoms in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. The fundamental components of protein are nitrogen-containing amino acids, some of which are essential in the sense that humans cannot make them internally. Some of the amino acids are convertible (with the expenditure of energy) to glucose and can be used for energy production just as ordinary glucose. By breaking down existing protein, some glucose can be produced internally; the remaining amino acids are discarded, primarily as urea in urine. This occurs normally only during prolonged starvation.

Other micronutrients include antioxidants and phytochemicals which are said to influence (or protect) some body systems. Their necessity is not as well established as in the case of, for instance, vitamins.

Most foods contain a mix of some or all of the nutrient classes, together with other substances such as toxins or various sorts. Some nutrients can be stored internally (e.g., the fat soluble vitamins), while others are required more or less continuously. Poor health can be caused by a lack of required nutrients or, in extreme cases, too much of a required nutrient. For example, both salt and water (both absolutely required) will cause illness or even death in too large amounts.


Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer (sugar) units they contain. They constitute a large part of foods such as rice, noodles, bread, and other grain-based products. Monosaccharides contain one sugar unit, disaccharides two, and polysaccharides three or more. Polysaccharides are often referred to as complex carbohydrates because they are typically long multiple branched chains of sugar units. The difference is that complex carbohydrates take longer to digest and absorb since their sugar units must be separated from the chain before absorption. The spike in blood glucose levels after ingestion of simple sugars is thought to be related to some of the heart and vascular diseases which have become more frequent in recent times. Simple sugars form a greater part of modern diets than formerly, perhaps leading to more cardiovascular disease. The degree of causation is still not clear, however.


A molecule of dietary fat typically consists of several fatty acids (containing long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms), bonded to a glycerol. They are typically found as triglycerides (three fatty acids attached to one glycerol backbone). Fats may be classified as saturated or unsaturated depending on the detailed structure of the fatty acids involved. Saturated fats have all of the carbon atoms in their fatty acid chains bonded to hydrogen atoms, whereas unsaturated fats have some of these carbon atoms double-bonded, so their molecules have relatively fewer hydrogen atoms than a saturated fatty acid of the same length. Unsaturated fats may be further classified as monounsaturated (one double-bond) or polyunsaturated (many double-bonds). Furthermore, depending on the location of the double-bond in the fatty acid chain, unsaturated fatty acids are classified as omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids. Trans fats are a type of unsaturated fat with trans-isomer bonds; these are rare in nature and in foods from natural sources; they are typically created in an industrial process called (partial) hydrogenation.

Many studies have shown that unsaturated fats, particularly monounsaturated fats, are best i

From Yahoo Answers

Question:Animal Definition noun, plural: animals A living organism belonging to Kingdom Animalia that possess several characteristics that set them apart from other living things, such as: (1) being eukaryotic (i.e. the cell contains a membrane-bound nucleus) and usually multicellular (unlike bacteria and most protists, an animal is composed of several cells performing specific functions) ( 2) being heterotrophic (unlike plants and algae that are autotrophic, an animal depends on another organism for sustenance) and generally digesting food in an internal chamber (such as a digestive tract) (3) lacking cell wall (unlike plants, algae and some fungi that possess cell walls) (4) being generally motile, that is being able to move voluntarily (5) embryos passing through a blastula stage (6) possessing specialized sensory organs for recognizing and responding to stimuli in the environment Source: http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Animal This question is because of several answers I got to this question: http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=AhQbqRok5lviHahHds30_aHsy6IX;_ylv=3?qid=20090406090223AAvL6Bx which make the outrageous and unsubstantiated claim that human beings are somehow separate from the kingdom Animalia. If you choose to defend the position that we somehow are not animals, what empirically testable physical characteristics would you add to the definition of an animal that separates humans from that category? Super Kitteh: Prove that. Super Kitteh: Prove that. Clouds are not alive. Nice try though. Super Kitteh: First of all that's not the issue at hand. We're not talking about the Big Bang theory, nor are we talking about thermodynamics. Second of all, I don't understand why you so easily believe that "God" must exist and is eternal because nothing could possibly be eternal. Moderndaypuritan: First of all the burden of proof lies on the person making the positive claim. If you claim that humans have a soul, it's your responsibility to provide evidence to support your assertion. Also, morality and cooperation exist within animal populations, so that's not a distinctly human trait. For example, why do schools of Piranha avoid eating each other? Why do some species communally raise young? We're not the only social species. Super Kitteh: Again that's a fallacy. The burden of proof lies on the claimant, not whatever population happens to be the minority. (and we're not as small of a population as you make us out to be)


