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From Wikipedia

Waste hierarchy

The waste hierarchy refers to the 3Rs of reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability. The 3Rs are meant to be a hierarchy, in order of importance. However in Europe the waste hierarchy has 5 steps: reduce, reuse, recycle, recovery and disposal.

The waste hierarchy has taken many forms over the past decade, but the basic concept has remained the cornerstone of most waste minimisation strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste.

Some waste management experts have recently incorporated a 'fourth R': "Re-think", with the implied meaning that the present system may have fundamental flaws, and that a thoroughly effective system of waste management may need an entirely new way of looking at waste. Source reduction involves efforts to reduce hazardous waste and other materials by modifying industrial production. Source reduction methods involve changes in manufacturing technology, raw material inputs, and product formulation. At times, the term "pollution prevention" may refer to source reduction.

Another method of source reduction is to increase incentives for recycling. Many communities in the United States are implementing variable rate pricing for waste disposal (also known as Pay As You Throw - PAYT) which has been effective in reducing the size of the municipal waste stream.

Source reduction is typically measured by efficiencies and cutbacks in waste. Toxics use reductionis a more controversial approach to source reduction that targets and measures reductions in the upstream use of toxic materials. Toxics use reduction emphasizes the more preventive aspects of source reduction but, due to its emphasis on toxic chemical inputs, has been opposed more vigorously by chemical manufacturers. Toxics use reduction programs have been set up by legislation in some states, e.g., Massachusetts, New Jersey and Oregon.

Rethinking Waste

The 3Rs are categories at the top of our disposal options. They include a variety of initiatives for disposing of discards. Generally, options lowest on the list are least desirable.

Reduce - to buy less and use less. Incorporates common sense ideas like turning off the lights, rain barrels, and taking shorter showers, but also plays a part in Composting/Grasscycling (transportation energy is reduced), low-flow toilets, and programmable thermostats. Includes the terms Re-think, Precycle, Carpool, Efficient, and Environmental Footprint.

Reuse - elements of the discarded item are used again. Initiatives include Hand-Me-Downs, Garage Sales, Quilting, Travel Mugs, and Composting (nutrients). Includes the terms Laundry, Repair, Regift, and Upcycle.

Recycle - discards are separated into materials that may be incorporated into new products. This is different from Reuse in that energy is used to change the physical properties of the material. Initiatives include Composting, Beverage Container Deposits and buying products with a high content of post-consumer material.

Generate - capturing useful material for waste to energy programs. Includes Methane Collection, Gasification and Digestion, and the term Recover.

Incinerate - high temperature destruction of material. Differs from Gasification in that oxygen is used; differs from burning in that high temperatures consume material efficiently and emissions are controlled.

Devastate - to discard into the natural environment, or to "trash" the planet. Includes Litter, Burn Barrels, Unnecessary Vehicle Idling, and Dumping discards onto land or into water.

Incentives for 3R

The 3R’s of reduce, reuse and recycle have been considered to be a cornerstone of ecological awareness and a way or promoting environmental balance through conscious behaviour and choices. It is generally accepted that these patterns of behaviour and consumer choices will lead to savings in materials and energy which will benefit the environment. In this context it may be enquired whether certain economic instruments may be considered to further strengthen these behaviours and choices.

In this context it may be enquired whether certain economic instruments may be considered to further strengthen these behaviours and choices. An example may be to reduce the sales tax or value added tax on goods that are made by recycling used materials, such as paper, plastics, glass, metals. Another example may be to reduce sales tax or value added tax on second-hand goods, which may include books, clothes, house-hold gadgets, bicycles, cars and automobiles, office equipment, medical and scientific equipment, telecommunication equipment, agricultural equipment, industrial and manufacturing equipment, boats, ships, trains and trams, aeroplanes, oil rigs, and so forth.

An additional approach may be to reduce the interest rates on the financial loans, which companies avail of, for their commercial activities in the recycling of used material and equipments.

It is plausible that this may have a significant impact on consumer behaviour, and may strengthen those sections of the economy and trade that are associated with such goods and services. Additionally, this would be consistent with supporting consumer behaviour and choices that are beneficial for the environment and for the economy.

Theory X and theory Y

Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human motivation created and developed by Douglas McGregor at the MIT Sloan School of Management in the 1960s that have been used in human resource management, organizational behavior, organizational communication and organizational development. They describe two very different attitudes toward workforce motivation. McGregor felt that companies followed either one or the other approach. He also thought that the key to connecting self-actualization with work is determined by the managerial trust of subordinates.

Theory X

In this theory, which has been proven counter-effective in most modern practice, management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can and that they inherently dislike work. As a result of this, management believes that workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of controls developed. A hierarchical structure is needed with narrow span of control at each and every level. According to this theory, employees will show little ambition without an enticing incentive program and will avoid responsibility whenever they can. According to Michael J. Papa (Ph.D., Temple University; M.A., Central Michigan University; B.A., St. John’s University), if the organizational goals are to be met, theory X managers rely heavily on threat and coercion to gain their employee's compliance. Beliefs of this theory lead to mistrust, highly restrictive supervision, and a punitive atmosphere. The Theory X manager tends to believe that everything must end in blaming someone. He or she thinks all prospective employees are only out for themselves. Usually these managers feel the sole purpose of the employee's interest in the job is money. They will blame the person first in most situations, without questioning whether it may be the system, policy, or lack of training that deserves the blame. A Theory X manager believes that his or her employees do not really want to work, that they would rather avoid responsibility and that it is the manager's job to structure the work and energize the employee. One major flaw of this management style is it is much more likely to cause Diseconomies of Scale in large businesses.

Theory Y

In this theory, management assumes employees may be ambitious and self-motivated and exercise self-control. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. According to Papa, to them work is as natural as play . They possess the ability for creative problem solving, but their talents are underused in most organizations. Given the proper conditions, theory Y managers believe that employees will learn to seek out and accept responsibility and to exercise self-control and self-direction in accomplishing objectives to which they are committed. A Theory Y manager believes that, given the right conditions, most people will want to do well at work. They believe that the satisfaction of doing a good job is a strong motivation. Many people interpret Theory Y as a positive set of beliefs about workers. A close reading of The Human Side of Enterprise reveals that McGregor simply argues for managers to be open to a more positive view of workers and the possibilities that this creates. He thinks that Theory Y managers are more likely than Theory X managers to develop the climate of trust with employees that is required for human resource development. It's here through human resource development that is a crucial aspect of any organization. This would include managers communicating openly with subordinates, minimizing the difference between superior-subordinate relationships, creating a comfortable environment in which subordinates can develop and use their abilities. This climate would include the sharing of decision making so that subordinates have say in decisions that influence them. This theory is a positive view to the employees, meaning that the employer is under a lot less pressure than someone who is influenced by a theory X management style.

Theory X and Theory Y combined

For McGregor, Theory X and Y are not different ends of the same continuum. Rather they are two different continua in themselves. Thus, if managers need to apply Theory Y principles, that does not preclude them from being a part of Theory X & Y.

McGregor and Maslow's hierarchy

McGregor's work was based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He grouped Maslow's hierarchy into "lower order" (Theory X) needs and "higher order" (Theory Y) needs. He suggested that management could use either set of needs to motivate employees. As management theorists became familiar with Maslow's work, they soon realized the possibility of connecting higher level needs to worker motivation. If organizational goals and individual needs could be integrated so that people would acquire self-esteem and, ultimately, self-actualization through work, then motivation would be self-sustaining. Today, his Theory Y principle influences the design of personnel policies, affects the way companies conduct performance reviews, and shapes the idea of pay for performance. According to the Douglas McGregor: Theory X and Theory Y article, "He is the reason we use the term 'human resources' instead of personnel department" says Brzezinski. "The idea that people are assets was unheard of before McGregor."


Today the theories are seldom used explicitly, largely because the insights they provided have influenced and been incorporated by further generations of management theorists and practitioners. More commonly, workplaces are described as "hard" versus "soft." Taken too literally any such dichotomy including Theory X and Y seem to represent unrealistic extremes. Most employees (and managers) fall somewhere in between these poles. Naturally, McGregor was well aware of the heuristic as opposed to literal way in which such distinctions are useful. Theory X and Theory Y are still important terms in the field of management and motivation. Recent studies have questioned the rigidity of the model, but McGregor's X-Y Theory remains a guiding principle of positive approaches to management, to organizational development, and to improving organizational culture.

Green waste

Green waste is biodegradable waste that can be composed of garden or park waste, such as grass or flower cuttings and hedge trimmings, as well as domestic and commercial food waste. The differentiation green identifies it as high in nitrogen, as opposed to brown waste, which is primarily carbonaceous.

Green waste is often collected in municipalcurbside collection schemes or through private waste management contractor businesses and subject to independent audit.


The word "compost" it simply means the decomposition of biodegradable materials. In agriculture,particularly organic farming, farmers utilize their green waste for composting whereby they use as manure for their crop.There are different types of composting, which includes aerobic composting, vermi-cpmpost and heap compost.In Bhutan most of the farmers prefer heap compost which doesn't cost much for the preparation as it can be easily made with locally available material.However with the increase of the population, the generation of waste had been very high and there is high risk of pollution and harmful effect to human being and environment.Therefore in order to utilize the agriculture waste, National Organic program had started a project with collaboration with Thimphu city corporation to utilize the green waste generated from centenary farmer's market.The management of the waste from the new Centennial Farmers’ Market has been an essential component of the Market facilities utilization for the MOA and Thimphu City Corporation. It is clear that the management of waste from the city is a problem that all should be concerned about and TCC alone cannot solve the problem. All citizens could help by being a little more caring and responsible in their disposal of wastes. However, the limitation of the TCC facilities in collection of wastes from various locations and appropriate management of the collected waste is a constraint in efficient collection and proper disposal. Due to these difficulties coupled with poor awareness and civic sense of the citizens, TCC’s service although far reaching needs assistance from other fronts.A huge composting facility was constructed with DANIDA funds and completed in 2004, The facilities include a shed for sorting of wastes which is connected to a chute to pass the waste to the composting structure where a shredder is located at the entrance which leads to composting cubicles which are equipped with aeration facilities with blowers. A control room has the engines that control the operations such as sensing temperatures.The National Organic Programme of DOA, MOA and Thimphu City Corporation made the first heap of compost from the fruit and vegetable wastes collected from the Centennial Farmers’ Market in an effort to take responsibility of the waste generated from agriculture.

On the 25th May, 09 a awareness programme was conducted by the NOP for over 150 vendors and retailers at the CFM while awareness infomercial was aired on BBS and banners hung around the market to remind buyers and sellers alike to share in the waste segregation by sorting at source. Separate stickers for fruit and vegetable wastes, and for plastics and others were provided to be stuck on each bin all provided by MOA through DNRM project.

With the TCC’s help in collection and transport of the biodegradable wastes to the composting site at Serbithang, National Organic Programme started making compost heaps which will be now carried out continuously to manage all the fruit and vegetable wastes generated from the CFM. The techniques used here is the low tech aerobic composting that seals in the heat and moisture and prevents foul odour around the heap. The compost is ready to be sold in the market and it is looked after by the TCC.


Biogas captured from biodegrable green waste can be use as biofuel.

Also green waste can be used as non food crop to produce cellulosic ethanol.

Code 3 Response

Code 3 Response is used to describe a mode of response for an emergency vehicle responding to a call. It is commonly used to mean "use lights and siren."


Although the exact origin of Code 3 is not clearly known, its use has spread across the United States and into parts of Canada.

Code 3 was the title to a 1950s television police procedural intended to compete with Dragnet.

Response Codes

The most commonly used response codes are:

  • Code 1 - Routine. No lights or siren.
  • Code 2 - Expedite. Use of lights and siren is dictated by jurisdiction. It is sometimes used in hostage situations so the perpetrator is not aware that the police are responding.
  • Code 3 - Emergency response, lights and sirens.
  • Code 4 - No further assistance is needed.
  • Code 5 - Stake out, all units stay away unless emergencies or in response to call.

Alternative Terminology

In some agencies, Code 3 is also called a Hot Response. Code 1 is also called a Cold Response.

Some slang may be used, such as "Running Hot", or "Running Cold".

Some departments may use the terms upgrade, and downgrade as well. If a unit is responding to a call with out lights or sirens (code 1), and the unit later needs to turn on lights and sirens (code 3), the term upgrade may be used. The term downgrade may be used in the opposite situation.

Some Paramedic/EMS agencies use Priority terms, which run in the opposite of code responses.

  • Priority 1 - Critical
  • Priority 2 - Emergency
  • Priority 3 - Non-Emergency

Other Countries

United Kingdom

The use of lights and sirens is up to the individual police officer driving to the call. The nature of the call is an aggravating factor when deciding when to use them. Calls are graded by either the control room direct (in the case of emergency calls) or by some sort of first contact centre (non emergency calls). Grading is effected by such factors as the use, or threat of violence at the incident being reported. Even though the grading is done by the control room, officers can request an incident be upgraded if they feel in their judgement they are needed immediately. They can also request to downgrade an incident if they feel they cannot justify using emergency warning equipment to get there. If a control room does not grade a call an emergency and refuse to upgrade it, the police responding to the call can still use emergency equipment if they deem it appropriate.


There is also a grading system related to new computer systems coming online with several police forces across the country:



Ambulance Victoria The information provided to Ambulance Victoria at the time of the triple zero call generates a case type and ambulance response code depending on the severity of the emergency.

There are three types of ambulance response:

Code 1: A time critical case with a lights and sirens ambulance response. An example is a cardiac arrest or serious traffic accident.

Code 2: An acute but non-time critical response. The ambulance does not use lights and sirens to respond. An example of this response code is a broken leg.

Code 3: A non-urgent routine case. These include cases such as a person with ongoing back pain but no recent injury.

Source: http://www.ambulance.vic.gov.au/Ambulance-Victoria/Operations/Response-Codes.html

Please note additional codes are used, but these are for internal purposes.

Country Fire Authority There are two types of response for the Country Fire Authority which cover the outer Melbourne Area. These are similar to those used by Ambulance Victoria, minus the use of Code 2.

Code 1: A time critical event with response requiring lights and siren. This usually is a known and going fire or a rescue incident.

Code 2: Unused within the Country Fire Authority

Code 3: Non-urgent event, such as a previously extinguished fire or community service cases (such as animal rescue or changing of smoke alarm batteries for the elderly).

New South Wales

The New South Wales Rural Fire Service uses two levels of response, depending on what the call-out is and what has been directed of the crew attending the incident by orders of the duty officer:

Proceed: To drive to an incident, without displaying lights and/or sirens and to obey all road rules.

Respond: To drive to an incident, urgently but safely, whilst displaying lights and/or sirens. Some exemptions exist for emergency drivers (for example: proceeding through a red light after stopping and when safe) though all road rules still must be obeyed. The siren can be switched off at the discretion of the driver when it is not needed (for example, when the road ahead is clear of traffic and easily visible) and reactivated at possible traffic hazards.


Queensland Police uses the priority system;
Code 1 - Life threatening, lights and sirens/no sirens (situation pending)
Code 2 - Serious or Time Critical (such as breakers on), lights and sirens
Code 3 - Proceed normal traffic conditions, no lights or sirens
Code 4 - Negotiate time to respond and attend (Rarely used)

Northern Territory

St John Ambulance Northern Territory uses terms to determine the response.

Emergency or Non-Emergency. Emergency can be broken down into Life threatening or Non-life Threatening.
Emergency: Life Threatening - Respond lights and sirens
Emergency:Non-Life Threatening - Respond with out lights and sirens
Non Emergency: Respond with out lights and sirens

Western Australia

St John Ambulance Western Australia uses the following codes to determine a response.

