Grade 7 English Grammar
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English grammar is the body of rules describing the properties of the English language. A language is such that its elements must be combined according to certain patterns. This article is concerned with (and restricted to) morphology, the building blocks of language; and syntax, the construction of meaningful phrases, clauses and sentences with the use of morphemes and words.
The grammar of any language is commonly approached in two different ways: descriptive, usually based on a systematic analysis of a large text corpus and describing grammatical structures thereupon; and prescriptive, which attempts to use the identified rules of a given language as a tool to govern the linguistic behaviour of speakers (see Descriptive linguistics and Linguistic prescription). Prescriptive grammar further concerns itself with several open disputes in English grammar, often representing changes in usage over time. This article predominantly concerns itself with descriptive grammar.
There are historical, social and regional variations of English. For example, British English and American English have several lexical differences; however, the grammatical differences are not equally conspicuous, and will be mentioned only when appropriate. Further, the many dialects of English have divergences from the grammar described here; they are only cursorily mentioned. This article describes a generalized present-day Standard English, the form of speech found in types of public discourse including broadcasting, education, entertainment, government, and news reporting. Standard English includes both formal and informal speech.
Word classes and phrase classes
Seven major word classes are described here. These are: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and determiner. The first six are traditionally referred to as "parts of speech." There are minor word classes, such as interjections, but these do not fit into the clause and sentence structure of English.
- Open and closed classes
Open word classes allow new members; closed word classes seldom do. Nouns such as "celebutante", (a celebrity who frequents the fashion circles)" and "mentee," (a person advised by a mentor) and adverbs such as "24/7" ("I am working on it 24/7") are relatively new words; nouns and adverbs are therefore open classes. However, invented pronouns, such as the "Spivak pronouns", as a gender-neutral singular replacement for the "his or her" (as in: "The student should bring eir books.") have gained only niche acceptance during their existence; pronouns, in consequence, form a closed class.
- Word classes and grammatical forms
A word can sometimes belong to several word classes. The class version of a word is called a "lexeme". For example, the word "run" is usually a verb, but it can also be a noun ("It is a ten mile run to Tipperary."); these are two different lexemes. Further, the same lexeme may be inflected to express different grammatical categories: for example, as a verb lexeme, "run" has several forms such as "runs," "ran," and "running." Words in one class can sometimes be derived from those in another and new words be created. The noun "aerobics," for example, has recently given rise to the adjective "aerobicized" ("the aerobicized bodies of Beverly Hills celebutantes.")
- Phrase classes
Words combine to form phrases which themselves can take on the attributes of a word class. These classes are called phrase classes. The phrase: "The ancient pulse of germ and birth" functions as a noun in the sentence: "The ancient pulse of germ and birth was shrunken hard and dry." (Thomas Hardy, The Darkling Thrush) It is therefore a noun phrase. Other phrase classes are:verb phrases, adjective phrases, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases, and determiner phrases.
Nouns and determiners
Nouns form the largest word class. According to Carter and McCarthy, they denote "classes and categories of things in the world, including people, animals, inanimate things, places, events, qualities and states." Consequently, the words "Mandela," "jaguar," "mansion," "volcano," "Timbuktoo," "blockade," "mercy," and "liquid" are all nouns. Nouns are not commonly identified by their form; however, some common suffixes such as "-age" ("shrinkage"), "-hood" ("sisterhood"), "-ism" ("journalism"), "-ist" ("lyricist"),
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Answers:Any activity which gets the kds involved has promise. For example, model well written paragraphs and talk about topic sentence, details, or supporting arguments, summary sentence, transition words etc. We use highlighters to locate and identify the various types of sentences. Then get three or four different, but well written paragraphs. Write one sentence per line. Mix them up. Have the students cut them apart, sort by topic, then organize into well sequenced paragraphs, glue them onto different pieces of paper or 5 x 8 cards. This is a good discussion stimulator as well, as not everyone will agree on the order of ther sentences. Use as a jump off point for writing own paragraphs. If the kids need more shoving to get going, have them look at an unusual piece of fruit or vegetable, or select a pciture. Use these as a starting point. Clementines, pomegranates and jicama were new to my students, but you may have different choices in your area. Certainly at this age, they should be able to develop a well written paragraph or two or three ( depends on the writing level of your students), do research to find information, word process and use tools to edit, adjust font, make it double spaced, add title and picture, center title etc. This early in the school year I used the task to model what I expect for future writing tasks. Another fun activity is to have the kids stand around a spread out newspaper on the floor. Have the students pore over the paper, looking for opportunities to do a community service project. Have them select an article or group of articles and write a proposal to help. Whether or not to follow through on a proposal would be up to you. Seventh grade kids love to argue. Have them stand up and move as you make a variety of opinion statements.( I love chocolate ice cream. The Raiders are the best football team etc.) One side of the room is strongly agree. The opposite side of the wall is strongly disagree. The kids move towards one side or the other of the room depending on how strongly they feel about the statement. Select a person from both sides of the room, and someone from the middle to orally present their reasons for their choice. Then have them chose a topic or side of a controversial subject , state their stand, and write factual arguments to support their stand. Again, they may need to do some research, do a survey etc. Also, google or search for language arts lesson plans and you will come up with a variety of helpful sites. Hope this primes the idea pump.
Answers:YOU DON'T EVEN KNOW YOUR EXAM SYLLABUS? Grammar and Reading are gonna be really easy, in Writing, just remember the format and points to remember given to you, in Literature, if you don't know what's coming, you're in for a soup.
Answers:1) Some of the STRANGEST plants in the world are those that eat meat. 2) LARGER than most other meat-eating plants is the cobra lily. 3) The leaves of the cobra lily are about as long as those of A PALM TREE. 4) Their descent is more dramatic than a ROLLER COASTER. 5) One type of pitcher plant, a vine that grows mostly in Asia, is larger than ANY OTHER meat-eating plant. (Pitcher plants eat meat, otherwise it would be just ANY.) 6) The apparatus it uses to trap insects is much smaller than that of a cobra lily. 7) correct 8)correct 9) correct 10) correct
Answers:1F... 2F....3F...4F....5F.....6F....8T...9 Matter of preference....10T Check these answers out against your own.