Question:Lost my text book for biology and i need some help with homework. I need to compare plant cells and animal cells. please say yes or no if the question responds to plant cells or animal cells 1. carbon dioxide is fixed? plant: y / n animal: y / n 2. Glycolysis occurs? plant: y / n animal y / n 3. osmosis occurs? plant: y / n animal y / n 4. Can burst in hypotonic solution? plant: y / n animal: y / n 5. has enzymes? plant: y / n animal: y / n 6. uses chemiosis? plant y / n animal: y / n 7. releases oxygen: plant: y / n animal: y / n 8. has transport proteins in the cell wall: plant: y / n animal: y / n 9. can burst when put into a hypertonic solution? plant y / n animal y/ n 10. glucose can be found in the cytoplasm? plant y / n animal y / n thanks for the help :)

Answers:1. carbon dioxide is fixed? PLANT (in the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis, such as Calvin-Benson cycle) 2. Glycolysis occurs? PLANT and ANIMAL (both plants and animals undergo glycolysis and aerobic respiration) 3. osmosis occurs? PLANT and ANIMAL 4. Can burst in hypotonic solution? ANIMAL (plant cells have rigid cell walls that prevent them from bursting) 5. has enzymes? PLANT and ANIMAL (all cellular life has enzymes) 6. uses chemiosis? PLANT and ANIMAL (plants in light-dependent reactions; animals in mitochondria after ETC) 7. releases oxygen: PLANT (photosystem II splits water molecules, releasing oxygen) 8. has transport proteins in the cell wall: PLANT (animal cells don't have a cell wall) PS: Actually, I'm not positive that plants, although they do have cell walls, have transport proteins in their cell walls. This is the only one I am somewhat unsure of. 9. can burst when put into a hypertonic solution? NEITHER (a hypertonic solution would cause water to flow OUT of their cells, not into their cells) 10. glucose can be found in the cytoplasm? PLANT and ANIMAL (both undergo glycolysis)



Question:i have to include how each manages the uptake of nutrients and water as well as the excretion of wastes. please help.,

Answers:ANIMALS: -predators are first who, what and how they get away -they will only reside where there is water as water is vital to them to live. - shelter animals are able to adapt as they are able to change their locations for shelter (a plant cant move) -food, well, animals adapt to that as well, if there isnt their first pick they will take seconds. (depends on the species though as some travel others dont) -sexual reproduction is unaffected by land changes thus they are able to continue reproducing PLANTS -they are very dependent on the land as they are immobile - they are not able to adapt easily to climate changes as shelter is not an option -food, will be in the soil and sometimes even with assistance (ie fungi) Reproduction is affected by climate or land changes and that is due to the fact that if they are not able to make seeds or if their seeds are erradicated then they will cease to exist

From Youtube

Plants :Plants. Plants ~ Life. The importance of plants for this planet. Show them some care and respect. Plants are living organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. They include familiar organisms such as trees, herbs, bushes, grasses, ferns, mosses, and green algae. The scientific study of plants, known as botany, has identified about 350000 extant species of plants, defined as seed plants, bryophytes, ferns and fern allies. Green plants, sometimes called Viridiplantae, obtain most of their energy from sunlight via a process called photosynthesis. Photosynthesis (from the Greek - [photo-], "light," and [synthesis], "putting together", "composition") is a process that converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds, especially sugars, using the energy from sunlight. Photosynthesis occurs in plants, algae, and many species of Bacteria, but not in Archaea. Photosynthetic organisms are called photoautotrophs, since they can create their own food. In plants, algae and cyanobacteria photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and water, releasing oxygen as a waste product. Photosynthesis is vital for life on Earth. As well as maintaining the normal level of oxygen in the atmosphere, nearly all life either depends on it directly as a source of energy, or indirectly as the ultimate source of the energy in their food. The amount of energy trapped by photosynthesis is immense, approximately 100 terawatts, which is about six times larger than the power consumption of human ...

The Road to Jewish Civilization, Part 9: All Depends on Human Effort :Israel, the Land of Milk and Honey, the birthplace of the Jewish People and the spiritual center of three religions, presents a unique combination of ancient history and a vibrant modern society, exotic scenery and rich culture. This 12-episode documentary series, produced by CCTV - Chinese Central Television in cooperation with the Embassy of Israel in Beijing, introduces the Jewish People and the story of the State of Israel and its development in a historical, comprehensive and systematic manner to Chinese audiences. The series is narrated in Chinese with English subtitles Episode 9: All Depends on Human Effort Today, the value created by Israel's agricultural science and technology has far exceeded agricultural planting. In face of land scarcity and tough natural conditions, how have Israelis created the miracle of efficient agriculture? Israel has established the agricultural technology promotion system featuring close cooperation among government agencies, scientific research institutions and farmers' co-operatives. Scientific research programs stem directly from actual production. Under this system, production guides scientific research, and scientific research is combined with production. It has shown to have strong economic and practical values. Now. Let's walk into the front line of Israel's agricultural research, and see how people apply advanced science and technology to cultivate new varieties with added value.