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Monera (mÉ™ËˆnÉªÉ™rÉ™| ) is a now-obsolete taxonomic group in biological classification originally understood as one of five biological kingdoms. The kingdom Monera included most organisms with a prokaryoticcell organization (that is, no nucleus). For this reason, the kingdom was sometimes called Prokaryota or Prokaryotae
Traditionally the natural world was classified as animal, vegetable, or mineral as in Systema Naturae. After the discovery of microscopy, attempts were made to fit microscopic organisms into either the plant or animal kingdoms. In 1866 Ernst Haeckel proposed a three kingdom system which added the Protista as a new kingdom that contained most microscopic organisms. One of his eight major divisions of Protista was called Moneres. Haeckel's Moneres included known bacterial groups such as Vibrio. Haeckel's Protista kingdom also included eukaryotic organisms now classified as Protist. It was later decided that Haeckel's Protista kingdom had proven to be too diverse to be seriously considered one .
Although it was generally accepted that one could distinguish prokaryotes from eukaryotes on the basis of the presence of a nucleus, mitosis versus binary fission as a way of reproducing, size, and other traits, the monophyly of the kingdom Monera (or for that matter, whether classification should be according to phylogeny) was controversial for many decades. Although distinguishing between prokaryotes from eukaryotes as a fundamental distinction is often credited to a 1937 paper by Ã‰douard Chatton (little noted until 1962), he did not emphasize this distinction more than other biologists of his era. Roger Stanier and C. B. van Niel believed that the bacteria (a term which at the time did not include blue-green algae) and the blue-green algae had a single origin, a conviction which culminated in Stanier writing in a letter in 1970, "I think it is now quite evident that the blue-green algae are not distinguishable from bacteria by any fundamental feature of their cellular organization". Other researchers, such as E. G. Pringsheim writing in 1949, suspected separate origins for bacteria and blue-green algae. In 1974, the influential Bergey's Manual published a new edition coining the term cyanobacteria to refer to what had been called blue-green algae, marking the acceptance of this group within the Monera.
In 1969, Robert Whittaker published a proposed five kingdom system for classification of living organisms. Whittaker's system placed most single celled organisms into either the prokaryotic Monera or the eukaryotic Protista. The other three kingdoms in his system were the eukaryotic Fungi, Animalia, and Plantae. Whittaker, however, did not believe that all his kingdoms were monophyletic.
In 1977, a PNAS paper by Carl Woese and George Fox demonstrated that the archaea (initially called archaebacteria) are not significantly closer in relationship to the bacteria than they are to eukaryotes. The paper received front-page coverage in The New York Timesand great controversy initially, but the conclusions have since become accepted, leading to replacement of the kingdom Monera with the two kingdomsBacteria and Archaea. However, Thomas Cavalier-Smith has never accepted the importance of the division between these two groups, and has published classifications in which the archaebacteria are part of a subkingdom of the Kingdom Bacteria.
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Answers:Animal- Eukaryotic, multicellular, no cell walls (think about us) Plants- Eukaryotic, autotrophic, cell walls, multicellular Fungi- Eukaryotic, heterotrophic, cell walls, most multicellular Protist- Eukaryotic, cell walls, mostly unicellular Monera- prokaryotic Remember that plants are the only autotrophic multicellular organisms, animals are the only ones without cell walls, fungi are heterotrophic, have cell walls, and are multicellular, and protist have cell walls but are unicellular.
Answers:The five kingdom classification system is a part of taxonomy- the subfield of biology that studies the relationships of living things. Originally taxonomy was just a listing system to give each species a unique name but after evolution began to be broadly understood, biologists realized that it could be used to group organisms into relatedness order as well. Things that had more homologous features are more closely related. To a certain extent taxonomy is still concerned with assigning newly discovered organisms a proper name but that is a minor focus compared to the identifying appropriate relationships. This has led to new tools and levels of classification. For example, the five kingdom model has been largely replaced by the 3 domain model. Also taxonomy is developing newer methods referred to as cladistics which includes more molecular and genome sequence data as well as physical features.
Answers:Under the 5 kingdom system, archaebacteria and eubacteria were both grouped under the same kingdom, called Monera. Archaebacteria have different lipids and lack peptidoglycan in their cell membranes, which prompting the splitting of Monera into two kingdoms. Protozoans are eukaryotes, so I see no problem with that. Protozoan usually refers to a protist, which had its own kingdom under the 5 kingdom system. However, there is a problem with the kingdom protista, both under the 5 kingdom system and today's 6. Protista is basically the kingdom that contains anything that isn't classified as an animal, plany, fungi, or bacteria. It is a highly diverse group, and many of the organisms in it have very little relation to each other. Some protists are unicellular, others are multicellular, some are autotrophic, others are heterotrophic...you get the picture.
Answers:Domains: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. kingdoms: Archaebacteria (ancient bacteria), Eubacteria (true bacteria), Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia