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Carbon trioxide (CO3) is an unstable oxide of carbon (an oxocarbon). Three possible isomers of carbon trioxide, denoted Cs, D3h, and C2v, have been most studied by theoretical methods, and the C2vstate has been shown to be the ground state of the molecule.
Carbon trioxide should not be confused with the stable carbonate ion (CO32âˆ’).
Carbon trioxide can be produced, for example, in the drift zone of a negative corona discharge by reactions between carbon dioxide (CO2) and the atomic oxygen (O) created from molecular oxygen by free electrons in the plasma.
Another reported method is photolysis of ozone O3 dissolved in liquid CO2, or in CO2/SF6 mixtures at -45Â°C, irradiated with light of 2537 Ã…. The formation of CO3 is inferred but it appears to decay spontaneously by the route 2CO3â†’ 2CO2 + O2 with a lifetime much shorter than 1 minute.
An emission intensity is the average emission rate of a given pollutant from a given source relative to the intensity of a specific activity; for example grams of carbon dioxide released per megajoule of energy produced, or the ratio of greenhouse gas emissions produced to GDP. Emission intensities are used to derive estimates of air pollutant or greenhouse gas emissions based on the amount of fuel combusted, the number of animals in animal husbandry, on industrial production levels, distances traveled or similar activity data. Emission intensities may also be used to compare the environmental impact of different fuels or activities. The related terms emission factor and carbon intensity are often used interchangeably, but "factors" exclude aggregate activities such as GDP, and "carbon" excludes other pollutants.
Emission factors assume a linear relation between the intensity of the activity and the emission resulting from this activity:
Emissionpollutant = Activity * Emission Factorpollutant
Intensities are also used in projecting possible future scenarios such as those used in the IPCC assessments, along with projected future changes in population, economic activity and energy technologies. The interrelations of these variables is treated under the so-called Kaya identity.
The level of uncertainty of the resulting estimates depends significantly on the source category and the pollutant. Some examples:
- Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the combustion of fuel can be estimated with a high degree of certainty regardless of how the fuel is used as these emissions depend almost exclusively on the carbon content of the fuel, which is generally known with a high degree of precision. The same is true for sulphur dioxide (SO2), since also sulphur contents of fuels are generally well known. Both carbon and sulphur are almost completey oxidized during combustion and all carbon and sulphur atoms in the fuel will be present in the flue gases as CO2 and SO2 respectively.
- In contrast, the levels of other air pollutants and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions from combustion depend on the precise technology applied when fuel is combusted. These emissions are basically caused by either incomplete combustion of a small fraction of the fuel (carbon monoxide, methane, non-methane volatile organic compounds) or by complicated chemical and physical processes during the combustion and in the smoke stack or tailpipe. Examples of these are particulates, NOx, a mixture of nitric oxide, NO, and nitrogen dioxide, NO2).
- Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agricultural soils are highly uncertain because they depend very much on both the exact conditions of the soil, the application of fertilizers and meteorological conditions.
Note: 3.6 MJ = megajoule(s) == 1 kWÂ·h = kilowatt-hour(s), thus 1 g/MJ = 3.6 g/kWÂ·h.
Legend: B = Black coal (supercritical)â€“(new subcritical), Br = Brown coal (new subcritical), cc = combined cycle, oc = open cycle, TL = low-temperature/closed-circuit (geothermal doublet), TH = high-temperature/open-circuit, WL = Light Water Reactors, WH = Heavy Water Reactors, #Educated estimate.
World CO2 intensity in 2009
In 2009 CO2 intensity in the OECD countries reduced by 2.9% and amounted to 0.33 kCO2/$05p in the OECD countries. The USA posted a higher ratio of 0.41 kCO2/$05p while Europe showed the largest drop in CO2 intensity compared to the previous year (-3.7%). CO2 intensity continued to be roughly higher in non-OECD countries. Despite a slight improvement, China continued to post a high CO2 intensity (0.81 kCO2/$05p).CO2 intensity in Asia rose by 2% during 2009 since energy consumption continued to develop at a strong pace. Important ratios were also observed in countries in CIS and the Middle East.
Carbon intensity in Europe
Total CO2 emissions from energy use were 5 % below their 1990 level in 2007. Over the period 1990-2007, CO2 emissions from energy use have decreased on average by 0.3 %/year although the economic activity (GDP) increased by 2.3 %/year. After dropping until 1994 (-1.6 %/year), the CO2 emissions have increased steadily (0.4 %/year on average) until 2003 and decreased slowly again since (on average by 0.6 %/year). Total CO2 emissions per capita decreased from 8.7 t in 1990 to 7.8 t in 2007, that is to say a decrease by 10 %. Almost 40 % of the reduction in CO2 intensity is due to increased use of energy carriers with lower emission factors Total CO2 emissions per unit of GDP, the â€œCO2 intensityâ€�, decreased more rapidly than energy intensity: by 2.3 %/year and 1.4 %/year, respectively, on average between 1990 and 2007.
Emission factors for greenhouse gas inventory reporting
One of the most important uses of emission factors is for the reporting of national greenhouse gas inventories under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The so-called Annex I Parties to the UNFCCC have to annually report their national total emissions of greenhouse gases in a formalized reporting format, defining the source categories and fuels that must be included.
UNFCCC has accepted the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories[http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/gl/invs6.htm], developed and published by the From Yahoo Answers
Answers:Most people mean sulfuric acid when they say acid rain. However there is also a natural acidity present in rainfall due to carbonic acid formed through: H2O + CO2 ---> H2CO3
Answers:D NOx and SOx
Answers:If there is a significant amount of either Cardon Dioxide, Sulpher Dioxide, or in the worst case Nitrogen Dioxide in the atmosphere, they may combine with water vapour to form their resprective acids, Carbonic Acid (weak),Sulphurous Acid (weak), and Nitric Acid (strong).
Answers:Before the everyday availability of NMR, ozonolysis was a very standard way of determining the position of a double bond in a carbon chain. So... On ozonolysis (and acid hydrolysis of the intermediate ozonide) but-1-ene would produce both methanal and propanal. But-2-ene would, however, produce just ethanal. These aldehydes could be separated and identified in the usual ways.