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An ionic bond is a type of chemical bond that involves a metal and a nonmetalion (or polyatomic ions such as ammonium) through electrostatic attraction. In short, it is a bond formed by the attraction between two oppositely charged ions.
The metal donates one or more electrons, forming a positively charged ion or cation with a stable electron configuration. These electrons then enter the non metal, causing it to form a negatively charged ion or anion which also has a stable electron configuration. The electrostatic attraction between the oppositely charged ions causes them to come together and form a bond.
For example, common table salt is sodium chloride. When sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) are combined, the sodium atoms each lose an electron, forming cations (Na+), and the chlorine atoms each gain an electron to form anions (Clâˆ’). These ions are then attracted to each other in a 1:1 ratio to form sodium chloride (NaCl).
- Na + Cl â†’ Na+ + Clâˆ’â†’ NaCl
The removal of electrons from the atoms is endothermic and causes the ions to have a higher energy. There may also be energy changes associated with breaking of existing bonds or the addition of more than one electron to form anions. However, the attraction of the ions to each other lowers their energy. Ionic bonding will occur only if the overall energy change for the reaction is favourable â€“ when the bonded atoms have a lower energy than the free ones. The larger the resulting energy change the stronger the bond. The low electronegativity of metals and high electronegativity of non-metals means that the energy change of the reaction is most favorable when metals lose electrons and non-metals gain electrons.
Pure ionic bonding is not known to exist. All ionic compounds have a degree of covalent bonding. The larger the difference in electronegativity between two atoms, the more ionic the bond. Ionic compounds conduct electricity when molten or in solution. They generally have a high melting point and tend to be soluble in water.
Ionic compounds in the solid state form lattice structures. The two principal factors in determining the form of the lattice are the relative charges of the ions and their relative sizes. Some structures are adopted by a number of compounds; for example, the structure of the rock salt sodium chloride is also adopted by many alkali halides, and binary oxides such as MgO.
Strength of an ionic bond
For a solid crystalline ionic compound the enthalpy change in forming the solid from gaseous ions is termed the lattice energy. The experimental value for the lattice energy can be determined using the Born-Haber cycle. It can also be calculated using the Born-LandÃ© equation as the sum of the electrostatic potential energy, calculated by summing interactions between cations and anions, and a short range repulsive potential energy term. The electrostatic potential can be expressed in terms of the inter-ionic separation and a constant (Madelung constant) that takes account of the geometry of the crystal. The Born-LandÃ© equation gives a reasonable fit to the lattice energy of e.g. sodium chloride where the calculated value is âˆ’756 kJ/mol which compares to âˆ’787 kJ/mol using the Born-Haber cycle.
Ions in crystal lattices of purely ionic compounds are spherical; however, if the positive ion is small and/or highly charged, it will distort the electron cloud of the negative ion, an effect summarised in Fajans' rules. This polarization of the negative ion leads to a build-up of extra charge density between the two nuclei, i.e., to partial covalency. Larger negative ions are more easily polarized, but the effect is usually only important when positive ions with charges of 3+ (e.g., Al3+) are involved. However, 2+ ions (Be2+) or even 1+ (Li+) show some polarizing power because their sizes are so small (e.g., LiI is ionic but has some covalent bonding present). Note that this is not the ionic polarization effect which refers to displacement of ions in the lattice due to the application of an electric field.
Ionic versus covalent bonds
In an ionic bond, the atoms are bound by attraction of opposite ions, whereas, in a covalent bond, atoms are bound by sharing electrons. In covalent bonding, the molecular geometry around each atom is determined by VSEPR rules, whereas, in ionic materials, the geometry follows maximum packing rules.
