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From Wikipedia

Food and Beverage

F&B is a common abbreviation in the United States and Commonwealth countries, including Hong Kong. F&B is typically the widely accepted abbreviation for "Food and Beverage", which is the sector/industry that specializes in the conceptualization, the making of, and delivery of foods. The largest section of F&B employees are in restaurants and bars, including hotels, resorts, and casinos.

Functional food

Functional food or medicinal food is any healthy food claimed to have a health-promoting or disease-preventing property beyond the basic function of supplying nutrients. The general category of functional foods includes processed food or foods fortified with health-promoting additives, like "vitamin-enriched" products. Fermented foods with live cultures are considered as functional foods with probiotic benefits.

Functional foods are an emerging field in food science due to their increasing popularity with health-conscious consumers.

The term was first used in Japan in the 1980s where there is a government approval process for functional foods called Foods for Specified Health Use (FOSHU).


The functional food industry, consisting of food, beverage and supplement sectors, is one of the several areas of the food industry that is experiencing fast growth in recent years. It is estimated by BCC Research that the global market of functional food industry will reach 176.7 billion in 2013 with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.4%. Specifically, the functional food sector will experience 6.9% CAGR, the supplement sector will rise by 3.8% and the functional beverage sector will be the fastest growing segment with 10.8% CAGR. This kind of growth is fueled not only by industrial innovation and development of new products that satisfy the demand of health conceious consumers but also by health claims covering a wide range of health issues. Yet, consumer skepticism persists mainly due to the fact that benefits associated with consuming the products may be difficult to be detected. The industry suggests the establishment of a health claim regulating agency, which may increase consumer confidence. Strict examination of some of the functional food claims may discourage some companies from launching their products.

Health claims

Functional food products typically include health claims on their label touting their benefits: for example: "Cereal is a significant source of fiber. Studies have shown that an increased amount of fiber in one's diet can decrease the risk of certain types of cancer in individuals."

Some countries, such as Canada, Sweden, and the United States, have specific laws concerning the labeling of such products. In the United States, the kinds of claims which are allowed are overseen and regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, some claims will fall outside of the purview of the FDA and be accompanied by the disclaimer: "These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease."

Such a disclaimer typically accompanies supplements rather than foods, but since the definition of functional food is still evolving and somewhat amorphous, a functional food may find itself bearing the warning.

Current research

The Richardson Centre for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, which is part of the University of Manitoba, is dedicated to the discussion, discovery, and development of functional foods and nutraceuticals, with a focus on the crops of the Canadian Prairies. Research involves candidates for functional food ingredients by examining the efficacy of novel bioactive materials such as plant sterols -- natural components found in plants which can act as cholesterol-lowering agents. Some researchers, however, have concerns that food supplements with plant sterol esters might increase cardiovascular risk, therefore calling for randomized controlled trials before such supplements can be recommended to the general public.

New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research also have a dedicated research team that works on functional foods. Their focus is on both 'whole-foods' and food extracts - examining extracts from berries and their effect on sports performance and recovery, as well as the gut-health and immune function role of natural fruits and vegetables. The group also work with 'mood foods' and the delivery mechanisms behind components in foods and beverages designed to enhance mental performance, brain function and cognitive ability.

The Functional Food Centre at Oxford Brookes University is the UK’s first research centre dedicated to functional food. The centre is known internationally for its work on Glycaemic Index and is the largest testing centre in Europe. The centre provides customer-focused research and consultancy services to the food and nutrition industry, UN and government agencies in the UK and overseas. The research and consultancy portfolio not only concentrate on the scientific characteristics of food and nutrition, but also integrate both the science and social aspects of food. The centre also focuses on areas such as satiety, dietary interventions, female nutrition and aging.

Convenience food

Convenience food, or tertiary processed food, is commercially prepared food designed for ease of consumption. Products designated as convenience foods are often prepared food stuffs that can be sold as hot, ready-to-eat dishes; as room temperature, shelf-stable products; or as refrigerated or frozen products that require minimal preparation, typically just heating.

These products often are sold in portion controlled, single serve packaging designed for portability for "on-the-go" or later eating. Convenience food can include products such as candy; beverages such as soft drinks, juices and milk; fast food; nuts, fruits and vegetables in fresh or preserved states; processed meats and cheeses; and canned products such as soups and pasta dishes.


Modern convenience food saw their beginnings in the period that began after World War II in the United States. Many of these products had their origins in military developed foods designed for storage longevity and ease of preparation in the battle field. After the war, many commercial food companies were left with surplus manufacturing facilities. These companies developed new lines of canned and freeze dried foods that were designed for use in the home. Like many product introductions, not all were successful; products that are convenience food staples such as fish sticks and cannedpeaches were counterbalanced by failures such as ham sticks and cheeseburgers-in-a-can.


