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From Wikipedia

Formation skydiving

Formation skydiving is the art of building formations in free-fall with multiple people gripping each others' limbs or specially built "grippers" on their jumpsuits.

Formation skydiving can be further divided into several sub-categories, so named for the number of members in a team:

  • 4-way sequential
  • 4-way vertical sequential (VRW)
  • 8-way sequential
  • 16-way sequential
  • 10-way speed
  • Large formations (Big-ways)

A competition in 4-way formation skydiving (FS-4) takes place like this:

There are two kinds of formations, called randoms and blocks. The randoms are singular formations with full separation of all grips both before and after building the formation. The blocks are double formations with a special designated movement pattern in between, called an inter. The start formation may, or may not be similar to the ending formation. The inters are differently performed. Here are some examples:

Inter 1: The grips are released between some of the flyers, so they become two pieces of two team members. they both do a 270 degree turn, and reconnect to a different formation

Inter 2: Three people stay connected, and do a 360 turn, while the last person, flies alone.

Inter 15: All grips are released and everyone does a 360 turn back to the original formation.

Blocks are designated by numbers, while randoms got letters. Blocks are worth one point for each correct formation, that makes 2 points, and randoms count as 1 point. There are 22 blocks and 16 randoms.

A competition consists of up to 10 rounds, and each round consists of 5 or 6 points, which the teams are to repeat as many times as they can within the working time of 35 seconds. The score judging are based on the videographers material.

A competition draw may look like this:

1. C-E-B-13 2. 14-20-8 3. 15-16-H 4. J-O-1-D 5. 6-18-19 6. 5-F-21 7. 10-K-G-M 8. 22-3-P 9. 12-9-4 10. 11-17-Q

The winning team will be the team that has collected most points, by completing the most correct formations within time after the final round is ended. In case of weather or technical problems, or other causes, a competition will be valid as long as all teams has completed at least one round.

The current [http://records.fai.org/parachuting/current.asp?id0=1&id1=202&id2=1&id3=15 FAI world record] for largest free-fall formation is a 400-way, set on February 8, 2006 in Udon Thani, Thailand by [http://www.theworldteam.com/ World Team]. It was held for 4.25 seconds. They used five C-130 Herculesairplanes and exited from an altitude of 25,000 feet.

A recent sub-category of formation skydiving is vertical formation skydiving (VRW). Skydivers build formations using higher-speed body positions normally associated with freeflying, such as head down and sitflying.


Letter (alphabet)

A letter is a grapheme in an alphabetic system of writing, such as the Greek alphabet and its descendants. Each letter in the written language is usually associated with one phoneme (sound) in the spoken form of the language.

Written signs in other writing systems are best called syllabograms (which denote a syllable) or logograms (which denote a word or phrase).

Definition and usage

The term letter is loaned from Old French lettre into Middle English around AD 1200. It derives ultimately from Latin littera, itself of unknown origin. The Middle English plural lettres could refer to an epistle or written document, reflecting the use of the Latin plural litteræ. Use of the singularletterto refer to a written document emerges in the 14th century.

As symbols that denote segmental speech, letters are associated with phonetics. In a purely phonemic alphabet, a single phoneme is denoted by a single letter, but in history and practice letters often denote more than one phoneme. A pair of letters designating a single phoneme is called a digraph. Examples of digraphs in English include "ch", "sh" and "th". A phoneme can also be represented by three letters, called a trigraph. An example is the combination "sch" in German.

A letter may also be associated with more than one phoneme, with the phoneme depending on the surrounding letters or etymology of the word. As an example of positional effects, the Spanish letter c is pronounced [k] before a, o, or u (e.g. cantar, corto, cuidado), but is pronounced [s] before e or i (e.g. centimo, ciudad).

Letters also have specific names associated with them. These names may differ with language, dialect and history. Z, for example, is usually called zed in all English-speaking countries except the U.S., where it is named zee.

Letters, as elements of alphabets, have prescribed orders. This may generally be known as "alphabetical order" though collation is the science devoted to the complex task of ordering and sorting of letters and words in different languages. In Spanish, for instance, ñ is a separate letter being sorted after n. In English, n and ñ are sorted alike.

Letters may also have numerical value. This is true of Roman numerals and the letters of other writing systems. In English, Arabic numerals are typically used instead of letters.

Letters may be used as words. The words a (lower or uppercase) and I (always uppercase) are the most common English letter-words. Sometimes O is used for Oh in poetic situations. In extremely informal cases of writing, individual letters may replace words, e.g. U may be used instead of "You" in English, when the letter is pronounced as a homophone of the word.

People and objects are sometimes named after letters, for one of these reasons:

  1. The letter is an abbreviation, e.g. "G-man" as slang for a Federal Bureau of Investigation agent, arose as short for "Government Man".
  2. Alphabetical order used as a counting system, e.g. Plan A, Plan B, etc; alpha ray, beta ray, gamma ray, delta ray, epsilon ray
  3. The shape of the letter, e.g. D-ring, F-clamp, G-clamp, H-block, H engine, O-ring, R-clip, U engine, V engine, Z-drive, a river delta
  4. Other reasons, e.g. X-ray after "x the unknown" in algebra, because the discoverer did not know what they were.

