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Developing country

Developing country is a term generally used to describe a nation with a low level of material well-being (not to be confused with third world countries). Since no single definition of the term developed country is recognized internationally, the levels of development may vary widely within so-called developing countries. Some developing countries have high average standards of living.

Countries with more advanced economies than other developing nations, but which have not yet fully demonstrated the signs of a developed country, are categorized under the term newly industrialized countries.


Kofi Annan, former Secretary General of the United Nations, defined a developed country as follows. "A developed country is one that allows all its citizens to enjoy a free and healthy life in a safe environment." But according to the United Nations Statistics Division,

There is no established convention for the designation of "developed" and "developing" countries or areas in the United Nations system.

And it notes that

The designations "developed" and "developing" are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgment about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process.

The UN also notes

In common practice, Japan in Asia, Canada and the United States in northern America, Australia and New Zealand in Oceania, and Europe, are considered "developed" regions or areas. In international trade statistics, the Southern African Customs Union is also treated as a developed region and Israel as a developed country; countries emerging from the former Yugoslavia are treated as developing countries; and countries of eastern Europe and of the Commonwealth of Independent States (code 172) in Europe are not included under either developed or developing regions.

In the 21st century, the original Four Asian Tigers regions (Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan), along with Cyprus,, Malta, and Slovenia, are considered "developed countries".

On the other hand, according to the classification from IMF before April 2004, all the countries of Eastern Europe (including Central European countries which still belongs to "Eastern Europe Group" in the UN institutions) as well as the former Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.) countries in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan) and Mongolia, were not included under either developed or developing regions, but rather were referred to as "countries in transition"; however they are now widely regarded (in the international reports) as "developing countries".

The IMF uses a flexible classification system that considers "(1) per capita income level, (2) export diversification—so oil exporters that have high per capita GDP would not make the advanced classification because around 70% of its exports are oil, and (3) degree of integration into the global financial system."

The World Bank classifies countries into four income groups. These are set each year on July 1. Economies were divided according to 2008 GNI per capita using the following ranges of income:

  • Low income countries had GNI per capita of US$975 or less.
  • Lower middle income countries had GNI per capita between US$976 and US$3,855.
  • Upper middle income countries had GNI per capita between US$3,856 and US$11,905.
  • High income countries had GNI above US$11,906.

The World Bank classifies all low- and middle-income countries as developing but notes, "The use of the term is convenient; it is not intended to imply that all economies in the group are experiencing similar development or that other economies have reached a preferred or final stage of development. Classification by income does not necessarily reflect development status."

Measure and concept of development

The development of a country is measured with statistical indexes such as income per capita (per person) (GDP), life expectancy, the rate of literacy, et cetera. The UN has developed the HDI, a compound indicator of the above statistics, to gauge the level of human development for countries where data is available.

Developing countries are in general countries which have not achieved a significant degree of industrialization relative to their populations, and which have, in most cases a medium to low standard of living. There is a strong correlation between low income and high population growth.

The terms utilized when discussing developing countries refer to the intent and to the constructs of those who utilize these terms. Other terms sometimes used are less developed countries (LDCs), least economically developed countries (L

Positional notation

Positional notation or place-value notation is a method of representing or encoding numbers. Indian mathematicians developed the Hindu-Arabic numeral system, the modern decimal positional notation in the 9th century. Positional notation is distinguished from other notations (such as Roman numerals) for its use of the same symbol for the different orders of magnitude (for example, the "ones place", "tens place", "hundreds place"). This greatly simplified arithmetic and led to the quick spread of the notation across the world.

With the use of a radix point, the notation can be extended to include fractions and the numeric expansions of real numbers.


Today, the base 10 (decimal) system is ubiquitous. It was likely motivated by counting with the ten fingers. However, other bases have been used. For example, the Babylonian numeral system, credited as the first positional number system, was base 60.

Counting rods and most abacuses in history represented numbers in a positional numeral system. Before positional notation became standard, simple additive systems (sign-value notation) were used such as Roman Numerals, and accountants in ancient Rome and during the Middle Ages used the abacus or stone counters to do arithmetic.

