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Kidney Function Tests Kidney function tests

Kidney function tests is a collective term for a variety of individual tests and procedures that can be done to evaluate how well the kidneys are functioning. A doctor who orders kidney function tests and uses the results to assess the functioning of the kidneys is called a nephrologist. The kidneys, the body's natural filtration system, perform many vital functions, including removing metabolic waste products from the bloodstream, regulating the body's water balance, and maintaining the pH (acidity/alkalinity) of the body's fluids. Approximately one and a half quarts of blood per minute are circulated through the kidneys, where waste chemicals are filtered out and eliminated from the body (along with excess water) in the form of urine. Kidney function tests help to determine if the kidneys are performing their tasks adequately. The doctor should take a complete history prior to conducting kidney function tests to evaluate the patient's food and drug intake. A wide variety of prescription and over-the-counter medications can affect blood and urine kidney function test results, as can some food and beverages. Many conditions can affect the ability of the kidneys to carry out their vital functions. Some conditions can lead to a rapid (acute) decline in kidney function; others lead to a gradual (chronic) decline in function. Both can result in a build-up of toxic waste substances in the blood. A number of clinical laboratory tests that measure the levels of substances normally regulated by the kidneys can help to determine the cause and extent of kidney dysfunction. Urine and blood samples are used for these tests. The nephrologist uses these results in a number of ways. Once a diagnosis is made that kidney disease is present and what kind of kidney disease is causing the problem, the nephrologist may recommend a specific treatment. Although there is no specific drug therapy that will prevent the progression of kidney disease, the doctor will make recommendations for treatment to slow the disease as much as possible. For instance, the doctor might prescribe blood pressure medications, or treatments for patients with diabetes. If kidney disease is getting worse, the nephrologist may discuss hemodialysis (blood cleansing by removal of excess fluid, minerals, and wastes) or kidney transplantation (surgical procedure to implant a healthy kidney into a patient with kidney disease or kidney failure) with the patient. There are a number of urine tests that can be used to assess kidney function. A simple, inexpensive screening test—a routine urinalysis—is often the first test conducted if kidney problems are suspected. A small, randomly collected urine sample is examined physically for things like color, odor, appearance, and concentration (specific gravity); chemically, for substances such a protein, glucose, and pH (acidity/alkalinity); and microscopically for the presence of cellular elements (red blood cells [RBCs], white blood cells [WBCs], and epithelial cells), bacteria, crystals, and casts (structures formed by the deposit of protein, cells, and other substances in the kidneys's tubules). If results indicate a possibility of disease or impaired kidney function, one or more of the following additional tests is usually performed to pinpoint the cause and the level of decline in kidney function. There are also several blood tests that can aid in evaluating kidney function. These include: Normal values for many tests are determined by the patient's age and gender. Reference values can also vary by laboratory, but are generally within the following ranges: Low clearance values for creatinine indicate a diminished ability of the kidneys to filter waste products from the blood and excrete them in the urine. As clearance levels decrease, blood levels of creatinine, urea, and uric acid increase. Because it can be affected by other factors, an elevated BUN, alone, is suggestive, but not diagnostic for kidney dysfunction. An abnormally elevated plasma creatinine is a more specific indicator of kidney disease than is BUN. Low clearance values for creatinine and urea indicate a diminished ability of the kidneys to filter these waste products from the blood and to excrete them in the urine. As clearance levels decrease, blood levels of creatinine and urea nitrogen increase. Since it can be affected by other factors, an elevated BUN alone is certainly suggestive for kidney dysfunction. However, it is not diagnostic. An abnormally elevated blood creatinine, a more specific and sensitive indicator of kidney disease than the BUN, is diagnostic of impaired kidney function. The inability of the kidneys to concentrate the urine in response to restricted fluid intake, or to dilute the urine in response to increased fluid intake during osmolality testing, may indicate decreased kidney function. Because the kidneys normally excrete almost no protein in the urine, its persistent presence, in amounts that exceed the normal 24-hour urine value, usually indicates some type of kidney disease. Some kidney problems are the result of another disease process, such as diabetes or hypertension. Doctors should take the time to inform patients about how their disease or its treatment will affect kidney function, as well as the different measures patients can take to help prevent these changes. Brenner, Barry M. and Floyd C. Rector Jr., eds. The Kidney, 6th Edition. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders Company, 1999. Burtis, Carl A. and Edward R. Ashwood. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company, 1999. Henry, J. B. Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods, 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders Company, 2001. Pagana, Kathleen Deska. Mosby's Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, Inc., 1998. Wallach, Jacques. Interpretation of Diagnostic Tests, 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkens, 2000. National Kidney Foundation (NKF). 30 East 33rd Street, New York, NY 10016. (800)622-9020. . National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). National Institutes of Health, Building 31, Room 9A04, 31 Center Drive, MSC 2560, Bethesda, MD 208792-2560. (301) 496-3583. . National Institutes of Health. [cited April 5, 2003]. . National Institutes of Health. [cited June 29, 2003] . Paula Ann Ford-Martin Mark A. Best, M.D.


