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From Wikipedia

Frequency distribution

In statistics, a frequency distribution is a tabulation of the values that one or more variables take in a sample. Each entry in the table contains the frequency or count of the occurrences of values within a particular group or interval, and in this way the table summarizes the distribution of values in the sample.

Univariate frequency tables

Univariate frequency distributions are often presented as lists ordered by quantity showing the number of times each value appears. For example, if 100 people rate a five-point Likert scale assessing their agreement with a statement on a scale on which 1 denotes strong agreement and 5 strong disagreement, the frequency distribution of their responses might look like:

A different tabulation scheme aggregates values into bins such that each bin encompasses a range of values. For example, the heights of the students in a class could be organized into the following frequency table.

A Frequency Distribution shows us a summarized grouping of data divided into mutually exclusive classes and the number of occurrences in a class. It is a way of showing unorganized data e.g. to show results of an election, income of people for a certain region, sales of a product within a certain period, student loan amounts of graduates, etc. Some of the graphs that can be used with frequency distributions are histograms, line graphs, bar charts and pie charts. Frequency distributions are used for both qualitative and quantitative data..

Joint frequency distributions

Bivariate joint frequency distributions are often presented as (two-way) contingency tables:

The total row and total column report the marginal frequencies or marginal distribution, while the body of the table reports the joint frequencies.


Managing and operating on frequency tabulated data is much simpler than operation on raw data. There are simple algorithms to calculate median, mean, standard deviation etc. from these tables.

Statistical hypothesis testing is founded on the assessment of differences and similarities between frequency distributions. This assessment involves measures of central tendency or averages, such as the mean and median, and measures of variability or statistical dispersion, such as the standard deviation or variance.

A frequency distribution is said to be skewed when its mean and median are different. The kurtosis of a frequency distribution is the concentration of scores at the mean, or how peaked the distribution appears if depicted graphically—for example, in a histogram. If the distribution is more peaked than the normal distribution it is said to be leptokurtic; if less peaked it is said to be platykurtic.

Letter frequency distributions are also used in frequency analysis to crack codes and refer to the relative frequency of letters in different languages.

Function generator

A function generator is a piece of electronic test equipment or software used to generate electrical waveforms. These waveforms can be either repetitive or single-shot, in which case some kind of triggering source is required (internal or external).

Function Generators are used in development, testing and repair of electronic equipment, e.g. as a signal source to test amplifiers, or to introduce an error signal into a control loop.


Analog function generators usually generate a triangle waveform as the basis for all of its other outputs. The triangle is generated by repeatedly charging and discharging a capacitor from a constant current source. This produces a linearly ascending or descending voltage ramp. As the output voltage reaches upper and lower limits, the charging and discharging is reversed using a comparator, producing the linear triangle wave. By varying the current and the size of the capacitor, different frequencies may be obtained. Sawtooth waves can be produced by charging the capacitor slowly, using a current, but using a diode over the current source to discharge quickly - the polarity of the diode changes the polarity of the resulting sawtooth, i.e. slow rise and fast fall, or fast rise and slow fall.

A 50% duty cyclesquare wave is easily obtained by noting whether the capacitor is being charged or discharged, which is reflected in the current switching comparator's output. Other duty cycles (theoretically from 0% to 100%) can be obtained by using a comparator and the sawtooth or triangle signal. Most function generators also contain a non-linear diode shapingcircuit that can convert the triangle wave into a reasonably accurate sine wave. It does so by rounding off the hard corners of the triangle wave in a process similar to clipping in audio systems.

A typical function generator can provide frequencies up to 20 MHz. RF generators for higher frequencies are not function generators in the strict sense since typically produce pure or modulated sine signals only.

Function generators, like most signal generators, may also contain an attenuator, various means of modulating the output waveform, and often the ability to automatically and repetitively "sweep" the frequency of the output waveform (by means of a voltage-controlled oscillator) between two operator-determined limits. This capability makes it very easy to evaluate the frequency response of a given electronic circuit.

Some function generators can also generate white or pink noise.

More advanced function generators use Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) to generate waveforms. Arbitrary waveform generators use DDS to generate any waveform that can be described by a table of amplitudes.

Other meanings

Another type of function generator is a sub-system that provides an output proportional to some mathematical function of its input; for example, the output may be proportional to the square root of the input. Such devices are used in feedback control systems and in analog computers.

From Yahoo Answers

Question:how can i construct a grouped frequency distribution table from the following data? 41 32 67 44 46 47 36 53 56 45 31 43 25 33 25 38 48 57 42 49

Answers:I guess you could sort it into intervals. Intervals Frequency 1-10 0 11-20 0 21-30 2 31-40 5 41-50 9 51-60 3 61-70 1

Question:Math. Hva eno idea what it is. I tried looking it up and there was a bunch of different answers. Please explain how to make the table too. Thanks.

Answers:A frequency distribution table lists out the various observations of a variable together with their corresponding frequencies The process of preparing a frequency distribution table involves listing of the various observations of the variable For example Marks secured by students of a class in a slip test 0,1,2,3,4,5,so on upto the maximum marks. Then the number of students securing identical marks are indicated as the frequency of the marks concerned If seven students got 5 marks each then the frequency of the marks 5 shall be taken as 7 The table with the variable and frequency is termed as frequency distribution table In case there is large difference between the largest and smallest items the variable may be shown in the form of classes For ex. 0 to 10, 10 to 20, 20 to 30, so on...Then the students securing marks between the limits of the class shall be taken as frequency

Question:What is the difference between each of them? Are they all the same thing with different names???

Answers:They all belong to the same family of instruments, but there are differences in their characteristics: A frequency generator, or oscillator, creates a sine wave of the selected amplitude and frequency. A function generator is like a frequency generator, but in addition to sine waves, it can usually create other waveshapes: like square waveforms, triangular waveforms, ramping waveforms, etc. A pulse generator creates a square "pulse" waveform where you can select the pulse amplitude, pulse width and pulse repetition rate (including just sending a single pulse).

Question:I have no idea how to do this please help me!! Construct a frequency distribution table using the cotton futures price data. Use the categories 30.00-39.99; 40.00-49.99; 50.00-59.99; 60.00-69.99; 70.00-79.99; 80.00-89.99 (price in cents/lb) Include in your frequency distribution table columns for lower limit, upper limit, class midpoint, frequency and cumulative frequency. Please, any suggestions or help would be great. I know your supposed to use Excel but I don't know how to actually do it. Here's the cotton futures price data: http://www.aaec.ttu.edu/faculty/eelam/3401/ClassNotes.htm

Answers:http://www.psychstat.missouristate.edu/introbook/sbk07m.htm http://ca.search.yahoo.com/search?ei=utf-8&fr=slv1-&p=%20frequency%20distribution%20table&ei=UTF-8&type=

From Youtube

Frequency table :I created this video using my Logitech QuickCam software

Letter Frequency Generator :This is part of a project that I am working on. It takes a text file containing English words and calculates the letter frequencies between A and Z and displays the frequencies calculated. This program is written using Qt4.