In reality, purely ionic bonds do no
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Answers:Ag is +1 and Na is also +1 (remember HNO3 where H is +1)
Answers:(A) Among the alkaline earth metals you can chose the soluble salts of calcium, strontium or barium as one of the reactants, because the sulfates of these salts are slightly soluble. The least soluble one is barium sulfate and suppose we choose it as the product. All nitrates of metals are soluble, therefore we can choose barium nitrate as the reactant. Formula equation; Ba(NO3)2(aq) + H2SO4(aq) -------> BaSO4(s) + 2HNO3(aq) Ionic equation: Ba^2+(aq) + 2NO3^-(aq) + 2H^+(aq) + SO4^2-(aq) -------> BaSO4(s) + 2H^+(aq) + 2NO3^-(aq) Net ionic equation: (obtained by eliminating the spectator ions from both sides) Ba^2+(aq) + SO4^2-(aq) -------> BaSO4(aq) (B) Activity of halogens decreases from top to bottom within the group ( F > Cl > Br > I ) In the elemental state all halogens are diatomic molecules. F2 and Cl2 are gases, Br2 is liquid and I2 is solid. F2 replaces all other halogens. Cl2 replaces Br2 and I2. Br2 can only replace I2. Since I2 is the least active one it cannot replace any halogen. Formula equation; Cl2(g) + 2NaBr(aq) -------> 2NaCl(aq) + Br2(l) (note: all salts of sodium, potassium and ammonium are soluble) Ionic equation: Cl2(g) + 2Na^+(aq) + 2Br^-(aq) ------> 2Na^+(aq) + 2Cl^- (aq) + Br2(l) Net ionic equation: Cl2(g) + 2Br^-(aq) ------>2Cl^- (aq) + Br2(l) As it is clearly seen from the net ionic equation, Cl2 is reduced from 0 to -1 and Br^- is oxidized from -1 to 0.
Answers:A. Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid and potassium hydroxide is a strong base.. In a solution; - A strong acid completely ionizes. HCl(aq) + H2O(l) -----> H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq) or HCl(aq) -----> H+(aq) + Cl-(aq) - A strong base completely dissociates. KOH(aq) --------> K+(aq) + OH-(aq) Strong acid - strong base reactions produces a slightly ionizable water. Overall: HCl(aq) + KOH(aq) -------> KCl(aq) + H2O(l) Total ionic: H+(aq) + Cl-(aq) + K+(aq) + OH-(aq) ----> K+(aq) + Cl-(aq) + H2O(l) Net ionic: H+(aq) + OH-(aq) ---->H2O(l) B. Ammonia is a weak base and nitric acid is a strong acid. In a solution; - A strong acid completely ionizes. HNO3(aq) -----> H+(aq) + NO3-(aq) - A weak base cannot ionize completely. NH3(aq) + H2O(l) <-----> NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) Although this equation looks similar to the ionization of HCl, the remarkable difference is the shapes of the arrows representing the equations. -----> represents the complete ionization <----> represents the partial ionization (equilibrium reaction) The other difference is not visible, but it is a fact that the extent of the ionization cannot exceed 5%. Therefore, OH-(aq) cannot represent a weak base. Overall: NH3(aq) + HNO3(aq) ----> NH4NO3(aq) + H2O(l) Total ionic: NH3(aq) + H+(aq) + NO3-(aq) ---> NH4+(aq) + NO3-(aq) + H2O(l) Net ionic: NH3(aq) + H+(aq) + ---> NH4+(aq) + H2O(l) C. To complete such oxidation - reduction reactions, the activities of metals should be known. Manganese (Mn) is more active than H2. In other words, Mn(s) can reduce H+ to H2(g) (oxidation number = 0) or H+ can oxidize Mn(s) (oxidation number = 0) to Mn^2+(aq). Overall: Mn(s) + 2HCl(aq) -------> MnCl2(aq) + H2(g) Total ionic: Mn(s) + 2H^+(aq) + 2Cl^-(aq) -------> Mn^2+(aq) + 2Cl^-(aq) + H2(g) Net ionic: Mn(s) + 2H^+(aq) -------> Mn^2+(aq) + H2(g) I hope I am not late this time.
Answers:A. Molecular Equation Al(OH)3 + 3HCl ---> AlCl3 + 3H2O Total Ionic Al3+ + 3OH- + 3H+ + 3Cl- ----> Al3+ + 3Cl- + 3H2O Net Ionic 3OH- + 3H+ ----> 3H2O The spectator ions are Al3+ and Cl-. B. Notice that the NaHCO3 releases CO2 gas, so a person might have gas pains or feel bloated. There is no gas released when using Al(OH)3.