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F&B is a common abbreviation in the United States and Commonwealth countries, including Hong Kong. F&B is typically the widely accepted abbreviation for "Food and Beverage", which is the sector/industry that specializes in the conceptualization, the making of, and delivery of foods. The largest section of F&B employees are in restaurants and bars, including hotels, resorts, and casinos.
Functional food or medicinal food is any healthy food claimed to have a health-promoting or disease-preventing property beyond the basic function of supplying nutrients. The general category of functional foods includes processed food or foods fortified with health-promoting additives, like "vitamin-enriched" products. Fermented foods with live cultures are considered as functional foods with probiotic benefits.
Functional foods are an emerging field in food science due to their increasing popularity with health-conscious consumers.
The functional food industry, consisting of food, beverage and supplement sectors, is one of the several areas of the food industry that is experiencing fast growth in recent years. It is estimated by BCC Research that the global market of functional food industry will reach 176.7 billion in 2013 with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.4%. Specifically, the functional food sector will experience 6.9% CAGR, the supplement sector will rise by 3.8% and the functional beverage sector will be the fastest growing segment with 10.8% CAGR. This kind of growth is fueled not only by industrial innovation and development of new products that satisfy the demand of health conceious consumers but also by health claims covering a wide range of health issues. Yet, consumer skepticism persists mainly due to the fact that benefits associated with consuming the products may be difficult to be detected. The industry suggests the establishment of a health claim regulating agency, which may increase consumer confidence. Strict examination of some of the functional food claims may discourage some companies from launching their products.
Functional food products typically include health claims on their label touting their benefits: for example: "Cereal is a significant source of fiber. Studies have shown that an increased amount of fiber in one's diet can decrease the risk of certain types of cancer in individuals."
Some countries, such as Canada, Sweden, and the United States, have specific laws concerning the labeling of such products. In the United States, the kinds of claims which are allowed are overseen and regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, some claims will fall outside of the purview of the FDA and be accompanied by the disclaimer: "These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease."
Such a disclaimer typically accompanies supplements rather than foods, but since the definition of functional food is still evolving and somewhat amorphous, a functional food may find itself bearing the warning.
The Richardson Centre for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, which is part of the University of Manitoba, is dedicated to the discussion, discovery, and development of functional foods and nutraceuticals, with a focus on the crops of the Canadian Prairies. Research involves candidates for functional food ingredients by examining the efficacy of novel bioactive materials such as plant sterols -- natural components found in plants which can act as cholesterol-lowering agents. Some researchers, however, have concerns that food supplements with plant sterol esters might increase cardiovascular risk, therefore calling for randomized controlled trials before such supplements can be recommended to the general public.
New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research also have a dedicated research team that works on functional foods. Their focus is on both 'whole-foods' and food extracts - examining extracts from berries and their effect on sports performance and recovery, as well as the gut-health and immune function role of natural fruits and vegetables. The group also work with 'mood foods' and the delivery mechanisms behind components in foods and beverages designed to enhance mental performance, brain function and cognitive ability.
The Functional Food Centre at Oxford Brookes University is the UKâ€™s first research centre dedicated to functional food. The centre is known internationally for its work on Glycaemic Index and is the largest testing centre in Europe. The centre provides customer-focused research and consultancy services to the food and nutrition industry, UN and government agencies in the UK and overseas. The research and consultancy portfolio not only concentrate on the scientific characteristics of food and nutrition, but also integrate both the science and social aspects of food. The centre also focuses on areas such as satiety, dietary interventions, female nutrition and aging.
Convenience food, or tertiary processed food, is commercially prepared food designed for ease of consumption. Products designated as convenience foods are often prepared food stuffs that can be sold as hot, ready-to-eat dishes; as room temperature, shelf-stable products; or as refrigerated or frozen products that require minimal preparation, typically just heating.
These products often are sold in portion controlled, single serve packaging designed for portability for "on-the-go" or later eating. Convenience food can include products such as candy; beverages such as soft drinks, juices and milk; fast food; nuts, fruits and vegetables in fresh or preserved states; processed meats and cheeses; and canned products such as soups and pasta dishes.
Modern convenience food saw their beginnings in the period that began after World War II in the United States. Many of these products had their origins in military developed foods designed for storage longevity and ease of preparation in the battle field. After the war, many commercial food companies were left with surplus manufacturing facilities. These companies developed new lines of canned and freeze dried foods that were designed for use in the home. Like many product introductions, not all were successful; products that are convenience food staples such as fish sticks and cannedpeaches were counterbalanced by failures such as ham sticks and cheeseburgers-in-a-can.
