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Technology Integration is the use of technology tools in general content areas in education in order to allow students to apply computer and technology skills to learning and problem-solving. Generally speaking, the curriculum drives the use of technology and not vice versa.
The International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) has established technology standards for students, teachers and administrators in K-12 classrooms. The ISTE, a leader in helping teachers become more effective users of technology, offers this definition of technology integration:
"Curriculum integration with the use of technology involves the infusion of technology as a tool to enhance the learning in a content area or multidisciplinary setting... Effective integration of technology is achieved when students are able to select technology tools to help them obtain information in a timely manner, analyze and synthesize the information, and present it professionally. The technology should become an integral part of how the classroom functions â€” as accessible as all other classroom tools. The focus in each lesson or unit is the curriculum outcome, not the technology."
Technology Education Standards
National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) served as a roadmap since 1998 for improved teaching and learning by educators. As stated above, these standards are used by teachers, students, and administrators to measure competency and set higher goals to be skillful in the technology in the 21st century.
Most research in technology integration has been criticized for being atheoretical and ad hoc, driven more by the affordances of the technology rather than the demands of pedagogy and subject matter. One approach that attempts to address this concern is a framework aimed at describing the nature of teacher knowledge for successful technology integration. The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge or TPACK framework has recently received some positive attention.
Constructivism in Technology Integration
Constructivism is a crucial component of technology integration. It is a learning theory that describes the process of students constructing their own knowledge through collaboration and inquiry-based learning. According to this theory, students learn more deeply and retain information longer when they have a say in what and how they will learn. Inquiry-based learning, thus, is researching a question that is personally relevant and purposeful because of its direct correlation to the one investigating the knowledge. As stated by Jean Piaget, constructivist learning is based on four stages of cognitive development. In these stages, children must take an active role in their own learning and produce meaningful works in order to develop a clear understanding. These works are a reflection of the knowledge that has been achieved through active self-guided learning. Students are active leaders in their learning and the learning is student-led rather than teacherâ€“directed.
Many teachers use a constructivist approach in their classrooms assuming one or more of the following roles: facilitator, collaborator, curriculum developer, team member, community builder, educational leader, or information producer.
Various tools have or are being used in technology integration. Some examples of such tools are:
Interactive whiteboards are used in many schools as replacements for standard whiteboards and provide a way to allow students to interact with material on the computer. In addition, some interactive whiteboards software allow teachers to record their instruction and post the material for review by students at a later time.
- 3Dvirtual environments are also used with interactive whiteboards as a way for students to interact with 3D virtual learning objects employing kinetics and haptic touch the classroom. An example of the use of this technique is the open-source project Edusim.
- Research has been carried out to track the worldwide Interactive Whiteboard market by Decision Tree Consulting (DTC), a worldwide research company. According to the results, interactive Whiteboards continue to be the biggest technology revolution in classrooms, across the world there are over 1.2 million boards installed, over 5 million classrooms are forecast to have Interactive Whiteboards installed by 2011, Americas are the biggest region closely followed by EMEA, and Mexicoâ€™s Enciclomedia project to equip 145,000 classrooms is worth $1.8 billion and is the largest education technology project in the world.
- Interactive whiteboards can accommodate different learning styles, such as visual, tactile, and audio.
Student Response Systems
Student response systems consist of handheld remote control units, or response pads, which are operated by individual students. An infrared or radio frequency receiver attached to the teacher's computer collects the data submitted by students. The CPS (Classroom Performance System), once set, allows the teacher to pose a question to students in several formats. Students then use the response pad to send their answer to the infrared sensor. Data collected from these systems is available to the teacher in real time and can be presented to the students in a graph form on an LCD projector. The teacher can also access a variety of reports to collect and analyze student data. These systems have been used in higher education science courses since the 1970s and have become popular in K-12 classrooms beginning in the early 21st century.
Among other tools that have been noted as being effective as a way of technology integration are Integrated Biosystems.
While not often considered as part of the permaculture movement Integrated Farming is a similar "whole systems approach" to agriculture. There have been efforts to link the two together such as at the 2007 International Permaculture Conference in Brazil. Agro-ecology (which was developed at University of California Santa Cruz) and Bio-dynamic farming also describe similar integrated approaches.