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Question:Also, Which of the following is/are true concerning introns? A. Introns are sections of nucleotides found on a mRNA transcript. B. RNA splicing usually removes introns from a mRNA molecule. C. Introns can function to regulate gene expression. D. The sequence of nucleotides found in introns are not known to represent anything usable by the cell. E. All the choices are true except for saying that introns do not represent anything usable by the cell. During the elongation of a polypeptide chain, _________ occurs when the mRNA moves to the next site on the ribosome to read the next codon. A. translocation B. transcription C. translation D. transference Which of the following would be transcribed into a piece of mRNA? A. a noncoding gene B. a protein-coding gene C. a promoter D. a ribozyme The idea that a single gene coded for a polypeptide rather than an enzyme was evident from the A. use of X rays to make nutritional mutants in bread mold. B. transformation of bacteria from rough and non-virulent to smooth and virulent. C. presence of a mutation in one chain of hemoglobin but not in the other. D. discovery that mutated genes changed enzymes in a biochemical pathway. E. finding that some genes in eukaryotes are split by introns. Today, it is most appropriate to state that a gene controls A. one enzyme. B. one protein. C. one polypeptide chain. D. one amino acid. E. one starch, amino acid or lipid molecule. The use of electrophoresis in hemoglobin was important because it showed that A. human hemoglobin is different from mouse hemoglobin. B. human hemoglobin is missing in sickle-cell anemia patients. C. normal hemoglobin is longer than sickle-cell hemoglobin. D. normal hemoglobin has a different electrical charge than sickle-cell hemoglobin. E. normal hemoglobin is shorter than sickle-cell hemoglobin. Which of the classes of RNA molecules carries the genetic information as it is needed for the construction of a protein? A. ribosomal RNA B. transfer RNA C. messenger RNA D. primary mRNA transcript Which of the classes of RNA molecules carries the amino acids that are added to the growing polypeptide chain? A. ribosomal RNA B. transfer RNA C. messenger RNA D. primary mRNA transcript Which of the classes of RNA molecules is linked with proteins in forming the large and small subunits of a cytoplasmic structure? A. ribosomal RNA B. transfer RNA C. messenger RNA D. primary mRNA transcript Prior to protein synthesis, the DNA A. attracts tRNAs with appropriate amino acids. B. must first undergo replication. C. contains anticodons that must become codons. D. serves as a template for the production of mRNA. E. adheres to ribosomes for protein synthesis. Which of the classes of RNA molecules is never found in the cytosol? A. ribosomal RNA B. transfer RNA C. messenger RNA D. primary mRNA transcript Transcription of a part of a DNA molecule with a nucleotide sequence of A-A-A-C-A-A-C-T-T results in a mRNA molecule with the complementary sequence of A. G-G-G-A-G-A-A-C-C. B. U-U-U-G-U-U-G-A-A. C. T-T-T-G-A-A-G-C-C. D. C-C-C-A-C-C-T-C-C. E. none of the choices are correct. If one strand of DNA has the base sequence AAGCAA, the complementary strand has which of the following sequences? A. UUCGUU B. TTCGTT C. AAGCAA D. UTCGTU E. TTCGTG Which is the process that synthesizes mRNA, tRNA, or rRNA? A. translation B. transcription C. transposition D. transformation An intervening sequence in a eukaryotic gene that is not an active part of the gene is called a/an A. exon. B. intron. C. replicon. A ribozyme is A. a section of the DNA that is expressed in the mRNA. B. a self-splicing intron that acts like an enzyme. C. a complex made up of many ribosomes replicating the same strand of mRNA. D. one of the small ribosomal subunits. E. the enzyme that attaches amino acids to tRNA. Which is the process by which a protein is constructed? A. translation B. transcription C. transposition D. transformation In order to produce many copies of a protein fast, the cell uses A. DNA replication. B. intron self-splicing. C. single-unit ribosomes for high speed translation. D. codon-anticodon reciprocal duplication. E. many RNA polymerase molecules to produce mRNA transcripts at the same time.

Answers:wasup noah

Question:hi, I had some blood tests done (about 5) last week, I have phoned for my results and was told that they are all normal apart from the kidney function test for which I have to be retested in 3 months and take a urine sample at the time. As it was the doctors receptionist who I spoke to (they never tell you anything even if its to do with you!!!) I have no idea why I need to be retested?? does anyone know?

Answers:If you have to be retested in 3 month's time it's likely that they found a small amount of something in your urine but weren't sure whether this is just due to environmental conditions, such as how much liquid you'd drunk that day. They will want to ceck to make sure that whatever it is isn't the beginning of something progressive. Anything serious and they'd have tested you straight away.

Question:A chemistry student is performing the iodoform test for methyl ketones. To that end, she carefully cleans the test-tubes with acetone, adds the unknown, dilutes them with 1,2-dimethoxyethane and adds sodium hydroxide solution. She warms the solution in a water bath and adds the iodine - KI reagent. All three unknowns give a precipitate. What is the most likely reason? Select the best explanation from those shown. 1)The test was performed correctly and all three are methyl ketones. 2)The test was performed incorrectly. 3) The acetone used to clean the tubes taints the results. 4) It's unlikely that all three would be methyl ketones, so something went wrong. anyone has any idea?thank you

Answers:3) It is very likely that since the student used acetone to clean all three test tubes, and all three tube gave a + test result, that acetone is the culprit. Rerun the test making sure that acetone is absent before the test is run - and the suspicion will be gone.

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