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Foreign Chemistry Scientist

Chemistry scientists in the last century and their contribution to the scientific exploration opened the avenues for rapid scientific progress in the 21st century. 
In this section we would be discussing the contribution of chemists from the western world.

During the nineteenth century one of the branch of Chemistry, Organic achieved an almost undisputed complete dominance over the rest of branches of Chemistry. 
Other disciplines like in Inorganic Chemistry didn’t make any significant mark and lost much of their former status. 

The reason for the advance in Organic Chemistry was because of the simple fact that there was tremendous diversity of carbon compounds that took place. 
This had one more thing to it as well as Organic Chemistry had become a fad for the intellectual fascination and of-course for structural theory and uses in Industries.
The rise of Physical Chemistry right after again gave a new twist to the interest level and that led Organic Chemistry to adapt to newer challenges and many a times diverse origins.

The quantum physical formulations of the chemical bond, and physical instrumentation on all kinds of chemical research, the advent of molecular biology, completely changed the strategies and organisation of Organic Chemistry research. 
Physical Organic Chemistry appears to be somewhat like polymer chemistry as they both these involve fusion between Organic and Physical chemistry leading to a new technique development. 
But unlike polymer science this has firm ground in Organic Chemistry and has become the major stream of twentieth century.

Let’s start with the most obvious of all and the person who is considered as the father of modern chemistry, Mr Antoine Lavoisier.

Antoine Lavoisier was born in the year 1743 to a wealthy family and inherited a huge fortune at the age of five after the demise of his mother.
A noble man by profession has contributed a lot in both chemical and biological science.
Antoine Lavoisier is the first person to term Oxygen and Hydrogen and also was the first one to establish that sulphur is not a compound but an element. 
He was the first person to determine that air is a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen.  
His other contribution includes researches in the field of quantitative chemistry.
Amedeo Carlo Avogadro was born in Italy in 1776 and his main contribution was in the field of relative molecular mass. 
He established the relationship between the masses of different gasses at the same volume and their corresponding molecular weights. 
His more noted contribution was the Avogadro law where he established the molar particle number to be exactly equal to 6.022 x 1023

John Dalton born in 1766 in England published his papers in 1803 on atomic theory which stated that all matter composed of atoms which are basically small and indivisible.

William Crooks the British chemist born in 1832 used the vacuum tube made by Heinrich Geisslar to discover cathode rays and hypothesized  that there are rays which emanated from the cathode and caused the zinc sulphide to fluoresce which he had used as a coating on one end of the tube.

Wilhelm Roentgen the German scientist born in 1895 was the pioneer in producing and detecting the electromagnetic radiation within a range of wavelength better known as X rays. 
These rays were discovered while he was researching the glow produced by cathode ray tube.

J J Thomson the British scientist born in 1856 is attributed for the discovery of electron and its properties. 
This atomic particle was discovered when he placed the cathode tube in a magnetic field and found that these particles are negatively charged and that each of these had a mass ratio of 1.759 E8 coulombs per gram.

Niels Henrik Bohr was born in the year 1885 in Copenhagen to a professor of physiology Christian Bohr. 
Niels Bohr grew up in an atmosphere conducive for academic brilliance. 
He contributed in the understanding of the atomic structure and the quantum mechanics related to it.

Marie Curie the French Polish Chemist - physicists was born in 1867 is the pioneer in radioactivity research. 
She discovered the radioactive particles Uranium and Thorium and later another couple of elements Polonium and Radium and all within the same Pitchblend.

Robert Millikan the American Physicist was born in 1868 has contributed in the field of photoelectric effect and is more famous for his work on the mass of electron and its charge by the charge oil droplet in an electric field method. 
This contribution played a vital role in the foundation of chemical studies in later years.

Ernest Rutherford, the New Zealand born (1871) British scientist contributed a lot in chemical studies by discovering the three radioactive particles alpha (positive), beta (negative) and gamma (neutral) rays by passing a radioactive ray through a magnetic field and then categorising these according to the deflection by positive plate, negative plate and the ones which went through without deflections.