With counting rods or abacus to perform arithmetic operations, the writing of the starting, intermediate and final values of a calculation could easily be done with a simple additive system in each position or column. This approach required no memorization of tables (as does positional notation) and could produce practical results quickly. For four centuries (13th–16th) there was strong disagreement between those who believed in adopting the positional system in writing numbers and those who wanted to stay with the additive-system-plus-abacus. Although electronic calculators have largely replaced the abacus, the latter continues to be used in Japan and other Asian countries.

Georges Ifrah concludes in his Universal History of Numbers:

Thus it would seem highly probable under the circumstances that the discovery of zero and the place-value system were inventions unique to the Indian civilization. As the Brahmi notation of the first nine whole numbers (incontestably the graphical origin of our present-day numerals and of all the decimal numeral systems in use in India, Southeast and Central Asia and the Near East) was autochthonous and free of any outside influence, there can be no doubt that our decimal place-value system was born in India and was the product of Indian civilization alone.|

Aryabhata stated "sth�nam sth�nam daśa guṇam" meaning "From place to place, ten times in value". His system lacked zero. The zero was added by Brahmagupta. Indian mathematicians and astronomers also developed Sanskrit positional number words to describe astronomical facts or algorithms using poetic sutras.

A key argument against the positional system was its susceptibility to easy fraud by simply putting a number at the beginning or end of a quantity, thereby changing (e.g.) 100 into 5100, or 100 into 1000. Modern cheques require a natural language spelling of an amount, as well as the decimal amount itself, to prevent such fraud.


Base of the numeral system

In mathematical numeral systems, the base or radix is usually the number of unique digits, including zero, that a positional numeral system uses to represent numbers. For example, for the decimal system the radix is 10, because it uses the 10 digits from 0 through 9.

The highest symbol of a positional numeral system usually has the value one less than the value of the base of that numeral system. The standard positional numeral systems differ from one another only in the base they use.

The base is an integer that is greater than 1 (or less than negative 1), since a radix of zero would not have any digits, and a radix of 1 would only have the zero digit. Negative bases are rarely used. In a system with a negative radix, numbers may have many different possible representations.

(In certain non-standard positional numeral systems, including bijective numeration, the definition of the base or the allowed digits deviates from the above.)

In base-10 (decimal) positional notation, there are 10 decimal digits and the number

2506 = 2 \times 10^3 + 5 \times 10^2 + 0 \times 10^1 + 6 \times 10^0 .

In base-16 (hexadecimal), there are 16 hexadecimal digits (0–9 and A–F) and the number

171\mathrm{B} = 1 \times 16^3 + 7 \times 16^2 + 1 \times 16^1 + \mathrm{B} \times 16^0 (where B represents the number eleven as a single symbol)

In general, in base-b, there are b digits and the number

a_3 a_2 a_1 a_0 = a_3 \times b^3 + a_2 \times b^2 + a_1 \times b^1 + a_0 \times b^0 (Note that a_3 a_2 a_1 a_0 represents a sequence of digits, not implicit multiplication)

Digits and numerals

In order to discuss bases other than the decimal system (base ten), a distinction needs to be made between a number and the digit representing that number. Each digit may be represented by a unique symbol or by a limited set of symbols.

For example, in the decimal positional numeral system, there are ten possible digits in each position. These are "0", "1", "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "7", "8" , and "9" (henceforth "0-9"). In other bases, the digits used may be unfamiliar or may be used to indicate numbers other than those they represent in the

Glycemic index

The glycemic index, glycaemic index, or GI is a measure of the effects of carbohydrates on blood sugar levels. Carbohydrates that break down quickly during digestion and release glucose rapidly into the bloodstream have a high GI; carbohydrates that break down more slowly, releasing glucose more gradually into the bloodstream, have a low GI. The concept was developed by Dr. David J. Jenkins and colleagues in 1980–1981 at the University of Toronto in their research to find out which foods were best for people with diabetes.

A lower glycemic index suggests slower rates of digestion and absorption of the foods' carbohydrates and may also indicate greater extraction from the liver and periphery of the products of carbohydrate digestion. A lower glycemic response usually equates to a lower insulin demand but not always, and may improve long-term blood glucose control and blood lipids. The insulin index is also useful, as it provides a direct measure of the insulin response to a food.

