four classes of macromolecules
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Question:Compare condensation and hydrolysis.
Explain how organic polymers contribute to biological diversity.
Carbohydrates: Fuel and Building Material
Describe the distinguishing characteristics of carbohydrates and explain how they are classified.
Distinguish between monosaccharides and disaccharides.
Identify a glycosidic linkage and describe how it is formed.
Describe the structure and functions of polysaccharides.
Distinguish between the glycosidic linkages found in starch and cellulose and explain why the difference is biologically important.
Lipids: Diverse Hydrophobic Molecules
Explain what distinguishes lipids from other major classes of macromolecules.
Describe the unique properties, building-block molecules, and biological importance of the three important groups of lipids: fats, phospholipids, and steroids.
Identify an ester linkage and describe how it is formed.
Distinguish between a saturated and an unsaturated fat and list some unique emergent properties that are a consequence of these structural differences.
Proteins: Many Structures, Many Functions
Describe the characteristics that distinguish proteins from the other major classes of macromolecules and explain the biologically important functions of this group.
Science as a Process
List and describe the four major components of an amino acid. Explain how amino acids may be grouped according to the physical and chemical properties of the side chains.
Identify a peptide bond and explain how it is formed.
Distinguish between a polypeptide and a protein.
Explain what determines protein conformation and why it is important.
Define primary structure and describe how it may be deduced in the laboratory.
Describe the two types of secondary protein structure. Explain the role of hydrogen bonds in maintaining the structure.
Explain how weak interactions and disulfide bridges contribute to tertiary protein structure.
Using collagen and hemoglobin as examples, describe quaternary protein structure.
Define denaturation and explain how proteins may be denatured.
Nucleic Acids: Informational Polymers
Describe the characteristics that distinguish nucleic acids from the other major groups of macromolecules.
Summarize the functions of nucleic acids.
List the major components of a nucleotide, and describe how these monomers are linked to form a nucleic acid.
Distinguish between a pyrimidine and a purine.
Briefly describe the three-dimensional structure of DNA.
Explain how the structure of DNA and proteins can be used to document the hereditary background of an organism.
This should answer most of your questions.
Question:1. how are lipids different from the other three kinds of macromolecules?
2. You have found carbohydrates in maple syrup, in the tree trunk, and in green leaves. What do they all have in common? What makes them similar and what makes them different from the other groups of macromolecules in a living cell?
3. Because they are the machines of the cell, proteins are found almost everywhere in the cell. Where are they probably NOT found?
4. Where do lipids appear primarily in a cell ? What do those places have in common?
5. If you needed to collect the nucleic acids of DNA from a cell, where would you go?
Answers:1. Lipids are broadly defined as any fat-soluble (lipophilic), naturally-occurring organic compound, such as fats, oils, waxes, cholesterol, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, phospholipids, and others. The main biological functions of lipids include energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and participating as important signaling molecules.
2. Carbohydrates (from 'hydrates of carbon') or saccharides ("sugar") are the most abundant of the four major classes of biomolecules. They fill numerous roles in living things, such as the storage and transport of energy (starch, glycogen) and structural components (cellulose in plants, chitin in animals). Additionally, carbohydrates and their derivatives play major roles in the working process of the immune system, fertilization, pathogenesis, blood clotting, and development.
3. Proteins are least likely to be present inside smooth endoplasmic reticulum and vacuoles.
4. Lipids constitute most of cell membranes, including intracellular membranes. All such places have asymmetrical phospholipid bilayers with hydrophilic heads on the exteriors and hydrophobic tails interiorly.
5. You would go to a laboratory which can extract DNA using sonication, chemical procedures (including the use of detergents, alcohol, and chelating agents), and centrifugation.
Question:Please include examples in each class, their functions and some structural differences.
Answers:The four organic Macromolecules are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nuclic acid. Carbohydrates are the sugar and the startches, quick energy. Lipids are fats waxes, etc. Lipids are hydrophobic, which means not attracted to water. Proteins are made of numerous amino acids jointed by peptide bonds. Nucliec acids-RNA and DNA molecules which contain a 5 carbon sugar, a nitrongen containing base and phosphorous.
Question:Physicans become concerned about the potential for irreversible brain damage when body temperatures approach 150 degrees Fahrenheit. Which of the four classes of macromolecules do you think is most likely affected by high temperatures? Explain
Answers:Proteins are the molecules which normally suffer changes of conformation or denaturation when are exposed to high temperatures.
Protein denaturation is commonly defined as any noncovalent change in the structure of a protein. This change may alter the secondary, tertiary or quaternary structure of the molecules.
For those proteins that are enzymes, denaturation can be defined as the loss of enough structure to render the enzyme inactive. Changes in the rate of the reaction, the affinity for substrate, pH optimum, temperature optimum, specificity of reaction, etc., may be affected by denaturation of enzyme molecules.
Depending upon the protein studied and the severity of the heating, these changes may or may not be reversible.
Class 4 (part four)- Pepeke Henua :Today in class we learned how to construct a "WHEN" and "WHERE" sentence with the PEPEKE HENUA! (aka the locational sentence pattern). Watch each part in full and feel free to re-watch any videos to really get the info down. How nice you can sit in on a class as often as you like in the comfort of your own home! Ha awina- 1. Complete the paper handed out in class: Ha awina Pahuhopu 4 2. Memorize the p p lelo (dialog) on page 3 (yes in next class be prepared to take on a character and recite it without using the paper!) 3. Ho olohe (listen) to HH04: Mokuna 1, Helu 2 at www.olelo.hawaii.edu Order Book- Go to www.olelo.hawaii.edu and you can purchase your very own copy from UH Hilo for only $5. Be sure to order "N Kai Ewalu: Beginning Hawaiian Lessons Book 1."