Critics have derided the increasing trend of convenience foods because of numerous issues. Several groups have cited the environmental harm of single serve packaging due to the increased usage of plastics that contributes to solid waste in landfills.
According to a page on the website of the Cleveland Clinic: "Most convenience foods on the market today are laden with saturated fats, sodium and sugar and provide little to no nutritional value."
Salt is an essential nutrient, but sodium, usually in the form of salt has been linked with high blood pressure. A single serving of many convenience foods contains a significant portion of the recommended daily allowance of sodium. Manufacturers are concerned that if the taste of each product is not optimized by adding salt that it will not sell as well as competing products. Tests have shown that some popular packaged foods are dependent on significant amounts of salt for their palatability.
Labeling, mitigation, and regulation
In response to the issues surrounding the healthfulness of convenience and restaurant foods, an initiative in the United States, spearheaded by first ladyMichelle Obama and her "Let's Move" campaign, to reduce the unhealthy aspects of commercially produced food and fight childhood obesity was unveiled by the White House in February 2010. Using her position as a bully pulpit, Mrs. Obama has pushed the industry to cut back on sugars and salts found in many convenience foods, encouraging self regulation over government intervention through laws and regulations. Despite Mrs. Obama's stated preference on self-regulation, the [Food and Drug Administration]] announced that it was looking into quantifying the guidelines into law while other groups and municipalities are seeking to add other preventative measures such as target taxes and levies onto these products. In response to the attention, in April 2010 a coalition of sixteen manufactures all agreed to reduce salt levels in foods sold in the United States under a program based on a similar effort in the United Kingdom. However, the initiative has met with resistance from some manufacturers, who claim that processed foods require the current high levels of salt to remain appetizing and to mask undesirable effects of food processing such as "warmed over flavor." The coalition expanded its mission in May 2010 by announcing that it intends to reduce the amount of calories in foods. By introducing lower calorie foods, changing product recipes and reducing portion sizes, the coalition stated that it expected to reduce the caloric content of foods by more than 1.5 trillion calories in total by 2012.
Food science is a study concerned with all technical aspects of food, beginning with harvesting or slaughtering, and ending with its cooking and consumption, an ideology commonly referred to as "from field to fork". It is considered one of the life sciences and is usually considered distinct from the field of nutrition.
Activities of food scientists include the development of new food products, design of processes to produce these foods, choice of packaging materials, shelf-life studies, sensory evaluation of the product with trained expert panels or potential consumers, as well as microbiological and chemical testing. Food scientists at universities may study more fundamental phenomena that are directly linked to the production of a particular food product and its properties. In the U.S., food science is typically studied at land-grant universities.
Some of the subdisciplines of food science include:
- Food safety - the causes, prevention and communication dealing with foodborne illness
- Food microbiology - the positive and negative interactions between micro-organisms and foods
- Food preservation - the causes and prevention of quality degradation
- Food engineering - the industrial processes used to manufacture food
- Product development - the invention of new food products
- Sensory analysis - the study of how food is perceived by the consumer's senses
- Food chemistry - the molecular composition of food and the involvement of these molecules in chemical reactions
- Food packaging - the study of how packaging is used to preserve food after it has been processed and contain it through distribution.
- Molecular gastronomy - the scientific investigation of processes in cooking, social & artistic gastronomical phenomena
- Food technology - the technological aspects
- Food physics - the physical aspects of foods (such as viscosity, creaminess, and texture)
The main organization in the United States regarding food science and food technology is the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), headquartered in Chicago, Illinois, which is the US member organisation of the International Union of Food Science and Technology (IUFoST). The European national organisations are organised into the European Federation of Food Science and Technology (EFFoST), based at Wageningen University, the Netherlands.
In the October 2006 issue of Food Technology, 2006-07 IFT PresidentDennis R. Heldman noted that the IFT Committee on Higher Education gave the current definition of food science as follows: "Food Science is the discipline in which the engineering, biological, and physical sciences are used to study the nature of foods, the causes of deterioration, the principles underlying food processing, and the improvement of foods for the consuming public."
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Answers:Please read this article, being a Homeopathic Physician I have treated and cured a number of patients according to their individual specific symptoms. Read this first and let me know. http://www.hpathy.com/diseases/peptic-ulcer-symptoms-treatment-cure.asp Take care and God bless.