Critics have derided the increasing trend of convenience foods because of numerous issues. Several groups have cited the environmental harm of single serve packaging due to the increased usage of plastics that contributes to solid waste in landfills.

Nutritional issues

According to a page on the website of the Cleveland Clinic: "Most convenience foods on the market today are laden with saturated fats, sodium and sugar and provide little to no nutritional value."


Salt is an essential nutrient, but sodium, usually in the form of salt has been linked with high blood pressure. A single serving of many convenience foods contains a significant portion of the recommended daily allowance of sodium. Manufacturers are concerned that if the taste of each product is not optimized by adding salt that it will not sell as well as competing products. Tests have shown that some popular packaged foods are dependent on significant amounts of salt for their palatability.

Labeling, mitigation, and regulation

In response to the issues surrounding the healthfulness of convenience and restaurant foods, an initiative in the United States, spearheaded by first ladyMichelle Obama and her "Let's Move" campaign, to reduce the unhealthy aspects of commercially produced food and fight childhood obesity was unveiled by the White House in February 2010. Using her position as a bully pulpit, Mrs. Obama has pushed the industry to cut back on sugars and salts found in many convenience foods, encouraging self regulation over government intervention through laws and regulations. Despite Mrs. Obama's stated preference on self-regulation, the [Food and Drug Administration]] announced that it was looking into quantifying the guidelines into law while other groups and municipalities are seeking to add other preventative measures such as target taxes and levies onto these products. In response to the attention, in April 2010 a coalition of sixteen manufactures all agreed to reduce salt levels in foods sold in the United States under a program based on a similar effort in the United Kingdom. However, the initiative has met with resistance from some manufacturers, who claim that processed foods require the current high levels of salt to remain appetizing and to mask undesirable effects of food processing such as "warmed over flavor." The coalition expanded its mission in May 2010 by announcing that it intends to reduce the amount of calories in foods. By introducing lower calorie foods, changing product recipes and reducing portion sizes, the coalition stated that it expected to reduce the caloric content of foods by more than 1.5 trillion calories in total by 2012.

Food science

Food science is a study concerned with all technical aspects of food, beginning with harvesting or slaughtering, and ending with its cooking and consumption, an ideology commonly referred to as "from field to fork". It is considered one of the life sciences and is usually considered distinct from the field of nutrition.


Activities of food scientists include the development of new food products, design of processes to produce these foods, choice of packaging materials, shelf-life studies, sensory evaluation of the product with trained expert panels or potential consumers, as well as microbiological and chemical testing. Food scientists at universities may study more fundamental phenomena that are directly linked to the production of a particular food product and its properties. In the U.S., food science is typically studied at land-grant universities.

Food science is a highly interdisciplinary applied science. It incorporates concepts from many different fields including microbiology, chemical engineering, and biochemistry.

Some of the subdisciplines of food science include:

The main organization in the United States regarding food science and food technology is the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), headquartered in Chicago, Illinois, which is the US member organisation of the International Union of Food Science and Technology (IUFoST). The European national organisations are organised into the European Federation of Food Science and Technology (EFFoST), based at Wageningen University, the Netherlands.

Some popular books on some aspects of food science or kitchen science have been written by Harold McGee and Howard Hillman.

In the October 2006 issue of Food Technology, 2006-07 IFT PresidentDennis R. Heldman noted that the IFT Committee on Higher Education gave the current definition of food science as follows: "Food Science is the discipline in which the engineering, biological, and physical sciences are used to study the nature of foods, the causes of deterioration, the principles underlying food processing, and the improvement of foods for the consuming public."