James Chadwick the British scientist born in 1891is attributed for the discovery of neutron.

Enrico Fermi the Italian born American scientist in the year 1901 is remembered for his contribution to nuclear fission. 
This was accomplished when he bombarded the Uranium with neutrons.


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Answers:John Dalton - in the nineteenth century he developed the tenets of atomic theory. Demetri Mendeleev - completed much of the work organizing the period table. Amadeo Avagadro - developed insights into the relationships of gaseous molecules. Ernest Rutherford - the New Zealander for the discovery of the atomic nucleus. Henry Moseley - identified the atomic number for elements. Marie Curie - worked with radioactive substances studying natural transmutations. Linus Pauling - developed insights into the nature of the chemical bond. Albert Einstein - the connectedness of matter and energy.


Answers:FOREIGN CHEMISTS Emil Abderhalden - a Swiss biochemist and physiologist. He was born in Oberuzwil in the Canton of St. Gallen in Switzerland. Emil Abderhalden studied medicine at the University of Basel and received his doctorate in 1902. He then studied in the laboratory of Emil Fischer and worked at the University of Berlin. In 1911 he moved to the University of Halle and taught physiology in the medical school. From 1931 to 1950, he was president of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina. During World War I, he established a children's hospital and organized the removal of malnourished children to Switzerland. Subsequently, he resumed his research into physiological chemistry and began to study metabolism and food chemistry. Richard Abegg- a German chemist and pioneer of valence theory. Because of his research he proposed that the difference of the maximum positive and negative valence of an element tends to be eight. This has become to be called Abegg's rule. He was a gas balloon enthusiast and this is what caused his death at the age of 41 when he crashed in his balloon Schlesien.rom 1901, Abegg was active with an electrochemistry journal as editor.Abegg introduced the concept of the electro-affinity into chemistry and made the basis for the handbook of the inorganic chemistry (1905 1939). In 1904, Abegg formulated the valence rule, after which the highest positive and highest negative electro-valence of an element yields 8 altogether. This is called called Abegg's rule. Amedeo Avogadro-Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro, Count of Quaregna and Cerreto (August 9, 1776 July 9, 1856) was an Italian savant chemist, most noted for his contributions to the theory of molarity and molecular weight. As a tribute to him, the number of atoms of one mole of a substance, 6.02 \times 10 ^ {23} is known as Avogadro's number. Johannes Nicolaus Br nsted- a Danish physical chemist. He received a degree in chemical engineering in 1899 and his Ph. D. in 1908 from the University of Copenhagen. He was immediately appointed professor of inorganic and physical chemistry at Copenhagen. In 1906 he published his first of many papers on electron affinity. In 1923 he introduced the protonic theory of acid-base reactions, simultaneously with the English chemist Thomas Martin Lowry. The same year, the electronic theory was proposed by Gilbert N. Lewis, but both theories are commonly used.He became known as an authority on catalysis by acids and bases. He has the Br nsted catalysis equation named after him. He also came up with the highly used theory of the proton donor along with Lowry. Br nsted theorised that as a hydrogen atom (always found in an acid) is ionized once dissolved in water, it loses its electron and becomes a proton donor. The hydroxide ion, which occurs when an alkali is formed when a substance is dissolved in water is called a proton receiver. This leads to a neutralization reaction where the ions combine creating hydrogen hydroxide, otherwise known as water. The pH scale may be interpreted as "power of hydrogen", and the definition is based on the work of Br nsted and Lowry. Robert Bunsen-a German chemist. His laboratory assistant, Peter Desaga perfected the burner that was later named after Bunsen, which was originally invented by British chemist/physicist Michael Faraday. He also worked on emission spectroscopy of heated elements. Together, he and Gustav Kirchhoff discovered the elements cesium and rubidium. He is considered the founder of modern gasanalytical methods. Melvin Calvin-a chemist most famed for discovering the Calvin cycle (along with Andrew Benson), for which he was awarded the 1961 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He