Answers:How odd, you have asked the same question 4 times in the past 6 months. It must be some school project. Some sources of hazardous waste that people don't think about are: semi-conductor manufacturers, pharmaceutical manufacturers, research labs, aerospace, weapons makers, dry cleaners, car mechanics, etc. In addition to any place that uses batteries, light bulbs or paint. The effect of improper disposal can mean contamination of food sources. Like dumping waste in the ocean or rivers will poison fish, which are then eaten by animals and humans. Ingestion of mercury happens that way. Other chemicals are flammable, explosive, poisonous gas, spontaneously combustible, dangerous when wet, poisonous, infectious biohazard, corrosive, radioactive and miscellaneous junk like PCB's, asbestos, lead and chromium. You can figure out what will happen if you don't dispose of them properly. The EPA and state of California routinely tour and grade the company I work for to see if we are doing everything by the book. The book being the Hazardous Materials, Substances & Wastes Compliance Guide. To control improper disposal companies are fined big money if they don't store or dispose of their chemicals properly. They are also routinely toured by the EPA and whatever local enforcement agency there is. Companies that produce haz waste contract a company like the one I work for to dispose of their waste. Everything we pick up has to be manifested or else we won't allow it in our gate. Try the website below, it sums it up in somewhat easier terms.
Answers:Chemical additives are not better than natural but the food industry thinks it knows what is best for us. First, food spoils when enzyme, mold, yeast and bacterial growth is not controlled. Proper canning procedures control the growth of spoilage microorganisms allowing us to keep food beyond its normal storage period. The food industry uses additives in the mass production to control spoilage but also to enhance the colour, appearance, texture and flavour of the item. Home canning is different because we control what we add to our foods. So what if the colour is not as bright as it once was when it was fresh. The flavour is still there depending on what was canned. Home canned items, when done right, are more flavourful than the store bought ones. I guess it's just the time we live in where everyone is too busy to get off the rat race highway. I've left you a few links to check out. Hopefully it will help.
Answers:I am not a doctor, so either way you will want to talk to them, but this is what I have to say as a long time sufferer of Acid Reflux (G.E.R.D.)! Three part answer: information, what not to do, and what to do! INFORMATION!!!!!! I have a very severe case of Acid Reflux (G.E.R.D.). I have had to go to the hospital for some of the heartburn that I have had because the pain can become overwhelming or your breathing can be effected. It can be caused by Smoking, Drinking Beverages with caffeine (My case with hereditary), Drinking Beverages with Alcohol, Stress, Anxiety or can be Hereditary The good thing about G.E.R.D. is that it can be a temporary thing and can be cured. It is never a permit thing even if you end up with it for the rest of your life it has the ability to be cured. G.E.R.D. is caused by too much acid being created in your stomach. This can lead to or cause ulcers, esophagus damage, heartburn and/or damage in the mouth. . Other symptoms that can be found in a few cases are dizziness, tingling in limbs, numbness of Limbs, Chest/Back pain focused on the left side (in most cases), and shortness/difficulty breathing. WHAT NOT TO DO!!!!!!!! In most cases, stress is a factor to the reflux if you watch what you eat and reduce some of the stress it will help. If you watch what you eat for about a week you should find relief, if you do not then that is when you definitely what to listen to the doctor. Things to watch for are as follows: Fatty Foods Citrus Foods Foods That Contain Grease Fried Foods Chocolate (including any Coco) Caffeine Smoking Alcohol Tomato Based Products Lactose Roughage (Berries and Nuts) Onions WHAT TO DO!!!! The two foods that I recommend is Black strap Molasses and Raw honey. The apple is better for night time reflux while these will work for just about all of it. What you will do is take about a tsp. of whatever one you chose. Molasses being the better because of strength and nutrition, but must be use to the taste. What the substance will do is stick to the sides of the esophagus and do two things, one is heal and the other is protect. On the healing end, both substances have a healing property in them, and as they sit on the walls of the esophagus they will heal it. This is also helpful if you have a sore throat in the morning from refluxing. On the protection end, both substances are high in sugar and when acid that is refluxed comes up to that the sugar will neutralize it and it will not longer be a problem at that point. I would also look to putting Cinnamon and Ginger in you diet, they have been know to help with digestion and will help you reduce the amount of acid needed to brake down food, therefore causing you to reflux less.