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From Wikipedia

Heterotrophic nutrition - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The four main types of heterotrophic nutrition are: Holozoic nutrition ...

Saprotrophic nutrition

Saprotrophic nutrition (sæprɵˈtrɒfɪk) is a process of chemoheterotrophic extra-cellular digestion involved in the processing of dead or decayed organic matter which occurs in saprotrophs or heterotrophs, and is most often associated with fungi, for example MucorandRhizopus. The process is most often facilitated through theactive transport of such materials through endocytosis within the internal mycelium and its constituent hyphae.



As matter decomposes within a medium in which a saprotroph is residing, the saphrotroph breaks such matter down into their composites;

These products are re-absorbed into the hypha through the cell wall via endocytosis and passed on throughout the mycelium complex. This facilitates the passage of such materials throughout the organism and allows for growth, and if necessary, repair.


In order for a saprotrophic organism to facilitate optimal growth and repair, favourable conditions and nutrients must be present. Optimal conditions refers to several conditions which optimise the growth of saprotrophic organisms, such as;

  1. Presence of water - 80-90% of the fungus is composed of water by mass, and requires excess water for absorption due to the evaporation of internally retent water.
  2. Presence of oxygen - Very few saphrotrophic organisms can endure anaerobic conditions due to their growth above media such as water or soil.
  3. Neutral-acidic pH - The condition of neutral or mildly acidic conditions under pH 7 are required.
  4. Low-medium temperature - The majority of saprotrophic organisms require temperatures between 1 Â°C and 35 Â°C, with optimum growth occurring at 25 Â°C.

The majority of nutrients taken in by such organisms must be able to provide carbon, proteins, vitamins and in some cases, ions. Due to the carbon composition of the majority of organisms, dead and organic matter provide rich sources of polysaccharides disaccharides such as glucose, maltose and starch.

In terms of nitrogen-rich sources, saprotrophs require combined protein for the creation of proteins, which is facilitated by the absorption of amino acids, and usually taken from rich soil. Although both ions and vitamins are rare, thiamine or ions such as potassium, phosphorus and magnesium aid the growth of the mycelium.

From Yahoo Answers

Question:are parasites do cause harm to the host plantrs. does this meanthat host plant is slowly killed off by the parasites?

Answers:It is for sure that the parasite causes harm to host plant, but to what extent is determined by the type of parasitic other words they generally don t kill their hosts; however, they don t benefit the hosts either.

Question:can someone please explain how the structure of a leaf is adapted for photosynthesis

Answers:The leaf structure is adapted to perform specific functions in the process of photosynthesis: 1) Adaptation of leaves to absorb light energy LARGE SURFACE AREA (flat and broad) allows the leaf to absorb more light energy VEINS help to support the leaf and hold it out flat, enabling it to catch the maximum amount of light energy MORE CHLOROPLASTS ON UPPER SURFACE - palisade mesophyll cells are packed close together and contain more chloroplasts 2) Adaptation of leaves to absorb carbon dioxide STOMATA tiny holes to allow gases to diffuse in and out of the leaf. The holes are at the bottom of the leaf to prevent filling with rain water LARGE SURFACE AREA more gases are exchanged THIN small distance for gases to diffuse

Question:Venus flytraps are plants, which makes them autorophic, but they do eat and digest insects, which would make them heterotrophic. So is a Venus flytrap an autotroph, because it is a plant, and photosynthesizes, or is it a heterotroph because it eats and digests insects?

Answers:I would say that it is an autotroph with an unusual method of gaining needed nutrients. Venus flytraps produce their own food using light, water, CO2, and nutrients taken up through roots and from the occasional insects they catch. The insects do not provide energy for the plant, just make up for the nutrients lacking in the poor, boggy soil that the plant grows in.

Question:Is a african elephant a autotroph or a heterotroph?

Answers:an autotroph is an organism that can synthesise its own food materials like plants. surely an elephant cant synthesise its own food so its a heterotroph...

From Youtube

Mineral Nutrition :Check us out at In order to understand the nature of plant derived minerals, think about the three ways we can introduce minerals into our body. Remember that it is not what you put into the body that is important, it is what you put into the body that can be assimilated and made bio-available. The first type of mineral you could introduce into your body is a metallic mineral. Metallic minerals come from ancient sea beds and ground up rock and soil. Metallic minerals are classed as hydrophobic. They have a positive electrical charge and they represent sparingly soluble minerals with an inherent resistance to interaction with water. Basically this means most of them are not water soluble and hard to dissolve. According to numerous nutritional experts, the body can assimilate no more than 8% of the metallic minerals it consumes. This is the type of mineral that is found in most mineral supplements you buy at the grocery store. Let's assume that you wanted to take 100 mg of a specific mineral each day. If you are using a metallic mineral supplement, it is possible that only 8% or 8 mg would be available each day for your body to really use. The health food industry recognized the absorption problem years ago and developed the chelated mineral. A chelated mineral is nothing more than a metallic mineral that has been wrapped with a protein or amino acid which helps dissolve the metallic substance. This chelating process increases the assimilation or ...