The glycemic index of a food is defined as the area under the two hour blood glucose response curve (AUC) following the ingestion of a fixed portion of carbohydrate (usually 50 g). The AUC of the test food is divided by the AUC of the standard (either glucose or white bread, giving two different definitions) and multiplied by 100. The average GI value is calculated from data collected in 10 human subjects. Both the standard and test food must contain an equal amount of available carbohydrate. The result gives a relative ranking for each tested food.

The current validated methods use glucose as the reference food, giving it a glycemic index value of 100 by definition. This has the advantages of being universal and producing maximum GI values of approximately 100. White bread can also be used as a reference food, giving a different set of GI values (if white bread = 100, then glucose ≈ 140). For people whose staple carbohydrate source is white bread, this has the advantage of conveying directly whether replacement of the dietary staple with a different food would result in faster or slower blood glucose response. The disadvantages with this system are that the reference food is not well-defined and the GI scale is culture dependent.

Glycemic index of foods

GI values can be interpreted intuitively as percentages on an absolute scale and are commonly interpreted as follows :

A low-GI food will release glucose more slowly and steadily. A high-GI food causes a more rapid rise in blood glucose levels and is suitable for energy recovery after endurance exercise or for a person experiencing hypoglycemia.

The glycemic effect of foods depends on a number of factors such as the type of starch (amylose versus amylopectin), physical entrapment of the starch molecules within the food, fat and protein content of the food and organic acids or their salts in the meal — adding vinegar, for example, will lower the GI. The presence of fat or soluble dietary fiber can slow the gastric emptying rate, thus lowering the GI. In general, unrefined breads with higher amounts of fiber have a lower GI value than white breads. Many brown breads, however, are treated with enzymes to soften the crust, which makes the starch more accessible (high GI).

While adding butter or oil will lower the GI of a meal, the GI ranking does not change. That is, with or without additions, there is still a higher blood glucose curve after white bread than after a low-GI bread such as pumpernickel.

The glycemic index can be applied only to foods with a reasonable carbohydrate content, as the test relies on subjects consuming enough of the test food to yield about 50 g of available carbohydrate. Many fruits and vegetables (but not potatoes) contain very little carbohydrate per serving, and the average person is not likely to eat 50 g of carbohydrate from these foods. Fruits and vegetables tend to have a low glycemic index and a low glycemic load. This also applies to carrots, which were originally and incorrectly reported as having a high GI. Alcoholic beverages have been reported to have low GI values, but it should be noted that beer has a moderate GI. Recent studies have shown that the consumption of an alcoholic drink prior to a meal reduces the GI of the meal by approximately 15%. Moderate alcohol consumption more than 12 hours prior to a test does not affect the GI.

Many modern diets rely on the glycemic index, including the South Beach Diet, Transitions by Market America and NutriSystem Nourish Diet. However, others have pointed out that foods generally considered to be unhealthy can have a low glycemic index, for instance chocolate cake (GI 38), ice cream (37), or pure fructose (19), whereas foods like potatoes and rice, eaten in countries with low rates of diabetes, have GIs around 100.

The GI Symbol Program is an independent worldwide GI certification program that helps consumers identify low-GI foods and drinks. The symbol is only on foods or beverages that have had their GI values tested according to standard and meet the GI Foundation's certification criteria as a healthy choice within their food group, so they are also lower in kilojoules, fat and/or salt.

Disease prevention

Several lines of recent scientific evidence have shown that individuals who followed a low-GI diet over many years were at a significantly lower risk for developing both type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease than others. High blood glucose levels or repeated glycemic "spikes" following a meal may promote these diseases by increasing oxidative stress to the vasculature and also by the direct increase in insulin levels.

In the past, postprandialhyperglycemia has been considered a risk factor associated mainly wi


Aesthetics (also spelledæsthetics or esthetics) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty, art, and taste, and with the creation and appreciation of beauty. It is more scientifically defined as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics as "critical reflection on art, culture and nature."


It was derived from the Greekαἰσθητικός (aisthetikos, meaning "esthetic, sensitive, sentient"), which in turn was derived from αἰσθάνομαι (aisthanomai, meaning "I perceive, feel, sense"). The term "aesthetics" was appropriated and coined with new meaning in the German form Æsthetik (modern spelling Ästhetik) by Alexander Baumgarten in 1735.