A Classical definition

Guilhem Molinier, a member of the Consistori del Gay Saber, which was the first literary academy in the world and held the Floral Games to award the best troubadour with the violeta d'aur top prize, gave a definition of the letter in his Leys d'amor(1328–1337), a book aimed at regulating the then flourishingOccitan poetry:

History

The invention of letters was preceded by the West Semitic script, which appeared in Canaan around 1000 BC. Antecedents are suspected in the Proto-Sinaitic inscriptions, dated to around 1800 BC. Virtually all alphabets have their ultimate origins from this system. The Greek alphabet, invented around From Yahoo Answers

Question:hey guys :) I KNOW NOTHING ABOUT HARRY POTTER -____- and i wanna make my bestfriend a hogwarts letter. would this be the proper way to write the letter ? : Miss Darlene ------ (address) Dear Miss ---------, we are pleased to inform you that you have been accepted at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. Please find enclosed a list of all necessary books and equipment. Term begins on September 1. We await your owl be no later than July 31. Yours Sincerely, Minerva McGonagall Minerva McGonagall Deputy Headmistress & what else do i need to do ?! thanks <3 i already have the harry potter font and the logo crescent thing :)

Answers:I did a quick google search and came across this site for creating a Hogwarts letter....I believe the font used is Foundation Cursive and can be downloaded from the 2nd link i have listed (Windows PC Only)....but there is a small cost. Im sure there are other sites that offer the font to use for free though

Question:is there a different format to write a letter in korean? it's not too much of a formal letter but a more friendly letter. also how should i write the address in the envelope in korean or english?

Answers:The format is pretty much the same as in English. Instead of "Dear [whoever]," write: [person's name here] and at the end, instead of "Sincerely, [your name here]", write: [your name] If you're sending the letter from outside of Korea, write the address in your country's language. How would your postal system know where to send it if the address was in some foreign language?

Question:I'm looking to send a letter to a pen pal in Singapore, but I just wanted to confirm the address format she gave me was correct? I'd hate for it to not reach her. Could someone please confirm this is correct? I have *'d, blanked out some places and changed the numbers around for her privacy. (Name) Block 167 #05-2355 ******** Road SINGAPORE 740475 REPUBLIC OF SINGAPORE Oh, and I'm sending it from England. Thank you!

Answers:Your format is correct. It will definitely reach your pen pal with no problem. Some other formats which also works in Singapore is: Alternate format: (Name) 167 ******** Road #05-2355 SINGAPORE 740475 REPUBLIC OF SINGAPORE Most of us have dropped the word "block" from the address these days but there will be no issues even if you leave it in.

Question:I wrote an English letter, and I was wondering if you guys think it's any good? :) (It's supposed to be a letter to the Environment Ministry telling them about Al Gore's facts) Dear Sir/Madam, As a student, I believe it is fundamental to raise awareness to the community about our environment for the safety for others and the globe. Having to watch An Inconvenient Truth , Al Gore discovered additional facts that may be informative to the society. Al Gore identified that the Earth s temperature rises from global warming as carbon dioxide levels rise. It is clear that the world is suffering impact due to problems in Greenland Land based ice are currently melting and ultimately increase sea level by 20 feet. Al Gore believes that by the next 50 years, if the problem is not solved the carbon dioxide levels can rapidly increase ten times more than suitable limit. Although Al Gore mentioned a range of problems, he suggested that others should purchase environmental cars as a solution. In my opinion, it is probably wise to use public transportation/carpooling if the person is able to. Hence Kuwait may not be the worst offender to global warming, though they are involved in increasing the impact. It is best to plant more trees; reducing prices to solar powered cars would be efficient since it is currently far too expensive. And possibly raise awareness to the community, informing them the situation and what they can do to help. I look forward to your response. Yours Faithfully I'm not trying to argue, it's just a letter. Opinions please 8D lool, yeah he did research.

Answers:Its a good letter... add something about the role f a student in globalwarming too...put see to it that you put it in the right format.well...is this information true..about Al Gore and reserching about global warming?

From Youtube

English Letter Sound and Formation - r :Theaccompanying handwriting worksheets may be ordered at www.letter-luau.com . Here is a video for English language learners and children and adults learning to read and write the American English letter "h". The letter formation techniques featured in these videos are the best research-based scaffolded handwriting and early reading methods on the market today. The scaffolds include: 1. Clear starting and ending points. 2. Fun letter placement on the beach, mountains or ocean, helping the child learn where to write each letter. 3. A live demonstration of how to form the letter using a bright colored marker. 4. An object with the beginning letter sound. 5. A real person (not a puppet or cartoon) clearly forming the sound of the letter with close-ups of the mouth. The letters formations are sung to a common nursery song which stimulates musical memory and creates better letter sound and formation memory. The letters are spoken and demonstrated in a slow easy pace perfect for English language learners, young children learning early reading skills and those who have previously struggled learning to read. These videos are appropriate for children with dyslexia, ADHD, autism and learning disabilities. Often when assessing children who are struggling with learning to read there is found a deficit in very early skills such as letter formation and correct sound formation along with a deficit in phonemic awareness. These videos of the 44 major American English sounds fill the gaps ...

Vesicle Cluster Formation and Disruption :In this simulation, synaptic vesicles (green) are initially scattered inside a presynaptic compartment. Over time, clusters form as vesicles bind with synapsin protein (blue). Docking sites (red) fix vesicles to the active zone at the bottom of the membrane, eventually attracting a large cluster. An action potential occurs at 1:30, causing vesicles to fuse with the membrane (shown as vesicles escaping the compartment). The same action potential is shown at 2:00 from a different angle. Synapsins can be seen separating from the vesicles, which disrupts the cluster. More information can be found at www.sce.carleton.ca/~rhys.