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Free Biology Notes for Class 12

Biology is an important branch of Science. 
It can be very interesting for someone if studied with intent. 

Students those who want to enter the medical field usually take biology in their class 11 and 12. This is mainly because the basic foundation in biology is essential if a professional course has to be charted out later. 
So, the emphasis on basic concepts of biology needs to be clear. 
This is why the students take up biology in their class 12. 

There are various topics that are studied in class 12. Some of them cover the reproduction process in the organisms or the evolution of the organism with respect to the immediate environment. 
Evolution is very important concept and Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution is worth mentioning under this topic. The free biology notes for class 12 can be obtained from various sources. The internet is a very important source. The teachers at school and at the tuition centres can be other sources. These sources are reliable but the sources from the internet have to be checked for their authenticity. 
The environmental issues facing the mankind are also part of the syllabus for the class 12 biology students. 
The various environmental issues can be like deforestation or the pollution. The pollution is of various types like land, air or water. 
The deforestation is a very crucial issue. 

Global warming is another threat to the mankind. This is caused by gases like Carbon dioxide and is responsible for the melting of the glaciers in the Antarctic or in the Polar Regions. 
This causes the level of the sea to rise and this is so dangerous for the coastal regions. It is estimated many years down the line any of the coastal cities may be submerged because of this phenomenon. So, it is high time that some action is taken.
There are certain micro organisms that are useful for the human beings. The micro organisms can also be called microbes. 
These are organisms that cannot be seen with the naked eyes and can be seen only with the help of the microscope. 
Nowadays with the advent of technology high resolution microscopes are available. The microbes that are useful to the human beings are also part of the syllabus of class 12 biology students. So, the free biology notes for class 12 must also concentrate on this. 

Some of the microbes that are useful for the human beings are the fermenting bacteria and the antibiotics. The antibiotics are used to cure diseases of the human body. They help in fighting the disease causing bacteria and provide good health for the human beings. The fermentation is a process. This is basically a metabolic process. 
In this process the sugars present in a product is converted into acids or alcohol. This process is used in the production of beer. Beer is third largest consumed beverage in the world.  The free biology notes for class 12 obtained from various sources must contain all the topics that are present in the syllabus. These notes must be properly arranged according to the topics. 

This will help in making the preparation for the examination easy. The organised work always leads to better results. Sometimes gases are also produced during the process of fermentation. The gases produced can be namely hydrogen or the methane. Hydrogen is the lightest gas.  When in the process of fermentation ethanol is generated then the gas carbon dioxide is also generated in the same process. 

Ecosystem and biodiversity are other important topics in class 12 biology. The conservation of ecosystem is very important. These topics must be properly learned.


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From Wikipedia

12-metre class

The 12 Metre Class is a rating class for racing boats designed to the International rule. It enables fair competition between boats that rate in the class whilst retaining the freedom to experiment with the details of their designs. The first 12 Metres were built in 1907 and the last in 1987. The 12 Metre Class was used in the Olympic Games of 1908, 1912 and 1920 but only few boats participated. The 12 Metre class boats are probably best known for their use from 1958 to 1987 in the America's Cup.

Rough equality between boats is ensured by requiring compliance with a formula that takes into account the length at the waterline, the girth (the measurement around the boat from one sideboard, under the keel and then back over the top on the opposite side back to the original side) and the sail area. The very carefully specified measurements are then entered into the formula, and the result must be 12 Metres - hence the name of the class. Designers are free to change any of these variables (as well as other details, such as the size of the rudder and keel, etc.), with the understanding that for any change in any of the measured attributes, something else will have to be adjusted, in order to make the formula produce the required value.

The "12 Metre" in the class name does not refer to the actual length of the boats, which ranged from 65 to 75 feet (about 20 to 23 m) overall. They were all sloop-rigged, with their masts typically being about 85 feet (26 m) tall. The "12-metre" yachts are also referred to as "Twelves" or "12 Metres" or even 12s.

The Formula and Rules

The Formula and associated rules for designing and constructing 12 Metre yachts has been modified several times from inception in racing.

The purpose of the Formula and rules was to encourage designer creativity to optimise designs to get the best overall performance when racing whilst maintaining competitive racing between the different designs. Although the Formula and Rules allowed some creativity they were also intended to be comprehensive enough to eliminate loop holes which could result in an extreme design which conformed to the 12 Metre rule but completely outclassed other contemporary designs on the race course. If the rules were considered to be too loose then it would discourage the building of new 12 Metre yachts for fear of a new boat being outclassed even before it was launched.