History of aesthetics

Ancient aesthetics

We have examples of pre-historic art, but they are rare, and the context of their production and use is not very clear, so we can little more than guess at the aesthetic doctrines that guided their production and interpretation.

Ancient art was largely, but not entirely, based on the seven great ancient civilizations: Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome, Persia, India and China. Each of these centers of early civilization developed a unique and characteristic style in its art. Greece had the most influence on the development of aesthetics in the West. This period of Greek art saw a veneration of the human physical form and the development of corresponding skills to show musculature, poise, beauty and anatomically correct proportions. Furthermore, in many Western and Eastern cultures alike, traits such as body hair are rarely depicted in art that addresses physical beauty. More in contrast with this Greek-Western aesthetic taste is the genre of grotesque.

Greek philosophers initially felt that aesthetically appealing objects were beautiful in and of themselves. Plato felt that beautiful objects incorporated proportion, harmony, and unity among their parts. Similarly, in the Metaphysics,Aristotle found that the universal elements of beauty were order, symmetry, and definiteness.

Islamic aesthetics

Islamic art is not, properly speaking, an art pertaining to religion only. The term "Islamic" refers not only to the religion, but to any form of art created in an Islamic culture or in an Islamic context. It would also be a mistake to assume that all Muslims are in agreement on the use of art in religious observance, the proper place of art in society, or the relation between secular art and the demands placed on the secular world to conform to religious precepts. Islamic art frequently adopts secular elements and elements that are frowned upon, if not forbidden, by some Islamic theologians.

According to Islam, human works of art are inherently flawed compared to the work of God; thus, it is believed by many that to attempt to depict in a realistic form any animal or person is insolence to God. This tendency has had the effect of narrowing the field of artistic possibility to such forms of art as Arabesque, mosaic, Islamic calligraphy, and Islamic architecture, as well as more generally any form of abstraction that can claim the status of non-representational art.

The limited possibilities have been explored by artists as an outlet to artistic expression, and has been cultivated to become a positive style and tradition, emphasizing the decorative function of art, or its religious functions via non-representational forms such as Geometric patterns, floral patterns, and arabesques.

Human or animal depiction is generally forbidden altogether in Islamic cultures because it is said to lead to sculptural pieces which then leads to worship of that sculpture or "idol". Human portrayals can be found in early Islamic cultures with varying degrees of acceptance by religious authorities. Human representation for the purpose of worship that is uniformly considered idolatry as forbidden in Sharialaw. There are manydepictions of Muhammad, Islam's chief prophet, in historical Islamic art.

The calligraphic arts grew out of an effort to devote oneself to the study of the Quran. By patiently transcribing each word of the text, the writer was made to contemplate the meaning of it. As time passed, these calligraphic works began to be prized as works of art, growing increasingly elaborate in the illumination and stylizing of the text. These illuminations were applied to other works besides the Quran, and it became a respected art form in and of itself.

Indian aesthetics

Indian art evolved with an emphasis on inducing special spiritual or philosophical states in the audience, or with representing them symbolically. According to From Encyclopedia

