Free Biology NotesBiology is an interesting subject and this subject makes us aware about life and living organisms. It not only deals with various plants but also gives us information about animals and human beings. The structure, growth, function of any living creature and other relevant things are included in this subject. This subject comes under natural science and it imparts information about cell, genes, evolution and others. Moreover, this subject has many branches and sub-disciplines and each of these gives specific information to students. For instance, botany is a well-known sub-discipline and it deals with the biology of various plants. Moreover, many colorful images, diagrams are added in each biology syllabus to give students detailed knowledge in each topic. Some other branches of biology are anatomy, bioengineering, astrobiology, cell biology, ecology, environmental biology and others.
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A United States Note, also known as a Legal Tender Note, was a type of paper money that was issued from 1862 to 1971 in the U.S. Having been current for over 100 years, they were issued for longer than any other form of U.S. paper money. They were known popularly as "greenbacks" in their heyday, a name inherited from the Demand Notes that they replaced in 1862. They were called United States Notes by the First Legal Tender Act, which authorized them as a form of fiat currency, but because their value derives from their status as legal tender they bear the inscription "This Note is a Legal Tender" and are often called Legal Tender Notes. They were originally issued directly into circulation by the U.S. Treasury to pay expenses incurred by the Union during the American Civil War. Over the next century, the legislation governing these notes was modified many times and numerous versions have been issued by the Treasury.
United States Notes that were issued in the large-size format, prior to 1929, differ dramatically in appearance when compared to modern American currency, but those issued in the small-size format, starting in 1929, are very similar to contemporary Federal Reserve Notes with a marked distinction of having a red U.S. Treasury Seal in place of a green one.
Whereas issuance of United States Notes ended in January 1971, existing United States Notes are still valid currency in the United States, though extremely rarely seen in circulation, given that paper money currently consists almost exclusively of Federal Reserve Notes.
During 1861, the opening year of the American Civil War, the expenses incurred by the Union Government far outstripped its limited revenues from taxation, and borrowing was the main vehicle for financing the war. The Act of July 17, 1861 authorized Secretary of the TreasurySalmon P. Chase to raise money via the issuance of $50,000,000 in Treasury Notes payable on demand. These Demand Notes were paid out to creditors directly and used to meet the payroll of soldiers in the field. While issued within the legal framework of Treasury Note Debt, the Demand Notes were intended to circulate as currency and were of the same size, and in appearance, closely resembled banknotes. In December 1861, economic conditions deteriorated and a suspension of specie payment led the government to cease redeeming the Demand Notes in coin.
The Legal Tender Acts
The beginning of 1862 found the Union's expenses mounting, and the government had no way to continue paying for the war. U.S. Demand Notes—which were used, among other things, to pay Union soldiers—were unredeemable, and the value of the notes began to deteriorate. In January President Lincoln sent for Edmund Dick Taylor, he suggested the issuance of treasury notes bearing no interest and printed on the best banking paper. "Father of the Greenback", documented: February 10, 1888.
Congressman and Buffalo banker Elbridge G. Spaulding prepared a bill, based on the Free Banking Law of New York, that eventually became the National Banking Act of 1863. Recognizing, however, that his proposal would take many months to pass Congress, in early February Spaulding introduced another bill to permit the U.S. Treasury to issue $150 million in notes as legal tender. This caused tremendous controversy in Congress, as hitherto the Constitution had been interpreted as not granting the government the power to issue a paper currency. "The bill before us is a war measure, a measure of necessity, and not of choice," Spaulding argued before the House, adding, "These are extraordinary times, and extraordinary measures must be resorted to in order to save our Government, and preserve our nationality." Spaulding justified the action as a "necessary means of carrying into execution the powers granted in the Constitution 'to raise and support armies,' and 'to provide and maintain a navy.'â€�
Despite strong opposition, on February 25, 1862, President Lincoln signed the First Legal Tender Act into law, authorizing the issuance of United States Notes as a legal tender—the paper currency soon to be known as "greenbacks." Initially, the emission was limited to $150,000,000 total face value between the new Legal Tender Notes and the existing Demand Notes. The Act also called for the new notes to be used to replace the Demand Notes as soon as practical. The Demand Notes had been issued in denominations of $5, $10, and $20, and these were replaced by United States Notes nearly identical in appearance on the obverse. In addition, notes of entirely new design were introduced in denominations of $50, $100, $500 and $1000. The Demand Notes' printed promise of payment "On Demand" was removed and the statement "This Note is a Legal Tender" was added.