The Rules were typically updated in response to advances in areas such as material technology (e.g. metal masts versus wooden masts), design technology (e.g. use of the wind tunnel to design sails and sail/mast combinations, advances in fluid dynamics), and equipment (e.g. winch technology).

The Rule has four distinct periods:

First Rating Rule

Used from 1907–1920

\frac{L + B + G/3 +3d + \sqrt{S}/3 - F}{2} \leq 12 \mbox{ metres}


Second Rating Rule

Used from 1920–1933.

\frac{L + G/4 +2d + \sqrt{S} - F}{2.5} \leq 12 \mbox{ metres}


  • L = waterline length (LWL)
  • G = chain girth
  • d = difference between girth and chain
  • S = sail area
  • F = freeboard

Third Rating Rule

Used from 1933–1939.

\frac{L + 2d + \sqrt{S} - F}{2.37} \leq 12 \mbox{ metres}


  • L = waterline length (LWL)
  • d = difference between girth and chain
  • S = sail area
  • F = freeboard

Third Rating Rule - America's Cup Rule

Used from 1956 onwards:

([http://www.12mrclass.com/ International Twelve Metre Association]):

\frac{L + 2d + \sqrt{S} - F}{2.37} \leq 12 \mbox{ metres}


  • L = waterline length (LWL)
  • d = difference between girth and chain
  • S = sail area
  • F = freeboard

Associated with the formula is an extremely comprehensive set of rules. The rules can be classified into two main areas. Rules concerning safety and rules to ensure competitive racing. For example the maximum total area of all cockpits is specified to minimise the chance of a boat being swamped in rougher seas. Structural requirements are specified to ensure that strength is not sacrificed by the need to get weight low down in the keel. Materials are specified plus numerous other details concerning all aspects of the boat. The intention is to challenge designers but ensure competitive racing.

America's Cup

The America's Cup racing resumed in 1958 after World War II by a syndicate lead by Henry Sears, more economical vessels were desired to replace the huge and expensive J-class yachts that were raced in the 1930s; the 12-metre class was selected.

In September 1956 a Royal Yacht Squadron syndicate was formed to build a 12-Metre for the 1958 America's Cup. The UK challenger was selected based on model tank testing and David Boyd's second design was chosen. Sceptre was launched at the yard of Alexander Robertson and Sons Ltd (Yachtbuilders) on 2 April 1958, but lost to the New York Yacht Club yacht Columbia in September 1958. Sceptre is currently owned and raced by the Sceptre Preservation Society. Alexander Robertson and Sons Ltd (Yachtbuilders) also built two of the very early 12-Metres: Heatherbell (designer Thomas Glen-Coats, 1907), which represented Finland in the 1912 Summer Olympics; Cyra (designer Alfred Mylne, 1909).

In 1987, use of the 12-metre class was ended, switching to International America's Cup Class boats for the 1992 competition.

From Yahoo Answers

Question:I'm making a 72(progress report grade) in Biology Pre-Ap but I really want to bring it up to a B+ or preferably an A. I have worked so hard in that class but the problem is the test he gives us. We are now doing an animal kingdom notebook project and we are allowed to use our notes, but when it is test time, it's not easy looking through the whole notebook secton in less than 50 mins on a 40-50 question test. Please, what are some advice to help me prepare better on my test. I write my notes in a sub-divided format( I forgot what the format is called) so they are very organized. I don't know, I don't think I study enough but I really want to do well on my next test and this six weels report card. Please help(Tips!!, are welcome) ---------------- -10 points-best answer -5 stars -added contact(if I already added you, I'll answer 1 or 2 of your questions) p.s I have one week because after this week is final exams and I would like some tips to prepare for the biology exam... thx

Answers:It is good you can use your notes, but don't use them as a crutch. I home schooled my daughter and she always did well on the animal kingdom because she loves animals. Math went in one ear and out the other. To this day, she has problems with math. It is not that she can't do it, it is her attitude toward it. My point, hit the books and fall in love with the subject. I know it sounds hard, but you are seeing the animals a seperate. In the larger picture, they are a part of us. Find out how. My husband and I went to 'The Bodies Exhibit' when we were in Vegas. He didn't want to go at first, but then he changed his thinking about it and enjoyed it. It had a bunch of bodies sliced in different ways so you can see inside the human body, in case you never heard of it. You would be surprised how some parts of our inner bodies look like different fish and animals. It was amazing. Anyway, attitude is key. Once you make the decision to really know the subject, you will be more aware of thing you wouldn't have noticed before. Just learning it for a test will only get you so far. Learning to have an understanding and really seeing the subject will give you a greater understanding and then you will be able to mark references that will take you quicker to areas with facts that will be usable on your test. Use those post it tabs to help you move quicker. I hope I helped you. Good luck.