From Yahoo Answers

Question:I know that anything high in acidity should definitely be avoided. Caffeine (coffee) and smoking should be avoided. (I'm working on that, honestly). But what are some other foods/beverages that are "bad" for the stomach if one has an ulcer or is constantly sick, no matter what? I must mention, that i am a Vegetarian so i eat a lot of fruit and veggies, i do not eat junk food, i drink water, juice and coffee. (Sometimes Iced tea but No soda, unless it's gingerale). I do not drink regular milk. I avoid spicy foods (even though i like them) because they totally kill my stomach. I have had issues with my stomach for a while. It's seriously ruining my life because most days i am so sick in the morning i end up either leaving late for work, or i have to call in. (And i don't like doing either). I've missed more time at this current job (in the last year) than i have missed at every job i've ever had combined; and i don't like that at all. I am discouraged. Anyways most days I am throwing up (sometimes blood) and being sick every which way from Sunday usually every day. (this has gone on for years) The Doctor put me on stomach meds that make me sick (side effects) BUT i am trying to give them time to work before i complain about them. They have only helped slightly with the acid reflux (or whatever you want to call it) but they make me sick in other ways. I still am nauseous regularly and my stomach is still in pain regardless. (I have not thrown up blood since i went on the meds last week but i have thrown up. Which is good but bad and confusing). Anyways, Today, now, i am in pain and sick. (again) And i am tired, very tired of not being able to function, and/or spending my days in pain and sometimes in the bathroom (sorry, it's embarassing) and feeling tired and like crap. Are there other foods/beverages that i should aviod (other than what i have already eliminated naturally due to being a Veg) AND are there any all natural remedies that maybe might help with this issue? This is quite long, sorry. But i need advice because i'm sick of being sick. Thanks so much. xoxo PS: Also, i am no fool. I firmly believe in Doctors though i don't go often. I am finally dealing with this by being responsible and going to a GP. (i was not at liberty to do this for a while). I am in the process of being scheduled for *routine* tests for other things much worse to rule them out, but i think it's just my ulcer. I am not a pessimist, but i am discouraged at present. What can i do? EDIT: I am not dumb ... but i had to look up candida LOL. I never heard of it before. I don't think that is the problem, but thanks for the info. xoxo Okay Ladies and Gentlemen ... Firstly I would like to say "Thanks" for all of these super-fabulous answers. Really, they were ALL very helpful and i appreciate the time EACH of you spent to provide your thoughts. Secondly, and most importantly .. THAT is precisely the reason that i am putting the Question to vote. (Since most of you are contacts/fans you know i *rarely* do this!) But ALL of these answers were just fabulous and i really cannot pick a BA on this one. So, applaud yourselves, you ALL did very well. Good Luck with the Voting, and THANKS from my heart to yours, once again. I you all tons. xoxo Beans

Answers:Please read this article, being a Homeopathic Physician I have treated and cured a number of patients according to their individual specific symptoms. Read this first and let me know. http://www.hpathy.com/diseases/peptic-ulcer-symptoms-treatment-cure.asp Take care and God bless.

Question:its a simple project, assignment can any1 tel me more about 1.definition about Industrial Waste(IW) 2.Sourses of IW 3.type of pollution 4effect of improper disposal 5.method of controling improper disposal 6.or do u hav any web to suggest for info regarding IW? (pls dont just gave me the definition) note: i hav search it on9 for quite a long time, but didnt get any useful info. so hope dat , u guys out dere can lend me a hand. dont give me something TOO complicated(like EPA)

Answers:How odd, you have asked the same question 4 times in the past 6 months. It must be some school project. Some sources of hazardous waste that people don't think about are: semi-conductor manufacturers, pharmaceutical manufacturers, research labs, aerospace, weapons makers, dry cleaners, car mechanics, etc. In addition to any place that uses batteries, light bulbs or paint. The effect of improper disposal can mean contamination of food sources. Like dumping waste in the ocean or rivers will poison fish, which are then eaten by animals and humans. Ingestion of mercury happens that way. Other chemicals are flammable, explosive, poisonous gas, spontaneously combustible, dangerous when wet, poisonous, infectious biohazard, corrosive, radioactive and miscellaneous junk like PCB's, asbestos, lead and chromium. You can figure out what will happen if you don't dispose of them properly. The EPA and state of California routinely tour and grade the company I work for to see if we are doing everything by the book. The book being the Hazardous Materials, Substances & Wastes Compliance Guide. To control improper disposal companies are fined big money if they don't store or dispose of their chemicals properly. They are also routinely toured by the EPA and whatever local enforcement agency there is. Companies that produce haz waste contract a company like the one I work for to dispose of their waste. Everything we pick up has to be manifested or else we won't allow it in our gate. Try the website below, it sums it up in somewhat easier terms.

Question:I was born too soon and don't understand the current chemical additives as we canned our own at the peak of the season. Help an old curmudgeon understand why chemical is better than natural and why every cannery uses so much salt.

Answers:Chemical additives are not better than natural but the food industry thinks it knows what is best for us. First, food spoils when enzyme, mold, yeast and bacterial growth is not controlled. Proper canning procedures control the growth of spoilage microorganisms allowing us to keep food beyond its normal storage period. The food industry uses additives in the mass production to control spoilage but also to enhance the colour, appearance, texture and flavour of the item. Home canning is different because we control what we add to our foods. So what if the colour is not as bright as it once was when it was fresh. The flavour is still there depending on what was canned. Home canned items, when done right, are more flavourful than the store bought ones. I guess it's just the time we live in where everyone is too busy to get off the rat race highway. I've left you a few links to check out. Hopefully it will help.