Legal tender status guaranteed that creditors would have to accept the notes despite the fact that they were not backed by gold, bank deposits, or government reserves, and bore no interest. However, the First Legal Tender Act did not make the notes an unlimited legal tender as they could not be used by merchants to pay customs duties on imports and could not be used by the government to pay interest on its bonds. The Act did provide that the notes be receivable by the government for short term deposits at 5% interest, and for the purchase of 6% interest 20-year bonds at par. The rationale for these terms was that the Union government
4 Branches of biology; 5 See also; 6 Notes and references ... . Meanwhile, taxonomy and classification became a focus in the study of natural ... The cell is also considered to be the basic unit in many pathological processes. ...
These plants have adapted to the high salinity of the ocean environment. .....List of fishing topics by subject Index of fishing articles Fisheries ...
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Answers:It is good you can use your notes, but don't use them as a crutch. I home schooled my daughter and she always did well on the animal kingdom because she loves animals. Math went in one ear and out the other. To this day, she has problems with math. It is not that she can't do it, it is her attitude toward it. My point, hit the books and fall in love with the subject. I know it sounds hard, but you are seeing the animals a seperate. In the larger picture, they are a part of us. Find out how. My husband and I went to 'The Bodies Exhibit' when we were in Vegas. He didn't want to go at first, but then he changed his thinking about it and enjoyed it. It had a bunch of bodies sliced in different ways so you can see inside the human body, in case you never heard of it. You would be surprised how some parts of our inner bodies look like different fish and animals. It was amazing. Anyway, attitude is key. Once you make the decision to really know the subject, you will be more aware of thing you wouldn't have noticed before. Just learning it for a test will only get you so far. Learning to have an understanding and really seeing the subject will give you a greater understanding and then you will be able to mark references that will take you quicker to areas with facts that will be usable on your test. Use those post it tabs to help you move quicker. I hope I helped you. Good luck.
Answers:You probably will need the textbook. You can practice for AP BIO on WWW.BUBBBABRAIN.COM --the games are interactive How to use bubbabrain Select a grade level on the left hand menu, and click on it. Select the subject, and click on the subject drop-down arrow. Select a word set from the drop-down menu and click submit at the bottom of the page. The top left box will say find this and a definition will be listed below. Click on the term that matches the definition. A new definition will appear, and you must find the new definition. Continue until you have cleared the rest of the board. Your classmates might dig it!
Answers:generally I don't think you need revision notes for this W2 paper. Really its a pretty uniform structure. Question 1, you are given data and you'll be led in steps by the questions to evaluate this data. Basically it'll ask you to put it in a table, then make that into a graph. Then maybe you'll need to suggest a null hypothesis. After this you will need to do some kind of test on the data (formula is almost always given) you then use the result to choose to accept or reject the null hypothesis. Question 2 they will give you some prose about a potential experiment, you then need to plan the experiment and state how you would record and evaluate your data. This is pretty standard stuff like stating your method, what you are measing, what you need to change/control etc etc. I know it sounds silly but make sure you are measuring EXACTLY what they are telling you to. After this you state what graph you'll put the data in, then what test you would use, what your null hypothesis will be. Finally you state the limitations and possible futher work. Thats pretty much it, a comprehension exercise ^_^ so good luck and make sure you read the questions well and you shouldnt have a problem :)