Question:Match each of the descriptive phrases listed below with the one term it best defines. Use each answer only once. a. seral stage g. ecosystem b. biosphere h. r c. climax community i. exponential d. community j. population e. competition k. K f. ecological niche l. succession _____ 1. global ecosystem _____ 2. all the living organisms in a particular location _____ 3. functional role of an organism in its community _____ 4. progressive change in the plant and animal life of an area _____ 5. intrinsic growth rate of a population _____ 6. struggle for resources between organisms _____ 7. carrying capacity of the environment _____ 8. group of individuals belonging to the same species _____ 9. stable stage of succession _____ 10. sum total of the physical features and living organisms in a particular area _____ 11. temporary phase of succession _____ 12. type of growth characteristic of most populations

Answers:__b___ 1. global ecosystem __d__ 2. all the living organisms in a particular location __f___ 3. functional role of an organism in its community __I___ 4. progressive change in the plant and animal life of an area __i___ 5. intrinsic growth rate of a population __e___ 6. struggle for resources between organisms _____ 7. carrying capacity of the environment __J___ 8. group of individuals belonging to the same species ____ 9. stable stage of succession __g___ 10. sum total of the physical features and living organisms in a particular area _____ 11. temporary phase of succession _____ 12. type of growth characteristic of most populations Don't know the rest

Question:Doing a presentation and i need help...

Answers:Not my area of expertise but maybe I can give you some suggestions & tips on presenting the material. Avoid just reading to the class or giving only a lecture; you know how boring that is when the teacher does it. Vary your techniques every few minutes.Make an outline and use it as hand-outs. This will serve you to present the material in an orderly fashion and prevent you from forgetting any material. The students and teacher can keep the hand-outs as a memento of an outstanding presentation (: Make use of every tool you can think of that is at your disposal: powerpoint / overhead projection, chalkboard (w/different color chalk), hands - on (like beads on a neckless where you can insert different color beads), other visuals; be creative. Assume the class knows very little about the topic. Start with generalities, like definition of a prokaryotic cell, description of a plasmid, etc. Follow the outline going into topics like transformations, restriction enzymes, classification of plasmids, the future applications of plasmid research in genetic engineering and medicine, etc. You may want to give an account of the history of insulin production: early extraction from the pancreas of human cadavers to pig insulin from slaughter houses to mass production from genetically engineered microorganisms. Good luck. And remember, what every teacher knows:" If you can't dazzle them with knowledge, baffle them with bulls*it(: "

Question:okay I'm doing an activity where you have to match the definitions with the words. here are the words i have left -amino acid -carbohydrate -cholesterol -dehydration synthesis -isomers -maltose -neutral fat -nucleotide -oxidation -polymer -protein quaternary structure -tertiary structure -glycerol and here are the definitions please note that some of the words may not be in the above list as i may have gotten another question wrong that i have not listed! :) -the subunit that makes up nucleic acids- 4 types in DNA are A C G T -the building block of a protein- there are 20 different types normally found in nature -the bond that forms between 2 amino acids joined by dehydration synthesis -molecules with with identical empirical formulas but differnet structural arrangements of atoms -any molecule with the molecular formula Cn(H2O)n (its supposed to say Carbon any number( water molecule)any number -a lipid that is an important component of a cell membranes and from which steroid hormones are made. -a lipid composed of glycerol joined to 3 fatty acids -a large organic molecule formed from a chain or chains of amino acids - a large molecule made by joining together smaller identical ( or similar) molecules -three carbon that joins with fatty acids to produce triglycerides \ Thanks for your help in advance :)

Answers:Nucleotide-the subunit that makes up nucleic acids amino acid-the building block of a protein isomers-molecules with identical empirical formulas but different...

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