- "pig tractor" systems where the animals are confined in crop fields well prior to planting and "plow" the field by digging for roots
- poultry used in orchards or vineyards after harvest to clear rotten fruit and weeds while fertilizing the soil
- cattle or other livestock allowed to graze cover crops between crops on farms that contain both cropland and pasture (or where transhumance is employed)
- Water based agricultural systems that provide way for effective and efficient recycling of farm nutrients producing fuel, fertilizer and a compost tea/mineralized irrigation water in the process.
In 1993 FARRE (Forum de l'Agriculture RaisonnÃ©e Respecteuse l'Environnement) developed agricultural techniques France as part of an attempt to reconcile agricultural methods with the principles of sustainable development. FARRE, promotes an integrated and/or multi-sector approach to food production that includes profitability, safety, animal welfare, social responsibility and environmental care.
Zero Emissions Research and Initiatives (formed in 1994) developed a similar approach to FARRE seeking to promote agricultural and industrial production models that sought to incorporate nature's wisdom into the process. ZERI helped support an effort by an environmental engineer from Mauritius named George Chan.
Chan working with a network of poly-culture farming pioneers began refining Integrated Farming practices that had already been developed in south-east Asia in the 1960 through the 1980s, building on traditional night soil farming practice. In China, programs embracing this form of integrated farming have been successful in demonstrating how an intensive growing systems can use organic and sustainable farming practices, while providing high agriculture yields.
Taking what he learned from the Chinese during his time there, Chan worked at the United Nations University in the 1990s and forwarded an approach to Integrated Farming which was termed Integrated Biomass Systems working specifically under the UNU/ZERI ZERI Bag Program.
Chan during his work with UNU sought to make the case that Integrated Biomass Systems were well suited to help small island nations and low lying tropical regions become more self-reliant and prosperous in the production of food. Working with ZERI, he developed several prototypes for this approach around the world including sites in Namibia and Fiji. The scientifically verified results in a UNDP sponsored congress in 1997 resulted in the adoption of the IBS by the State Government of ParanÃ¡, Brazil where dozens of piggeries have applied the system generating food, energy while improving health and environmental conditions. During his work at the United Nations University he also got to know Gunter Pauli, who later developed these integrated systems further in his The Blue Economy movement.
ZERI Bag had a significant African component that included assisting Father Godfrey Nzamujo in the development of the [http://www.songhai.org Songhai Farm] Integrated Farming project in Benin. ZERI Bag was designed to focus on small scale deployment of appropriate technologies with a focus on the Integrated Biomass System approach developed by ZERI and George Chan.
Most recently The Heifer Foundation (an international NGO based in the US) has taken a lead role in deploying Integrated Farming so that it can be replicated globally as an effective approach to sustainable farming in non-affluent regions such as Vietnam.
Example collaborative projects
Montfort Boy's Town in Fiji was one of the first Integrated Biomass Systems developed outside of Southeast Asia with the support of UNU, UNDP and other international agencies. The project which is still operational continues to be a model of how farm operations can provide multiple benefits to stakeholders both local and international.
Data integration involves combining data residing in different sources and providing users with a unified view of these data. This process becomes significant in a variety of situations both commercial (when two similar companies need to merge their databases) and scientific (combining research results from different bioinformatics repositories, for example). Data integration appears with increasing frequency as the volume and the need to share existing data explodes. It has become the focus of extensive theoretical work, and numerous open problems remain unsolved. In management circles, people frequently refer to data integration as "Enterprise Information Integration" (EII).
Issues with combining heterogeneous data sources under a single query interface have existed for some time. The rapid adoption of databases after the 1960s naturally led to the need to share or to merge existing repositories. This merging can take place at several levels in the database architecture. One popular solution involves data warehousing (see figure 1). The warehouse system extracts, transforms, and loads data from several sources into a single queriable schema. Architecturally, this offers a tightly coupled approach because the data reside together in a single repository at query-time. Problems with tight coupling can arise with the "freshness" of data; for example, when an original data source gets updated, but the warehouse still contains the older data and the ETL process needs re-execution. Difficulties also arise in constructing data warehouses when one has only a query interface to summary data sources and no access to the full data. This problem frequently emerges when integrating several commercial query services like travel or classified advertisement web applications.
