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From Wikipedia

Resource management

In organizational studies, resource management is the efficient and effective deployment for an organization's resources when they are needed. Such resources may include financial resources, inventory, human skills, production resources, or information technology (IT). In the realm of project management, processes, techniques and philosophies as to the best approach for allocating resources have been developed. These include discussions on functional vs. cross-functional resource allocation as well as processes espoused by organizations like the Project Management Institute (PMI) through their Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) methodology to project management. Resource management is a key element to activity resource estimating and project human resource management. Both are essential components of a comprehensive project management plan to execute and monitor a project successfully. As is the case with the larger discipline of project management, there are resource management software tools available that automate and assist the process of resource allocation to projects and portfolio resource visibility including supply and demand of resources.

HR (Human Resource) Management

This is the science of allocating human resources among various projects or business units, maximizing the utilization of available personnel resources to achieve business goals; and performing the activities that are necessary in the maintenance of that workforce through identification of staffing requirements, planning and oversight of payroll and benefits, education and professional development, and administering their work-life needs. The efficient and effective deployment of an organization's personnel resources where and when they are needed, and in possession of the tools, training and skills required by the work.

Corporate Resource Management Process

Large organizations usually have a defined corporate resource management process which mainly guarantees that resources are never over-allocated across multiple projects.


One resource management technique is resource leveling. It aims at smoothing the stock of resources on hand, reducing both excess inventories and shortages.

The required data are: the demands for various resources, forecast by time period into the future as far as is reasonable, as well as the resources' configurations required in those demands, and the supply of the resources, again forecast by time period into the future as far as is reasonable.

The goal is to achieve 100% utilization but that is very unlikely, when weighted by important metrics and subject to constraints, for example: meeting a minimum service level, but otherwise minimizing cost.

The principle is to invest in resources as stored capabilities, then unleash the capabilities as demanded.

A dimension of resource development is included in resource management by which investment in resources can be retained by a smaller additional investment to develop a new capability that is demanded, at a lower investment than disposing of the current resource and replacing it with another that has the demanded capability.

In conservation, resource management is a set of practices pertaining to maintaining natural systems integrity. Examples of this form of management are air resource management, soil conservation, forestry, wildlife management and water resource management. The broad term for this type of resource management is natural resource management (NRM).

Agricultural productivity

Agricultural productivity is measured as the ratio of agricultural outputs to agricultural inputs. While individual products are usually measured by weight, their varying densities make measuring overall agricultural output difficult. Therefore, output is usually measured as the market value of final output, which excludes intermediate products such as corn feed used in the meat industry. This output value may be compared to many different types of inputs such as labour and land (yield). These are called partial measures of productivity. Agricultural productivity may also be measured by what is termed total factor productivity (TFP). This method of calculating agricultural productivity compares an index of agricultural inputs to an index of outputs. This measure of agricultural productivity was established to remedy the shortcomings of the partial measures of productivity; notably that it is often hard to identify the factors cause them to change. Changes in TFP are usually attributed to technological improvements.

Importance of agricultural prosuctivity

The productivity of a region's farms is important for many reasons. Aside from providing more food, increasing the productivity of farms affects the region's prospects for growth and competitiveness on the agricultural market, income distribution and savings, and labour migration. An increase in a region's agricultural productivity implies a more efficient distribution of scarce resources. As farmers adopt new techniques and differences in productivity arise, the more productive farmers benefit from an increase in their welfare while farmers who are not productive enough will exit the market to seek success elsewhere.

As a region's farms become more productive, its comparative advantage in agricultural products increases, which means that it can produce these products at a lower opportunity cost than can other regions. Therefore, the region becomes more competitive on the world market, which means that it can attract more consumers since they are able to buy more of the products offered for the same amount of money.

Increases in agricultural productivity lead also to agricultural growth and can help to alleviate poverty in poor and developing countries, where agriculture often employs the greatest portion of the population. As farms become more productive, the wages earned by those who work in agriculture increase. At the same time, food prices decrease and food supplies become more stable. Labourers therefore have more money to spend on food as well as other products. This also leads to agricultural growth. People see that there is a greater opportunity earn their living by farming and are attracted to agriculture either as owners of farms themselves or as labourers.