Question:i'm booked in for a gastroscopy in almost 3weeks after experiencing acid reflux and serious chest pain causing breathing difficulties on monday. What foods and drinks should i avoid? I'm assuming nothing fizzy and i don't eat spicey foods anyway but is cordial ok? chips? etc even a good web site that stipulates what you can and cant have would be great. thanks heaps definately don't drink coffee and rarely have tea. Don't have a high carb intake and they think the breathing probs were caused by hyperventilating from the pain i experienced. I have had my heart checked a couple of years ago. I do suffer from stress and am currently on a pension cause i'm not supposed to work at the moment (abusive childhood lead to massive stress related probs). I smoke 10+ cigs a day. No drugs AT ALL and i'm only 24yrs old. Thanks for the info so far :)

Answers:I am not a doctor, so either way you will want to talk to them, but this is what I have to say as a long time sufferer of Acid Reflux (G.E.R.D.)! Three part answer: information, what not to do, and what to do! INFORMATION!!!!!! I have a very severe case of Acid Reflux (G.E.R.D.). I have had to go to the hospital for some of the heartburn that I have had because the pain can become overwhelming or your breathing can be effected. It can be caused by Smoking, Drinking Beverages with caffeine (My case with hereditary), Drinking Beverages with Alcohol, Stress, Anxiety or can be Hereditary The good thing about G.E.R.D. is that it can be a temporary thing and can be cured. It is never a permit thing even if you end up with it for the rest of your life it has the ability to be cured. G.E.R.D. is caused by too much acid being created in your stomach. This can lead to or cause ulcers, esophagus damage, heartburn and/or damage in the mouth. . Other symptoms that can be found in a few cases are dizziness, tingling in limbs, numbness of Limbs, Chest/Back pain focused on the left side (in most cases), and shortness/difficulty breathing. WHAT NOT TO DO!!!!!!!! In most cases, stress is a factor to the reflux if you watch what you eat and reduce some of the stress it will help. If you watch what you eat for about a week you should find relief, if you do not then that is when you definitely what to listen to the doctor. Things to watch for are as follows: Fatty Foods Citrus Foods Foods That Contain Grease Fried Foods Chocolate (including any Coco) Caffeine Smoking Alcohol Tomato Based Products Lactose Roughage (Berries and Nuts) Onions WHAT TO DO!!!! The two foods that I recommend is Black strap Molasses and Raw honey. The apple is better for night time reflux while these will work for just about all of it. What you will do is take about a tsp. of whatever one you chose. Molasses being the better because of strength and nutrition, but must be use to the taste. What the substance will do is stick to the sides of the esophagus and do two things, one is heal and the other is protect. On the healing end, both substances have a healing property in them, and as they sit on the walls of the esophagus they will heal it. This is also helpful if you have a sore throat in the morning from refluxing. On the protection end, both substances are high in sugar and when acid that is refluxed comes up to that the sugar will neutralize it and it will not longer be a problem at that point. I would also look to putting Cinnamon and Ginger in you diet, they have been know to help with digestion and will help you reduce the amount of acid needed to brake down food, therefore causing you to reflux less.

From Youtube

Food industry's wishlist for the Budget :Ahead of the Union Budget 2011-12, here's the wishlist from the food and beverage industry.

What are Organic Foods and David Wolfe :www.superfoodhealthyliving.com "In December 2000, the National Organic Standards Board of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) established a national standard for the term ""organic."" Organic food, defined by how it cannot be made rather than how it can be made, must be produced without the use of sewer-sludge fertilizers, most synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, genetic engineering (biotechnology), growth hormones, irradiation and antibiotics. A variety of agricultural products can be produced organically, including produce, grains, meat, dairy, eggs, and processed food products. ""Organic"" does not mean ""natural."" There is no legal definition as to what constitutes a ""natural"" food. However, the food industry uses the term ""natural"" to indicate that a food has been minimally processed and is preservative-free. Natural foods can include organic foods, but not all natural foods are organic. Only foods labeled ""organic"" have been certified as meeting USDA organic standards. St. Petersburg, Florida Clearwater, Florida South Bend, Indiana Seattle, Washington Tonga, Nuku'alofa Melbourne Ararat, Victoria Guinea-Bissau, Bissau China, Beijing Rochester, New York Victor Harbor, South Australia" www.superfoodhealthyliving.com