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Foreign Chemistry Scientist





Chemistry scientists in the last century and their contribution to the scientific exploration opened the avenues for rapid scientific progress in the 21st century. 
In this section we would be discussing the contribution of chemists from the western world.

During the nineteenth century one of the branch of Chemistry, Organic achieved an almost undisputed complete dominance over the rest of branches of Chemistry. 
Other disciplines like in Inorganic Chemistry didn’t make any significant mark and lost much of their former status. 

The reason for the advance in Organic Chemistry was because of the simple fact that there was tremendous diversity of carbon compounds that took place. 
This had one more thing to it as well as Organic Chemistry had become a fad for the intellectual fascination and of-course for structural theory and uses in Industries.
The rise of Physical Chemistry right after again gave a new twist to the interest level and that led Organic Chemistry to adapt to newer challenges and many a times diverse origins.

The quantum physical formulations of the chemical bond, and physical instrumentation on all kinds of chemical research, the advent of molecular biology, completely changed the strategies and organisation of Organic Chemistry research. 
Physical Organic Chemistry appears to be somewhat like polymer chemistry as they both these involve fusion between Organic and Physical chemistry leading to a new technique development. 
But unlike polymer science this has firm ground in Organic Chemistry and has become the major stream of twentieth century.

Let’s start with the most obvious of all and the person who is considered as the father of modern chemistry, Mr Antoine Lavoisier.

Antoine Lavoisier was born in the year 1743 to a wealthy family and inherited a huge fortune at the age of five after the demise of his mother.
A noble man by profession has contributed a lot in both chemical and biological science.
Antoine Lavoisier is the first person to term Oxygen and Hydrogen and also was the first one to establish that sulphur is not a compound but an element. 
He was the first person to determine that air is a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen.  
His other contribution includes researches in the field of quantitative chemistry.
 
Amedeo Carlo Avogadro was born in Italy in 1776 and his main contribution was in the field of relative molecular mass. 
He established the relationship between the masses of different gasses at the same volume and their corresponding molecular weights. 
His more noted contribution was the Avogadro law where he established the molar particle number to be exactly equal to 6.022 x 1023

John Dalton born in 1766 in England published his papers in 1803 on atomic theory which stated that all matter composed of atoms which are basically small and indivisible.

William Crooks the British chemist born in 1832 used the vacuum tube made by Heinrich Geisslar to discover cathode rays and hypothesized  that there are rays which emanated from the cathode and caused the zinc sulphide to fluoresce which he had used as a coating on one end of the tube.

Wilhelm Roentgen the German scientist born in 1895 was the pioneer in producing and detecting the electromagnetic radiation within a range of wavelength better known as X rays. 
These rays were discovered while he was researching the glow produced by cathode ray tube.

J J Thomson the British scientist born in 1856 is attributed for the discovery of electron and its properties. 
This atomic particle was discovered when he placed the cathode tube in a magnetic field and found that these particles are negatively charged and that each of these had a mass ratio of 1.759 E8 coulombs per gram.

Niels Henrik Bohr was born in the year 1885 in Copenhagen to a professor of physiology Christian Bohr. 
Niels Bohr grew up in an atmosphere conducive for academic brilliance. 
He contributed in the understanding of the atomic structure and the quantum mechanics related to it.

Marie Curie the French Polish Chemist - physicists was born in 1867 is the pioneer in radioactivity research. 
She discovered the radioactive particles Uranium and Thorium and later another couple of elements Polonium and Radium and all within the same Pitchblend.

Robert Millikan the American Physicist was born in 1868 has contributed in the field of photoelectric effect and is more famous for his work on the mass of electron and its charge by the charge oil droplet in an electric field method. 
This contribution played a vital role in the foundation of chemical studies in later years.

Ernest Rutherford, the New Zealand born (1871) British scientist contributed a lot in chemical studies by discovering the three radioactive particles alpha (positive), beta (negative) and gamma (neutral) rays by passing a radioactive ray through a magnetic field and then categorising these according to the deflection by positive plate, negative plate and the ones which went through without deflections.

James Chadwick the British scientist born in 1891is attributed for the discovery of neutron.

Enrico Fermi the Italian born American scientist in the year 1901 is remembered for his contribution to nuclear fission. 
This was accomplished when he bombarded the Uranium with neutrons.