However, it is not only the people employed in agriculture who benefit from increases in agricultural productivity. Those employed in other sectors also enjoy lower food prices and a more stable food sup. At the same time, they may see their wages rise as well.

Agricultural productivity is becoming increasingly important as the world population continues to grow. India, one of the world's most populous countries, has taken steps in the past decades to increase its land productivity. Forty years ago, North India produced only wheat, but with the advent of the earlier maturing high-yielding wheats and rices, the wheat could be harvested in time to plant rice. This wheat/rice combination is now widely used throughout the Punjab, Haryana, and parts of Uttar Pradesh. The wheat yield of three tons and rice yield of two tons combine for five tons of grain per hectare, helping to feed India's 1.1 billion people.

Agricultural productivity and sustainable development

Increase in agricultural productivity are often linked with questions about sustainability and sustainable development. Changes in agricultural practices necessarily bring changes in demands on resources. This means that as regions implement measures to increase the productivity of their farm land, they must also find ways to ensure that future generations will also have the resources they will need to live and thrive.

Productive farms

Nevertheless, for many farmers (especially in non-industrial countries) agricultural productivity may mean much more. A productive farm is one that provides most of the resources necessary for the farmer's family to live, such as food, fuel, fiber, healing plants, etc. It is a farm which ensures food security as well as a way to sustain the well-being of a community. This implies that a productive farm is also one which is able to ensure proper management of natural resources, such as biodiversity, soil, water, etc. For most farmers, a productive farm would also produce more goods than required for the community in order to allow trade.

Diversity in agricultural production is one key to productivity, as it enables risk management and preserves potentials for adaptation and change. Monoculture is an example of such a nondiverse production system. In a monocultural system a farmer may produce only crops, but no livestock, or only livestock and no crop.

The benefits of raising livestock, among others, are that it provides multiple goods, such as food, wool, hides, and transportation. It also has an important value in term of social relationships (such as gifts in