the trend in data integration has favored loosening the coupling between data. This may involve providing a uniform query-interface over a mediated schema (see figure 2), thus transforming a query into specialized queries over the original databases. One can also term this process "view-based query-answering" because each of the data sources functions as a view over the (nonexistent) mediated schema. Formally, computer scientists label such an approach "Local As View" (LAV) â€” where "Local" refers to the local sources/databases. An alternate model of integration has the mediated schema functioning as a view over the sources. This approach, called "Global As View" (GAV) â€” where "Global" refers to the global (mediated) schema â€” has attractions due to the simplicity involved in answering queries issued over the mediated schema. However, one must rewrite the view for the mediated schema whenever a new source gets integrated and/or an existing source changes its schema.
some of the work in data integration research concerns the semantic integration problem. This problem addresses not the structuring of the architecture of the integration, but how to resolve semantic conflicts between heterogeneous data sources. For example if two companies merge their databases, certain concepts and definitions in their respective schemas like "earnings" inevitably have different meanings. In one database it may mean profits in dollars (a floating-point number), while in the other it might represent the number of sales (an integer). A common strategy for the resolution of such problems involves the use of ontologies which explicitly define schema terms and thus help to resolve semantic conflicts. This approach represents ontology-based data integration.
Consider a web application where a user can query a variety of information about cities (such as crime statistics, weather, hotels, demographics, etc). Traditionally, the information must exist in a single database with a single schema. But any single enterprise would find information of this breadth somewhat difficult and expensive to collect. Even if the resources exist to gather the data, it would likely duplicate data in existing crime databases, weather websites, and census data.
A data-integration solution may address this problem by considering these external resources as materialized views over a virtual mediated schema, resulting in "virtual data integration". This means application-developers construct a virtual schema â€” the mediated schemaâ€” to best model the kinds of answers their users want. Next, they design "wrappers" or adapters for each data source, such as the crime database and weather website. These adapters simply transform the local query results (those returned by the respective websites or databases) into an easily processed form for the data integration solution (see figure 2). When an application-user queries the mediated schema, the data-integration solution transforms this query into appropriate queries over the respective data sources. Finally, the virtual database combines the results of these queries into the answer to the user's query.
This solution offers the convenience of adding new sources by simply constructing an adapter for them. It contrasts with ETL systems or with a single database solution, which require manual integration of the entire new dataset into the system.
Theory of data integration
The theory of data integration forms a subset of database theory and formalizes the underlying concepts of the problem in first-order logic. Applying the theories gives indications as to the feasibility and difficulty of data integration. While its definitions may appear abstract, they have sufficient generality to accommodate all manner of integration systems.
Data integration systems are formally defined as a triple \left \langle G,S,M\right \rangle where G is the global (or mediated) schema, S is the heterogeneous set of source schemas, and M is the mapping that maps queries between
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Answers:( i) sin (x+y) =sin x cos y +cos x sin y let y=x so sin(x+x) = sin x cos x +cos x sins x then sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x (ii ) cos (x+y) = cos x cos y -sin x sin y let y=x cos (x+x) = cos x cos x - sin x sin x cos 2x = cos ^2 x - sin ^2 x = cos ^2 x -(1- cos ^2 x)=cos ^2 x -1 +cos ^2 = 2 cos ^2 -1 or = (1-sin ^2 x) -sin ^2 x= 1- sin^2 x
Answers:The reactangle is likely circumscribed inside the circle. As such I'm guessing the line inside the rectangle is actually a radius of the circle. If it is a radius of the circle connecting to the upper right corner of the rectangle then it can be used as such... Twice that length must form a diagonal of the recangle, forming a right triangle. Then use trigoneomtric rules soh-cah-toa to derive that the length times width can expressed as you desire with the constant 100 likely due to the size of the circle.
Answers:There is no way of finding the x-values for sinx = -1/3 so a scientific or graphing calculator must be used You could plot the graphs of y=sinx and the line y = -1/3 and find the intersects or plug in sin^-1(1/3) into your calculator and go from there (which would give you your reference angle). Adding 180 degrees or subtracting 19.47 from 360 degrees will give you your two answers of 200 and 341 degrees because of this. The other x values you solve for using sinx= 1/2 are correct. [Answer: see above]