Mathematics, Definition of

Over the centuries, people have thought of mathematics, and have defined it, in many different ways. Mathematics is constantly developing, and yet the mathematics of 2,000 years ago in Greece and of 4,000 years ago in Babylonia would look familiar to a student of the twenty-first century. Mathematics, says the mathematician Asgar Aaboe, is characterized by its permanence and its universality and by its independence of time and cultural setting. Try to think, for a moment, of another field of knowledge that is thus characterized. "In most sciences one generation tears down what another has built and what one has established another undoes. In Mathematics alone each generation builds a new story to the old structure," noted Hermann Henkel in 1884. The mathematician and philosopher Bertrand Russell said that math is "the subject in which we never know what we are talking about nor whether what we are saying is true." Mathematics, in its purest form, is a system that is complete in itself, without worrying about whether it is useful or true. Mathematical truth is not based on experience but on inner consistency within the system. Yet, at the same time, mathematics has many important practical applications in every facet of life, including computers, space exploration, engineering, physics, and economics and commerce. In fact, mathematics and its applications have, throughout history, been inextricably intertwined. For example, mathematicians knew about binary arithmetic , using only the digits 0 and 1, for years before this knowledge became practical in computers to describe switches that are either off (0) or on (1). Gamblers playing games of chance led to the development of the laws of probability . This knowledge in turn led to our ability to predict behaviors of large populations by sampling . The desire to explain the patterns in 100 years of weather data led, in part, to the development of mathematical chaos theory . Therefore, mathematics develops as it is needed as a language to describe the real world, and the language of mathematics in turn leads to practical developments in the real world. Another way to think of mathematics is as a game. When players decide to join in a game—say a game of cards, a board game, or a baseball game—they agree to play by the rules. It may not be "fair" or "true" in the real world that a player is "out" if someone touches the player with a ball before the player's foot touches the base, but within the game of baseball, that is the rule, and everyone agrees to abide by it. One of the rules of the game of mathematics is that a particular problem must have the same answer every time. So, if Bill says that 3 divided by 2 is 1½, and Maria says that 3 divided by 2 is 1.5, then mathematics asks if these two different-looking answers really represent the same number (as they do). The form of the answers may differ, but the value of the two answers must be identical if both answers are correct. Another rule of the game of mathematics is consistency. If a new rule is introduced, it must not contradict or lead to different results from any of the rules that went before. These rules of the game explain why division by 0 must be undefined. For example, when checking division by multiplication it is clear that 10 divided by 2 is 5 because 2 × 5 is 10. Suppose 10/0 is defined as 0. Then 0 × 0 must be 10, and that contradicts the rule that 0 times anything is 0. One may believe that 0 divided by 0 is 5 because 0 × 5 is 0, but then 0 divided by 0 is 4, because 0 × 4 is also 0. There is another rule in the game of mathematics that says if 0 divided by 0 is 5 and 0 divided by 0 is 4, then 5 must be equal to 4—and that is a contradiction that no mathematician or student will accept. Mathematics depends on its own internal rules to test whether something is valid. This means that validity in mathematics does not depend on authority or opinion. A third-grade student and a college professor can disagree about an answer, and they can appeal to the rules of the game to decide who is correct. Whoever can prove the point, using the rules of the game, must be correct, regardless of age, experience, or authority. Mathematics is often called a language. Numbers and symbols are understood without the barrier of translation, and mathematics can be used to describe many aspects of today's world, from airline reservation systems to theories about the shape of space. Yet learning the vocabulary of mathematics is often a challenge and can be confusing. For example, mathematicians speak of the "bottom" of a fraction as the "denominator," which is a pretty frightening word to a beginner. But, like any language, mathematics vocabulary can be learned, just as Spanish speakers learn to say anaranjado, and English speakers learn to say "orange" for the same color. In Islands of Truth (1990), the mathematician Ivars Peterson says that "the understanding of mathematics requires hard, concentrated work. It combines the learning of a new language and the rigor of logical thinking, with little room for error." He goes on to say "I've also learned that mystery is an inescapable ingredient of mathematics. Mathematics is full of unanswered questions, which far outnumber known theorems and results. It's the nature of mathematics to pose more problems than it can solve." see also Mathematics, New Trends in. Lucia McKay Aaboe, Asger. Episodes from the Early History of Mathematics. New York: Random House, 1964. Denholm, Richard A. Mathematics: Man's Key to Progress. Chicago: Franklin Publications, 1968. Flegg, Graham. Numbers, Their History and Meaning. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1983. Peterson, Ivars. Islands of Truth: A Mathematical Mystery Cruise. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1990.

From Yahoo Answers

Question:I like to know what all the software companies in chennai which uses Agile methodologies & Test Deiven Developments ... Please let me know you valuable answers.. thank you

Answers:Many people will correctly say that agile software development conforms to the values and principles of the Agile Alliance (AA), and those sites are clearly great resources. But, if you're looking for a "sound bite" definition of agile software development, that's a little harder to come by. Here's mine (the layout of the points may be important), and I hope you find it useful: I know a company which uses Same development technology as I know one company which had created a benchmark in similer field is Q3 Technologies Gurgaon

Question:I want to take folic acid as i am planning pregnant but I want my PH value of my body to be silghtly alkaline . What can i do?

