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From Wikipedia

Gram

The gram (also gramme in British English), (Greek/Latin root grámma); symbol g, is a unit of mass.

Originally defined as "the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to the cube of the hundredth part of a metre, and at the temperature of melting ice" (later 4 Â°C), a gram is now defined as one one-thousandth of the SI base unit, the kilogram, or 1×10−3 kg, which itself is defined as being equal to the mass of a physical prototype preserved by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures.

Other abbreviations

The International System of Units abbreviation for the gram is g, and follows the numeric value with a space, as in "640 g". In some fields and regions, the international standard units for units are used quite strictly, in particular in technical and scientific publications and in legally regulated product labels. In other contexts, a wide range of other unofficial abbreviations have been encountered, such as gr, gm, grm, gms, grms. The use of abbreviations such as "gm", "Gm", or "GM" for grams could potentially lead to serious errors in healthcare settings where accidentally transposing "gm" to "mg" (milligrams) would result in a 1000 times dosage difference. It would therefore be prudent to use "g" as the abbreviation for grams in any healthcare setting.

History

It was the base unit of mass in the original French metric system and the later centimetre-gram-second (CGS) system of units. The word originates from Late Latingramma â€“ a small weight.

Uses

The gram is today the most widely used unit of measurement for non-liquid ingredients in cooking and grocery shopping worldwide. For food products that are typically sold in quantities far less than 1 kg, the unit price is normally given per 100 g.

Most standards and legal requirements for nutrition labels on food products require relative contents to be stated per 100 g of the product, such that the resulting figure can also be read as a percentage.

Conversion factors

Comparisons

  • 1 gram is equal to 1 small paper clip
  • 1 gram is equal to 1 Smartie Candy

Eye chart

__NOTOC__ An eye chart is a chart used to measure visual acuity. Types of eye charts include the Snellen chart, Landolt C, and the Lea test. Procedure Charts usually display several rows of optotype s (test symbols), each row in a different size. The person is asked to identify the numbers

Eye chart

__NOTOC__

An eye chart is a chart used to measure visual acuity. Types of eye charts include the Snellen chart, Landolt C, and the Lea test.

Procedure

Charts usually display several rows of optotypes (test symbols), each row in a different size. The person is asked to identify the numbers or letters on the chart, usually starting with large rows and continuing to smaller rows until the optotypes cannot be reliably identified anymore.

Technically speaking, testing visual acuity with an eye chart is a psychophysical measurement that attempts to determine a sensory threshold (see also psychometric function).

Variations

Charts are available for very young children or illiterate adults that do not require letter recognition. One version uses simple pictures or patterns. Others are printed with the block letter "E" turned in different orientations, the so called Tumbling E. The patient simply indicates which direction each "E" is facing. The Landolt C chart is similar: rows have circles with different segments missing, and the test-taker describes where each broken piece is located. The last two kinds of charts also reduce the possibility of the patient guessing the images.

Alternatives

Computer-based semi-automatic alternatives to the eye chart have been developed, but are not very common. They have several potential advantages, such as a more precise measurement and less examiner-induced bias. Some of them are also well suited for children since they resemble a video game.

While visual acuity charts are usually designed for use at 6 metres or 20 feet, there is often also a need to test a subject's vision at near or occupational tasks (like reading or computer use). For these situations near-point charts have been created.


Line chart

A line chart or line graph is a type of graph, which displays information as a series of data points connected by straight line segments. It is a basic type of chart common in many fields. It is an extension of a scatter graph, and is created by connecting a series of points that represent individual measurements with line segments. A line chart is often used to visualize a trend in data over intervals of time – a time series– thus the line is often drawn chronologically.

Example

In the experimental sciences, data collected from experiments are often visualized by a graph that includes an overlaid mathematical function depicting the best-fit trend of the scattered data. This layer is referred to as a best-fit layer and the graph containing this layer is often referred to as a line graph.

For example, if one were to collect data on the speed of a body at certain points in time, one could visualize the data by a data table such as the following:

The table "visualization" is a great way of displaying exact values, but a very bad way of understanding the underlying patterns that those values represent. Because of these qualities, the table display is often erroneously conflated with the data itself; whereas it is just another visualization of the data.

Understanding the process described by the data in the table is aided by producing a graph or line chart of Speed versus Time. In this context, Versus (or the abbreviations vs and VS), separates the parameters appearing in an X-Y (two-dimensional) graph. The first argument indicates the dependent variable, usually appearing on the Y-axis, while the second argument indicates the independent variable, usually appearing on the X-axis. So, the graph of Speed versus Time would plot time along the x-axis and speed up the y-axis. Mathematically, if we denote time by the variable t, and speed by v, then the function plotted in the graph would be denoted v(t) indicating that v (the dependent variable) is a function of t.

It is simple to construct a "best-fit" layer consisting of a set of line segments connecting adjacent data points; however, such a "best-fit" is usually not an ideal representation of the trend of the underlying scatter data for the following reasons:

  1. It is highly improbable that the discontinuities in the slope of the best-fit would correspond exactly with the positions of the measurement values.
  2. It is highly unlikely that the experimental error in the data is negligible, yet the curve falls exactly through each of the data points.

A true best-fit layer should depict a continuous mathematical function whose parameters are determined by using a suitable error-minimization scheme, which appropriately weights the error in the data values.

In either case, the best-fit layer can reveal trends in the data. Further, measurements such as the gradient or the area under the curve can be made visually, leading to more conclusions or results from the data.



From Yahoo Answers

Question:im on diet..and i need to know the measurement, like: 1 cup=?gram does anyone can give me a vivid description that is easy to measure in daily life? for example, how much is 50 gram? since i need 50gram meat to get enough protein thank you

Answers:*** 1 cup=?gram? *** 1 cup(US) = 229.92 grams Check the link it has a conversion chart. Good luck with the diet.

Question:Hello, I'm trying to find out percentage for Calcium, Phosphorus and Sodium for a dehydrated food. However, it's listed as "Measured ml gram per 100 grams" I called the company but they don't know either. All they have is the "ml gram per 100 grams" as listed but not % of content in food. Does anyone know what a ml gram is or how to convert ml gram to grams? Thanks so much! NUTRITIONAL CONTENT: (Measured ml gram per 100 grams.) Calcium 10000 Phosphorus 8800 Sodium 5700 Hi Lora P, Would it be Calcium 0.1%, Phos 0.1%, Sodium as 0.057% if they are trying to say mg per 100g? oops...phos as 0.088%...

Answers:it might be milligram just written incorrectly. Just a thought.

Question:

Answers:Ray J is right on the money..... However, this problem CAN be done, contrary to what Ray J says. But, you need to know what ingredient you are trying to measure in order to get it to work. Here is how volume/weight conversions work. A gram is a unit of weight. A cup is a unit of volume. Volume is the amount of space an ingredient occupies and weight is the mass or "heaviness" of an ingredient. 500 grams of mini marshmallows = 10 cups 500 grams of flour = 4 cups 500 grams of sugar = 2.5 cups As you can see, the weight for these ingredients are the same, yet the volumes are different. This is because each ingredient has a different density. Here is another example: A cup of feathers and a cup of lead pellets both occupy 8 fluid ounces of volume. The feathers will weigh a lot less than 8 ounces on a scale and the lead will weigh a lot more than 8 ounces on a scale. Asking how many cups equal 100 grams would be the same as asking how many hours are in a 100 inches. Volume and weight are two completely different measurement systems... just as time and length are two different measurement systems. The only difference is that volume and weight can be linked through density.... mathematically speaking. Density = Mass divided by Volume. Density can change for the same ingredient. For example, a cup of sifted flour will weigh a lot less than a cup of unsifted flour. A pint of water will vary in weight depending on the temperature of the water. There are websites that do volume/weight conversions based on density. Two great websites are: http://www.onlineconversion.com and http://www.gourmetsleuth.com or, you can look in a cookbook that has a volume/weight equivalency chart. Ounces are another tricky problem. There are two types of ounces. Fluid ounces and ounces. Fluid ounces are a unit of volume and ounces are a unit of weight. These two types of ounces are not the same and they are not interchangeable. But there are exceptions. "A pint is pound the world around, for eggs, milk, butter and water". In other words, a cup of any of these ingredients will weigh 8 ounces on a scale. But normally (especially for dry ingredients) the weight of the ingredient does not always equal its volume. A cup of flour weighs about 4 oz, and a cup of sugar weighs about 7 oz. This is because of the density differences. A lot of people are also confused about the term "dry measure". A dry measure is a measuring cup that is flat on top so that it can be leveled. A liquid measure is a measuring cup with a spout on it. Both a 1 cup dry measure and a 1 cup liquid measure have exactly the same volume: 8 fluid ounces. A lot of people mistakenly believe that a dry measure uses a different type of ounce. They will erroneously refer to this as a "dry ounce" or a "solid ounce" or they refer to liquid being measured in a cup as "liquid ounces". Don't let the term "fluid ounce" throw you off. It is simply a name for a unit of volume. It doesn't matter if the ingredient in the cup is a liquid or dry ingredient; it is still fluid ounces. I got this from http://www.onlineconversion.com 100 grams of flour = 1 cup 100 grams of sugar = 1/2 cup 100 grams of bread crumbs = 1 3/4 cup 100 grams of water = 0.42 cup

Question:So the other night I drank more than I'd even drunk before. This is what I had: 6 440 ml Carling 7 Shots (Mostly Vodka at 40% ABV) Vodka Jelly (Same as above) 2 Jager bombs 1 pint of Bulmers Cider Now I was drunk but didt throw up and felt fine, all be it a little confused when a song came on but I just couldn't recognise the artist even though I knew it really well. I've been looking at the BAC thing that breathalysers take and was wondering where abouts mine would of been if I'd have done one then. If anyone can answer that thanks but if not does anyone have a chart of the different ABV levels and how they effect the BAC. By the way I'm a 200 lb Male and the drinking was over the course of about 6-7 hours, and I wad fine the next day, not even a headache lol.

Answers:Mathematical estimate: BAC can be mathematically estimated, although this method is not as accurate as a Breathalyzer test. Therefore, this technique is rarely used to measure an individual's BAC. However, it may help predict how an individual's BAC will change as the body continues to absorb and metabolize more alcohol. The U.S. Department of Transportation uses the following formula to calculate an individual's BAC. A person's BAC = [(The number of drinks consumed) x (ounces of alcohol consumed) x (23.36 grams of alcohol/oz.) x (0.806 ml water/ml blood)] / (body weight in pounds/2.2046 lb/kg) x (total body water volume) x (1,000g/kg)] x 100 - (time). It is important to note that males and females have different amounts of water in their bodies. In adult males, about 58% of the body weight is water. In females, about 49% of the body weight is water. http://burmasterlaw.com/Resource-Links/BAC-Calculator.html Use this calculator foe each individual drink of the same alcohol concentration. The calculated value will be higher than what would have been the actual since some alcohol had been metabolized. But make no mistake you were legally drunk. 88 = 7 beer s+ 9 shots (13.5 oz) + 1 cider = 17 drinks, amount of alcohol varies a bit but after 17 it hardly matters. Lets take the 1.5 ounce shot into consideration so we have 21.5 ounces of alcohol. Take it easy man that it a lot of booze in 7 hours.

From Youtube

air alert vertical leap measurement chart :air alert vertical leap measurement chart

How to Make a Barometer : How to Make a Barometer Measuring Chart :A measuring chart will help to make a homemade barometer accurate. Learn how to make a barometer for measuring air pressure in this free video. Expert: Gary Zier Bio: Gary Zier, originally from Florida, is a systems administrator with 10 years of computer networking experience and an expertise in conditional access security systems. Filmmaker: Gary Zier