spent virtually all of his five-decade career at the University of California, Berkeley. Robert Boyle-n Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. He is best known for the formulation of Boyle's law. Although his research and personal philosophy clearly has its roots in the alchemical tradition, he is largely regarded today as the first modern chemist. He is very famous in the science world for being the first scientist that kept accurate experiment logs. Among his works, The Sceptical Chymist is seen as a cornerstone book in the field of chemistry. Marie Curie-aka Madame Curie; November 7, 1867 July 4, 1934) was a Polish-French physicist and chemist. She was a pioneer in the field of radioactivity, the first twice-honored Nobel laureate (and still today the only laureate in two different sciences), and the first female professor at the Sorbonne. Henry Cavendish-a British scientist noted for his discovery of hydrogen or what he called "inflammable air". He described the density of inflammable air, which formed water on combustion, in a 1766 paper "On Factitious Airs". Antoine Lavoisier later reproduced Cavendish's experiment and gave the element its name. John Dalton-an English chemist and physicist, born at Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth in Cumbria. He is best known for his advocacy of the atomic theory and his research into colour blindness (sometimes referred to as Daltonism, in his honour). Around 1790 Dalton seems to have considered taking up law or medicine, but his projects were not met with encouragement from his relatives, and he remained at Kendal until, in the spring of 1793, moving to Manchester. Mainly through John Gough, a blind philosopher to whom he owed much of his scientific knowledge, Dalton was appointed teacher of mathematics and natural philosophy at the Manchester Academy. He remained in that position until the college's relocation to York in 1803, when he became a public and private teacher of mathematics and chemistry. FILIPINO CHEMISTS Daniel Dingel- For more than three decades now, Daniel Dingel has been claiming that his car can run with water as fuel. An article from the Philippine Daily Inquirer said that Dingle built his engine as early as 1969. Dingel built a car reactor that uses electricity from a 12-volt car battery to split the ordinary tap water into hydrogen and oxygen components. The hydrogen can then be used to power the car engine. Dingel said that a number of foreign car companies have expressed interest in his invention. The officials of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) have dismissed Dingel's water-powered car as a hoax. In return, Dingel accused them of conspiring with oil producing countries. Dingel, however, was the not the only man on earth who is testing water as an alternative fuel. American inventors Rudolf Gunnerman and Stanley Meyer and the researchers of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory have been pursuing similar experiments. Dr. Abelardo Aguilar- A Filipino scientist reportedly discovered erythromycin in 1949. He was Dr. Abelardo Aguilar who died in 1993 without being recognized and rewarded for his discovery. Reports said Aguilar discovered the antibiotic from the Aspergillus species of fungi in 1949 and sent samples to Indiana-based pharmaceutical firm Eli Lilly Co. The drug firm allegedly registered the propriety name Iloson for the antibiotic in honor of Iloilo province where Aguilar discovered it. In 1952, Eli Lilly Co. began the commercial distribution of Iloson, which was sold as an alternative to penicillin. Erythromycin, the generic name of Iloson, was reportedly the first successful macrolide antibiotic introduced in the US. Edgardo Vazquez- Edgardo Vazquez won a World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) gold medal in 1995 for developing a modular housing system. Such a system called Vazbuilt is reportedly capable of building within weeks a house with prefabricated materials that can withstand typhoons and earthquakes. Ironically, Vasquez is not getting enough support from the Philippine government to propagate his technology, which could help provide shelter to some five million Filipino families without their own homes. Vazquez is the national president of the Filipino Inventors Society. Rudy Lantano Sr.- In 1996, Rudy Lantano Sr.,


Answers:define "foreign" American scientists are foreign to me because I'm British [and it's THEIR inventions; not THERE invention]


Answers:All scientists are foreign to most the population of the world. You haven't said foreign to whom.

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