Answers:Definitely take the folic acid as it is important for the development of your baby and helps prevent Spina Bifida. I don't think it will have an effect on the body's acidity, but you could try eating foods that are supposed to be alkalizing. Here is a link: http://www.essense-of-life.com/info/foodchart.htm I am not a scientist, but there is a whiff of quackery about this! Make sure you don't avoid foods in the other group, as that will have a detrimental effect on your pregnancy and efforts to conceive. Good luck!

Question:b.Is my career going in the direction of my goals? c.Have I done enough research about the options I have. d.List of my personal strengths and shortcomings (Enumerate at least three each) Step 3: Action: How do I get there? a.What skills do I need to develop to achieve them? b.What education /training will be required to achieve them? c.What are my obstacles? d.What are my strategies to overcome those obstacles?

Answers:Step1: Who am I a.What are Life s priorities (What do I Value) I value my family and friends the most. Even by Marshall Goldsmith Harvard Business When you look around your death bed, no fellow employees are going to be waving goodbye except your friends and family. b.What are my interests? Interest cant be restricted to an activity or a task. Peter Singer a laureate professor at the Centre for Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics also explains the same in his famous book Practical Ethics The fundamental interest that entitles a being to equal consideration is the capacity for suffering and/or enjoyment or happiness . Hence what ever you do build an interest in that activity and you start enjoying it. c.What aptitude, skills do I have? Aptitude is defined as an intellectual ability of an individual to learn material sufficiently so that he can properly perform the business task required on the job. I would rate myself with an intellectual and quick mind for question asking and logic. d.What are my achievements? My career achievements aren't measurable in terms of milestones with accomplishments. So I finally settled on my friends to be my achievement so far in life. e.What are my short term goals? Enlist about 2 to 3 of them. I am motivated, responsible, and know my role in this organization. My utmost priority is just to exploit my knowledge, learning and experience so far to the benefit of this company and its growth. f.Are they aligned with my long term goals? Yes. Step2: Exploration a.Where am I going I am on the path of learning and development. Whereby I believe I have the best of the mentors to guide me through the way to life on personal, professional and spiritual ground. b.Is my career going in the direction of my goals? Lord Krishna Ref;: Chapter - 2 Verse -47quote You have a right to perform your prescribed duty, but you are not entitled to the fruits of action. Never consider yourself the cause of the results of your activities, and never be attached to not doing your duty. c.Have I done enough research about the options I have. One only seek for an option when the present situation seems uncomfortable. For me it is not the situation yet, where I need to start a search or initiate a research. d.List of my personal strengths and shortcomings (Enumerate at least three each) My strength is probably my ability to deal with people. I am pretty easygoing. I usually don't get upset easily which is also a strength factor. My weakness is that I get stressed when I miss a deadline Step 3: Action: How do I get there? a.What skills do I need to develop to achieve them? Need to be consistent towards the approach by the virtue of time the goal would be met. b.What education /training will be required to achieve them? Definitely the current modules covered so far have given a better understanding towards the approach and style of working. Training sessions like these would not only help build a better personality but also enhance the qualities within self. c.What are my obstacles? Common man approach and 2Dimentional approach which gives only a narrow view. I believe with a 3Dimentional view I can draw a 4th dimension and have a better understanding towards achieving the goals of life. d.What are my strategies to overcome those obstacles? Always have a positive approach. Accept my shortcoming and vocal in accepting the same. Even in hard pressed situations manage the best as per my abilities.