From Encyclopedia

Food Production Food Production

Space explorers and settlers who are far from the farms and fields of Earth will need a reliable way to produce food. A continuous supply of nutritious, safe, and appealing food is essential for people who are living and working under unusual conditions that require peak physical condition. Food also plays an important role in the psychological welfare of crewmembers by providing familiarity and variety in the diet. The ability to continually produce food is an important element of long-term survival in space that cannot be accomplished by physical or chemical means. Food will have to be grown as quickly, reliably and efficiently as possible. Astronauts on long-duration space missions or settlers on other planets will have to maintain crops in growth chambers protected from the outside environment, but they will still need to supply adequate lighting, nutrients, and a suitable atmosphere. Natural sunlight in transparent greenhouses or artificial lights could satisfy the lighting requirement, but there are tradeoffs. On Mars, for example, sunlight is available for only half of each Martian day, and more light is required for optimal growth of many plant species. In addition, the Sun can be obscured for months by giant dust storms. Higher radiation doses and possible damage from meteoroid impacts are other dangers. On the other hand, artificial lighting systems would be costly to transport and may require a great deal of energy. Nutrients could be provided to crops by a form of hydroponics , with the roots in contact with a thin film of liquid or a porous material such as vermiculite. Alternatively, the surface regolith of the Moon or Mars could be used as soil after any hypersalinity or toxic materials are washed out. Organic wastes and microbial soil communities could be added to the regolith to render it closer to the fertile soil found on Earth. On-site resources could also be processed to provide air and water for growing crops. On Mars, water can be extracted from the regolith and condensed from the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide could be taken directly from the Martian atmosphere. Atmospheric nitrogen could also be extracted and reacted with hydrogen to produce ammonia for fertilizers. Nitrogen-fixing microorganisms could be added to the soil to chemically alter this gas into a form usable by the plants. Foods produced in space will be carefully balanced for caloric content, nutritional quality, and palatability. Some plants may be genetically modified to alter or enhance their nutrient composition, and efforts will need to be made to optimize conditions for plant growth. Processing will also be required to convert crops into palatable, safe, and satisfying foods. In addition, processing will be needed to preserve food for storage in case of crop failure. The chosen foodstuffs will have to be versatile and capable of being converted into different types of foods. For example, soybeans can be pressed to release oils, and the remaining high-protein soybean meal can be manipulated to provide different foodstuffs. Soy milk can be used in place of cow's milk or can be used to make curd in the form of tofu or tempeh. Adding different plant food will enhance the palatability of the diet. For example, various brassicas (similar to wild mustard) produce oils similar in quality to that of canola, and peanuts have an interesting flavor. Black-eyed peas are a good low-fat complement to oily legumes such as soybeans and peanuts. Besides being heat and drought tolerant, cowpeas are a staple crop eaten in Africa as a dry bean, snap bean, or raw salad green. In addition, their low oil content allows cowpea meal to be incorporated into formed or extruded vegetarian food products. Rice is an excellent cereal crop to complement protein from legumes in a balanced vegetarian diet. Rice protein is tolerated by virtually all people, and it is more versatile than most other cereal grains. Wheat in the form of breads and pastas is a very important and common foodstuff in many cultures. In addition, the plants can be grown in high density, and the grain is very versatile. Potatoes, whether white or sweet, can make good and hearty additions to the diet. Much of the potato plant is edible, and the tubers are versatile and consumed throughout the world. Other crops such as tomatoes and lettuce may also be grown. Tomatoes can be used in stews, sauces, and salads, while lettuce makes good salad greens and can be grown efficiently. Spices and herbs will surely be grown to make the diet seem more varied, and hot peppers could enrich mealtime. Apples, oranges, and other fruits, however, will probably be rare because many fruits grow on bushes or trees that use space inefficiently and are comparatively nonproductive relative to the resources required for cultivation. Despite efforts to maximize crop yields, about half of the plant material produced cannot be digested by humans. However, indigestible cellulose can be converted into sugars for use as food or as nutrients to grow yeasts, fungi, or plant cell cultures . Cellulose-digesting animals could also be raised on a small scale. While they would not be raised primarily for food, animals could on occasion provide high-quality protein and would make creating a balanced diet easier. At the other end of the spectrum, "microbial crops" could be good source of single-cell protein. For example, brewer's yeast and algae could be used as a dietary supplement, and green algae are a good source of protein as well as essential fatty acids and vitamins. In addition, algae can help provide oxygen to the atmosphere. Although not suitable as the only source of food, algae could be grown very quickly in an emergency and provide needed sustenance for the crew. see also Biotechnology (volume 4); Food (volume 3); Living on Other Worlds (volume 4). John F. Kross Boston, Penelope J., ed. The Case for Mars. San Diego, CA: American Astronautical Society, 1984. Eckart, Peter. Spaceflight Life Support and Biospherics. Torrence, CA: Microcosm Press,1996. Nelson, Allen J. Space Biospheres. Malabar, FL: Orbit Book Co., 1987. Oberg, James E. Mission to Mars: Plans and Concepts for the First Manned Landing. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1982. "Growing Crops in a CELSS." Purdue University. . "Plant Physiological Research in the KSC-Breadboard Project." Kennedy Space Center. .

From Yahoo Answers



Question:It's not in my textbook and I don't know any! And I can't find any on the web. For a reminder of what the 3 types of mineral resources are, they are: identified resources, undiscovered resources, and reserves. Thanks!

Answers:Keep in mind the definitions can vary between countries and various regulatory bodies. Identified resources - a mineral occurrence which is known but is not known to be recoverable at a profit, either because it is too remote, too low grade, too small, not enough information, or a wide variety of other factors. An example would be the Russell gold deposit in South Carolina. Undiscovered resources - a resource which has not been discovered, ie potential resource. An example would be a property being explored by a mining company, hoping they find something. Sometimes undiscovered resources can be loosely estimated by a complex and unreliable formula relating the size of the unexplored ground and its perceived mineral potential. Reserve - a resource which can be recovered at a profit. This will be a mine either in production or going into production. For example, the Ekati diamond mine in northern Canada. Undiscovered resources can become indentified resources and that can become reserves. A mine site typically has all 3.

