gravity pipe flow calculator
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Answers:1. Max velocity is = v = (B/ ).R and 2. Total flow F is calculated as the flow (velocity x area) in a concentric ring-shaped element of radial depth dr and therefore of area 2 .r.dr, integrated over r = 0 to R, giving: F = 2 (B/ ). . [R -r ].r.dr = 2 (B/ ). .[R r /2 r^4/4] from r=0 to r=R = (B/ ). [R^4 (R^4)/2] = (B/ ). .R^4 Note: strictly speaking to solve 1 we should have differentiated v wrt r and set the result = 0 to find the maximum. However in this case of a function as simple as (R -r ) it s easy to do it just by inspection.
Answers:If it is for a residential use, then 50 psi is a very normal pressure. There is no direct correlation between pressure and flow rate (a pipe not flowing can still have pressure), but a typical velocity for a 1/2" pipe should be less than 5 feet per second to keep water hammer from hurting plumbing fixtures. So, 5 fps translates to a little more than 3 gallons per minute. 3.06 to be exact.
Answers:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hazen-Williams_equation Is there any elevation change of 1" & 1-1/2" diameter pipes which must be taken into account? What is the estimated length of each of these lines? Edit: ( IMO, that's a long service line to those apartments. 1" and 1-1/2" diameter line may be insufficient depending on the number of apartment (fixtures) that are served. http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/hazen-williams-water-d_797.html Sadly, I lack enough detail to give you any conclusive answer. The 2001 ASHRAE Handbook chapter 35 section 3 covers water piping design and R.B. Hunter's demand diversity estimation for residential buildings in good detail). Disc water meters are quite common. The Badger disc meters have a 3.4 and 4.8 PSI pressure loss at maximum design flow for the 1" and 1-1/2" meters respectively. 40 GPM @ 1" dia. http://www.badgermeter.com/getdoc/98f4a26e-5b06-495e-8a66-65cf55e7ed45/rd-t-55-pdf.aspx 80 GPM at 1-1/2" dia. http://www.badgermeter.com/getdoc/7fd0255f-bfef-47f8-a383-6538b93a7623/RD-T-1-1_2.aspx See pgs. 40-43 for an example of the engineering work that is involved http://www.quickscribe.bc.ca/images2/bcappp_2.pdf
Answers:1] Reynolds number, D V density/viscosity 2] Laminar flow has Re <1000