Priority 1 represents an Emergency call. (Response time target is to attend to 90% of emergency calls within 15 minutes)
Priority 2 represents an Urgent call. (Response time target is to attend to 90% of urgent calls within 25 minutes)
Priority 3 represents a Non-urgent call. (response time target is to attend to 90% of non-urgent calls within 60 minutes)

Possible shift to plain language

In the U.S. the National Incident Management System (NIMS) states "it is required that plain language be used for multi-agency, multi-jurisdiction and multi-discipline events, such as major disasters and exercises" and federal grants became contingent on this beginning fiscal year 2006. NIMS also strongly encourages the use of plain language for internal use within a single agency.

From Digg

Open Source Zenoss 3.0 Simplifies IT Infrastructure Monitoring, Adds Automation and Virtualization Management Capabilities

With 1.5 million downloads and driven by the community, Zenoss Core 3.0 includes new features and functionality to give holistic view of physical and virtual IT assets Austin, TX July 20, 2010 Zenoss Inc., the corporate sponsor of Zenoss Core, today announced the general availability of Zenoss Core 3.0 under the GNU General Public License (V2). Fueled by the 85,000-member Zenoss community, the newest release features an updated user interface to improve usability giving users a complete view of all IT infrastructure physical, virtual and cloud computing. Beyond its new functional capabilities, Zenoss Core has been integrated with multiple open source IT automation projects, providing a framework for improved functionality and enabling better prevention of service failures. Since the last Zenoss Core release in November 2009, the community has added more than 100 new and updated management extensions to the project (called ZenPacks). Whats New in Zenoss Core 3.0 Simplified Interface. Based on feedback from thousands of users, Zenoss Core 3.0 includes an easy to navigate interface that allows for a better experience using and configuring Zenoss. Users now can more easily filter network monitoring data and organize their dashboards through a more efficient layout to help surface critical information for managing their physical and virtual infrastructure. Virtualization Monitoring Framework. The Zenoss Community has developed extensions to expand monitoring for numerous virtualization technologies: VMware ESX, VMware ESXi, Microsoft Hyper-V, Xen, and libvirt. Deep monitoring for Amazon Web Services (EC2). Zenoss Core can be extended to collect information for these objects monitored through Amazons CloudWatch APIs. As a result of the Zenoss in the Clouds community initiative, Zenoss Core can also be extended to monitor Google App Engine, Redis NoSQL databases, Ganglia-managed distributed computing systems and events from the Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP), which is frequently used in enterprise business and cloud environments. Integration with Configuration Management and Automation Tools. The Zenoss Community has developed integration with popular open source management tools Puppet and Cfengine to enable interoperability between tools and provide automated disaster recovery and prevention. Highlights of new community ZenPacks compatible with Zenoss Core 3.0 include: Event Histograms aggregate network errors and provide graphs to visually display where faults and failures are in the network, when alerts are peaking, and what type of errors are being generated. HP EVA Monitor provides comprehensive monitoring and a graphical representation of storage, updating graphics based on events. MySQL SSH Monitor provides identical monitoring to the Zenoss Core MySQL Monitor without requiring remote access. Opengear wrote ZenPacks, extending Zenoss open source management tools to monitor performance of its advanced console server solutions and the target equipment attached. Additional highlights: Oracle Database, Memcached, Microsoft Message Queue (MSMQ), Collector Tool, and Nginx. Supporting Quotes In addition to adding features and enhancements to its paid version, Zenoss Enterprise 3.0, Zenoss is making its free, community version Zenoss Core 3.0 more complete and capable thanks to both its own development and community development of enhancements and improvements in ZenPacks, said Jay Lyman, enterprise software analyst for The 451 Group. The company is also playing a role in making open source systems management software easier to set up and deploy across physical, cloud or virtual environments and resources a key flexibility customers are demanding. This release is a testament to how a community of users can drive requirements and extend open source software. Their feedback was the basis for the extensive interface enhancements, while our large community of systems management experts broadened the scope of our monitoring capabilities, said Mark Hinkle, VP Community at Zenoss. Beyond that this release entails significant integrations between other open source systems management tools enabling users in our and other communities to make monitoring data actionable and provide automation for the higher levels of service assurance. The Zenoss 3.0 release can be downloaded from the Zenoss Community website at: http://community.zenoss.org/community/download. About Zenoss Core Zenoss Core is an award winning open source network monitoring and systems management project that delivers the functionality to effectively manage the configuration, health and performance of networks, servers and applications through a single, integrated software package. The Zenoss Community is comprised of over 85,000 active members who are instrumental in evolving the solution as well as providing timely support and help for all questions. One of the most active projects on SourceForge, Zenoss Core has been downloaded over one million times and is being used by companies in over 180 countries. The Zenoss Core project is sponsored by Zenoss Inc., a commercial open source independent software vendor. For more information on Zenoss Core, visit http://community.zenoss.org. About Zenoss Inc. Zenoss is the leading provider of Dynamic Service Assurance to the next generation datacenter. Zenoss Enterprise is a purpose-built Dynamic Service Assurance product that assures IT service delivery to applications, business services and real-time physical, virtual and cloud-based infrastructures. With a community of over 85,000 users, Zenoss products monitor over one million network and server devices daily and have been used in over 25,000 organizations in 180 countries around the world. Commercial customers include leading companies such as Rackspace, VMware, LinkedIn, Carlson, Motorola and Deutsche Bank. To learn more about Zenoss award-winning IT operations management software, visit http://www.zenoss.com. Media Contact: Ray George Page One PR Mobile: 650-922-3825 Email: ray {at} pageonepr(.)com