Question:Please answer them all step be step because I need to understand so I can answer all of my problems! A. Show the prime factorization of 72 B. Factor the following: 1. x^2+16x-36 2. 3x^2+4x+1 (when I go ^2 I mean the exponet which in the following cases would be squared) C. Use the Zero Product Property to solve 3x^2+4x+1=0 D. Use the Discriminant to determine wether the expression can be factored 1. 16a^2-18a+9 2. x^2+7x-10 Thank you all for your help!

Answers:Hi, Your previous answer has a couple errors, so this includes the corrections for you. A. Show the prime factorization of 72 2*2*2*3*3 is prime factorization of 72 B. Factor the following: 1. x^2+16x-36 There is no GCF, so start 2 parentheses both with x (x......)(x........) The first parentheses gets a "+", the sign in front of the x term. The second parentheses gets the opposite sign, a "-", because the second sign was negative. (x.+....)(x.-....) Then you are looking for factors of 36 that will subtract to the 16 in the center of the problem. 18 and 2 are the correct numbers, but because you want a positive 16 in the center, the bigger number,18, needs to be with the plus sign. So the correct factors for this problem are: (x.+ 18)(x.-.2) <=== this answer was wrong on the earlier answer. 2. 3x^2+4x+1 (3x + 1)(x + 1) is correct. C. Use the Zero Product Property to solve 3x^2+4x+1=0 This sets each factor equal to zero and then solves them. 3x^2+4x+1= 0 (3x + 1)(x + 1) = 0 3x + 1 = 0 3x = -1 x = -1/3 x + 1 = 0 x = -1 D. Use the Discriminant to determine whether the expression can be factored The discriminant is b^2 - 4ac 1. 16a^2-18a+9 (-18)^2 - 4*16*9 = 324 - 576 = -252 When the discriminant is negative there are 2 complex number solutions with "i" in them. These solutions are not real numbers, so this clearly can not be factored. 2. x^2+7x-10 7^2 - 4*1*-10 = 49 + 40 = 89 When the discriminant is positive, the equation is factorable if you know the square root of the discriminant. If you don't know the square root, like this problem, then the problem is not factorable. So this problem does not factor. <== This answer was wrong on the earlier answer. I hope that helps!! :-)

Question:they come from and important products they are needed for

Answers:Salt: Salt mines in the US - Avery Island, Louisiana and Detroit Michigan. Salt is used for aluminum purification, seasoning for food, preservation of canned goods, chlorine manufacturing, drilling, fish and meat curing, pottery production, swimming pools, synthetic rubber manufacturing, and water softening. Quartz: Quartz mines in the US - Arkansas. Quartz is used for radios, as crystal gems, sandpaper, soap, prisms, glass, paints, clocks, watches, and computers. It is used for radar, radios, and TVs because it conducts electricity. Copper: Copper mines in the US - Michigan and Arizona. Copper is used for wire, pipe, coins, electrical machinery, ornamental decorations, cooking utensils, and to make bronze and brass. Copper is easy to pound into other shapes, pulled to form wires, and mold into things. Gold: Gold mines in the US - Nevada and California. Gold is used in jewelry, money, computers, TVs, dentistry, and electronics. Platinum: Platinum mines in the US - Alaska. Platinum is used for surgical instruments, chemical equipment, jewelry, and catalytic converters in cars. It can be molded easily, so it is used for things like wire and in things that need to be bent.

From Youtube

Four types of resources.wmv :

LP2 Four Types of Resources Movie :This video addresses a 3rd grade Social Studies standard for Georgia stating that students will know the four types of resources (natural, human, capital, and entrepreneurship).