Question:Okay,this would fall under the theory of value. I say life is cheap. Why? Because it's treated as cheap by the world-both the natural as well as the human world. Note:This is not a tirade against inequality.It's a genuine philosophical argument. What determines the value of life? First let's clear up what I'm talking about here. What do I define as life in this question? The best way to describe it is as the "life-force", "enlivening factor" or "that which animates". The reason I'm not giving a more scientific definition is because no such definition exists. When someone dies, we may be able to fix their bodies right back up to a perfectly healthy state, but we still can't revive them. Not yet, anyway. A machine can be fixed or repaired and made to work again, but a living thing cannot. We don't yet have a scientific idea of what the "force" that animates living things is. Maybe we will in the future, but not yet. I don't want to use the word :soul" as that has a lot of other definitions as well as all sorts of religious connotations. This is a philosophy argument, not a religious one. So why is life cheap? Look around you. What determines the value of life? The only way in which we can valuate life is by seeing how it's treated. Something precious is conserved and protected, isn't it? Let's start with the human world. In our world, a person's life seems to be valued by his replace-ability. That's why great leaders are mourned by millions, while the poor and destitute are largely forgotten and abandoned, even if large numbers of them die versus just one leader. We need huge numbers of deaths among the poor just to match the shock felt by the loss of just one great political, social, business, military or other leader. In other words, the value is determined by outside factors. All people have the same "life-force" animating them, after all. There's no reason why such an "animating factor" should differ. It just has to bring people to life. Their thoughts, ideas and accomplishments are irrelevant to this force. It just keeps them living. Which means that this "life-force" itself is cheap, since the value given to a person's life is determined by outside factors, not intrinsic ones. As for the natural world, it's no different. To a conservationist or environmentalist, preserving diversity and habitat is important. They don't want species going extinct. But no one complains when you squish an ant, do they? Why not? You just killed a living thing. Even environmentalists won't complain. Because ants are plentiful. Easily replaceable. But white rhinos, whales and coral are not. Once again, it's outside factors with intrinsic value being low. What about the animals and plants themselves? Nature is all about striking a balance. If nature truly cared about preserving life, then it would have evolved a system which minimized killing. But no. It's about preserving a natural balance. Animals and plants are killed by others everyday in nature. Millions of them. Billions, if you take insects and trillions or more if you take microscopic life. Yet, not too many of the higher order creatures are killed naturally. There are millions of times more bacterial deaths than there are those of lions or elephants or giant Sequoias. Once more is about replace-ability, an outside factor. And so I put forward that life itself, the "life-force" which keeps us going, has a low intrinsic value. Any additional value added to it is due to external factors. This is an argument I'd like to test. So please let me know if you agree or disagree with proper, fleshed-out reasons. Note:I can't make this shorter while preserving clarity and subject development. I don't want crank answers. Please don't post Wikipedia links to Theory of Value unless you want to highlight a concept given there, in which case you'll have to explain what it is you're highlighting here first. And thank you for your patience and your contribution.

Answers:The only value of human life outside of the human condition is as food. Life, in the macro term, has its own agenda. Namely to survive, expand and thrive. We contribute to this end by doing likewise. Inside the human condition, life has varying value. Good leaders that strive to improve the condition of man, is priceless. Whereas the opposite is the case for those that seek to enslave or destroy their fellow man. Since there are many variations of the theme, there are wide variations in the value of a particular human life. However, man is a combative creature and when two leaders collide, then they will spend the flower of a generation to settle the issue. This cheapens life. When the supply of people overrun the demand for them, this also makes life cheap. You are somewhat right in considering life as a force because like force, to accomplish work, it is expended over time and distance. The value of the work determines the value of the life but it does not diminish the essential value of life because life never loses life. Other forms will feed upon it and they in-turn are fed upon. Life is not monolithic. It is a system that has innumerable feedback loops which enables it to be almost eternal. Life on this planet has existed for almost a billion years and there is some evidence that life may be older and exists elsewhere in the universe. Life has demonstrated that it will shed any amount of lives to maintain at least one viable cell. This makes life's value of life very high indeed.

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Values Of Biodiversity A Complex Subject :pollutioncontrol.free-health-care.info Values Of Biodiversity A Complex Subject The values of biodiversity are different to different people and groups. A mega corporation's definition of the values of biodiversity is bound to differ from those of an environmental group. In turn, their perception of the values of biodiversity are bound to differ from those of governmental agencies charged with protecting our resources while promoting development. Unfortunately, some see global biodiversity values being divorced from local issues, which could very well be easier to address. Often, people don't consider the values of biodiversity in their localities until after it has been severely damaged. They don't consider the fragility of various species of plant and animal life until extinction looms and, sometimes, not even then. By that time, it is far too late and far to costly to repair the damage. Part of the problem is that people tend to base the values of biodiversity on what is important to them. This creates a lot of fragmentation among those groups wanting to preserve the biodiversity of an area, or of a particular natural resource. It means that the values of biodiversity hinge on what an organization or community considers valuable, and thus allocates money an effort to preserve. While this is horribly far from the most ideal way to measure the values of biodiversity, it is apparently one of the most frequently used. Many businesses want to preserve the resources they ...