From Yahoo Answers

Question:I have a 10 pg project on waste management to be submitted on Monday & i am still 2 pages short. Can anyone give me a detailed description about a typical congested area, preferably the slum areas? Even if it's not detailed, anything would help right now. Thanks in advance

Answers:..........Disposing in a landfill involves burying the waste, and this remains a common practice in most countries. Landfills were often established in abandoned or unused quarries, mining voids or borrow pits. A properly-designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials Incineration is a disposal method that involves combustion of waste material. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as "thermal treatment". Most items are usually composed of a single type of material, making them relatively easy to recycle into new products. The recycling of complex products (such as computers and electronic equipment) is more difficult, due to the additional dismantling and separation required. plant material, food scraps, and paper products, can be recycled using biological composting and digestion processes to decompose the organic matter. The resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes. In addition, waste gas from the process (such as methane) can be captured and used for generating electricity. The intention of biological processing in waste management is to control and accelerate the natural process of decomposition of organic matter. An important method of waste management is the prevention of waste material being created, also known as waste reduction. Methods of avoidance include reuse of second-hand products, repairing broken items instead of buying new, designing products to be refillable or reusable (such as cotton instead of plastic shopping bags), encouraging consumers to avoid using disposable products Education and awareness in the area of waste and waste management is increasingly important from a global perspective of resource management. The Talloires Declaration is a declaration for sustainability concerned about the unprecedented scale and speed of environmental pollution and degradation, and the depletion of natural resources. Local, regional, and global air pollution; accumulation and distribution of toxic wastes; destruction and depletion of forests, soil, and water; depletion of the ozone layer and emission of "green house" gases threaten the survival of humans and thousands of other living species, the integrity of the earth and its biodiversity, the security of nations, and the heritage of future generations. Several universities have implemented the Talloires Declaration by establishing environmental management and waste management programs, e.g. the waste management university project. University and vocational education are promoted by various organizations, e.g. WAMITAB and Chartered Institution of Wastes Management. Many supermarkets encourage customers to use their reverse vending machines to deposit used purchased containers and receive a refund from the recycling fees. Brands that manufacture such machines include Tomra and Envipco.

Question:Sydney Morning Herald A QANTAS mid-air electrical failure near Bangkok on Monday is set to prompt a worldwide alert to Boeing 747 operators after the problem was traced to a cracked drip tray under the first-class galley. Qantas yesterday began a fleet-wide check of its other jumbo jets after the aircraft was forced to land on Monday using battery back-up because water leaking from the tray shorted out a generator control unit. The problem struck the aircraft, flying from London with 344 passengers, about 15 minutes from Bangkok, killing the passenger cabin lights but leaving essential functions running in the cockpit. Qantas executive general manager, engineering, David Cox said: "It was just like tipping a glass of water into your stereo. "It is not a good thing for that sort of equipment to have happen to it." The short-circuit deprived the aircraft of all or most of its main electrical power and left it on an emergency system designed to provide back-up f

Answers:In the event of a total electrical failure where all generators fail, APU doesn't come on-line, and the pilots never conserve power and completely drain the main batteries down... the engines will still run (even full FADEC systems have individual and separate permanent alternators for HFCU operation), the hydraulic controls will still work etc... basically the plane will fly normally. Instrumentation will be limited in the cockpit, but the regs require a third attitude indicator powered by an independent system for just that reason. Standby pitot/static bypass the Air Data Computers and basically you're flying a big C-152 at that point instrumentation wise. What does this mean? Probably want to find good weather and make a visual approach and landing. It will be dark in the back but so what, there's not even a remote reason to consider "ditching"! That's the media for you.

Question:topics---> 1.energy harnessing 2.agriculture 3.disaster management 4.combating climatic change 5.mathematical modeling 6.conservation of natural resources plz do give a sensible ans...

Answers:You could make a small minto wheel. This would demonstrate how a small temperature difference can create motive force to turn a wheel and generate electricity or other useful power.

Question:Couldn't they actually build a rocket to the sun that would actually do some good and send this stuff away? Or drop it in a volcano? That ought to sterilize it. They were putting it in the ocean in rusty barrels am I the only one who thinks that is a recipe for disaster?

Answers:My response below concerns chemical wastes generated by companies, and for wastes considered hazardous - and I'm not responding regarding household chemical wastes. chemical waste - if it's legally "hazardous waste" must be managed appropriately. Not to do so invites potential fines or other enforcement action. Companies who generate chemical waste - if they're "good actors" in the business world, will treat their own waste to make it less hazardous or non-hazardous, or they'll contract with someone to do that for them. If they don't, they'll get in trouble. There are in fact time limits on waste storage (usually 1 year) before the waste must be dealt with. There are exceptions to this for small quantities that are stored. It would not be smart to put waste in a volcano. That would be unsafe, and cause release of harmful emissions to the atmosphere.

From Youtube

ADMS-COMMAND: Advanced Disaster Management Simulator :First responders arriving on the scene of an emergency make decisions that save lives. Proper training of these emergency workers is critical in limiting the loss of life, mitigating damage, and assuring the safety of the public. Live training is essential but expensive, time and resource consuming and the types of incidents that can be exercised are limited due to environmental and safety restrictions. Simulation is a proven methodology to meet live training experience and go beyond. ADMS-COMMAND, the next-generation Advanced Disaster Management Simulator, is a comprehensive interactive training simulator for all-hazards preparedness, providing authentic training situations, affordably, safely, and with no environmental impact. ADMS-COMMAND is the optimal solution for training individuals and teams at all levels and disciplines, from on-scene Incident Commanders to Emergency Operation Center personnel. Objectives trained, include: Command and Control, Coordination and Communication, Planning and Resource Management. ADMS offers realistic environments into which participants get so immersed, that they demonstrate realistic behavior. To accomplish this, ADMS-COMMAND combines high-fidelity three-dimensional visuals and sound, a sophisticated physics engine and embedded artificial intelligence, resulting in open-ended learning situations based on real-world conditions. Trainees' commands drive the escalation or resolution of the situation. To further engage participants ...

Hazardous Waste: SQG Management & Minimization :Sample Clip. This training teaches workers about small quantity generators, also referred to as SQG. The program is designed to meet regulations, develop employees environmental awareness and improve overall compliance. Small quantity generator (SQG) topics include hazardous waste identification, generation and handling, satellite accumulation, on-site accumulation, shipping and transportation, waste minimization and emergency preparedness and response.