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In mathematics, a multiplicative inverse or reciprocal for a number x, denoted by 1/x or x−1, is a number which when multiplied by x yields the multiplicative identity, 1. The multiplicative inverse of a fractiona/b is b/a. For the multiplicative inverse of a real number, divide 1 by the number. For example, the reciprocal of 5 is one fifth (1/5 or 0.2), and the reciprocal of 0.25 is 1 divided by 0.25, or 4. The reciprocal function, the function f(x) that maps x to 1/x, is one of the simplest examples of a function which is self-inverse.
The term reciprocal was in common use at least as far back as the third edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica(1797) to describe two numbers whose product is 1; geometrical quantities in inverse proportion are described as reciprocall in a 1570 translation ofEuclid's Elements.
In the phrase multiplicative inverse, the qualifier multiplicative is often omitted and then tacitly understood (in contrast to the additive inverse). Multiplicative inverses can be defined over many mathematical domains as well as numbers. In these cases it can happen that ab â‰ ba; then "inverse" typically implies that an element is both a left and right inverse.
Examples and counterexamples
Zero does not have a finite reciprocal because no real number multiplied by 0 produces 1. With the exception of zero, reciprocals of every complex number are complex, reciprocals of every real number are real, and reciprocals of every rational number are rational. The imaginary units, Â± = Â± are the only numbers with additive inverse equal to multiplicative inverse. For example, additive and multiplicative inverses of are −() = − and 1/ = −, respectively.
To approximate the reciprocal of x, using only multiplication and subtraction, one can guess a number y, and then repeatedly replace y with 2y − xy2. Once the change in y becomes (and stays) sufficiently small, y is an approximation of the reciprocal of x.
In constructive mathematics, for a real number x to have a reciprocal, it is not sufficient that xâ‰ 0. There must instead be given a rational number r such that 0 < r < |x|. In terms of the approximation algorithm in the previous paragraph, this is needed to prove that the change in y will eventually become arbitrarily small.
In modular arithmetic, the modular multiplicative inverse of a is also defined: it is the number x such that ax ≡ 1 (mod n). This multiplicative inverse exists if and only ifa and n are coprime. For example, the inverse of 3 modulo 11 is 4 because 4 · 3 ≡ 1 (mod 11). The extended Euclidean algorithm may be used to compute it.
The sedenions are an algebra in which every nonzero element has a multiplicative inverse, but which nonetheless has divisors of zero, i.e. nonzero elements x, y such that xy = 0.
A square matrix has an inverse if and only if its determinant has an inverse in the coefficient ring. The linear map that has the matrix A−1 with respect to some base is then the reciprocal function of the map having A as matrix in the same base. Thus, the two distinct notions of the inverse of a function are strongly related in this case, while they must be carefully distinguished in the general case (see below).
The trigonometric functions are related by the reciprocal identity: the cotangent is the reciprocal of the tangent; the secant is the reciprocal of the cosine; the cosecant is the reciprocal of the sine.
It is important to distinguish the reciprocal of a function ƒ in the multiplicative sense, given by 1/ƒ, from the reciprocal or inverse functionwith respect to composition, denoted by ƒ−1 and defined by ƒ o ƒ−1 = id. Only for linear maps are they strongly related (see above), while they are completely different for all other cases. The terminology difference reciprocal versus inverse is not sufficient to make this distinction, since many authors prefer the opposite naming convention, probably for historical reasons (for example in French, the inverse function is preferably called application rÃ©ciproque).
The multiplicative inverse has innumerable applications in algorithms
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Answers:To get the inverse of a function, first substitute x for y and y for x. Then solve for y. Example. Original: y=2x+5 New: x=2y+5, 2y=x+5, y=(x+5)/2 Example. Original: y=x^3 New: x=y^3, y=cube root(x)
Answers:Did you mean 1/2 x or 1/(2x)? The person before me answered the question for 1/(2x). If the question is 1/2 x, the steps would be: y= 1/2 x + 1 Switch x and y. x= 1/2 y + 1 Subtract 1 from both sides. x - 1 = 1/2 y Multiply both sides by 2 in order to isolate y. 2 (x - 1) = y Rearrange the equation. y = 2 (x - 1) or, if you distribute the 2, the answer is: y = 2x - 2
Answers:This is not Linear or an Inverse just y = f(x) = 2*(1/x) Four points : "plug in" a 1,2,3, and 4 everywhere you see an (x) and "simplify" the fractions f(1) = (2/1) = 2 f(2) = (2/2) =1 f(3) = (2/3) = 2/3 f(4) = (2/4) = 1/2 Your picture is here http://tinypic.com/r/fl8q5j/7 find 1 on x axis draw a vertical line "up" until it reaches the graph. then draw a horizontal line from the same point on the graph to the y axis. this is the y value (or f(1) value) point is read (x=1,y=2) find 2 on x axis draw a vertical line "up" until it reaches the graph. then draw a horizontal line from the same point on the graph to the y axis. this is the y value (or f(2) value) points are read (x=2,y=1) find 3 on x axis draw a vertical line "up" until it reaches the graph. then draw a horizontal line from the same point on the graph to the y axis. this is the y value (or f(3) value) points are read (x=3,y=2/3) find 4 on x axis draw a vertical line "up" until it reaches the graph. then draw a horizontal line from the same point on the graph to the y axis. this is the y value (or f(?) value) points are read (x=4,y=1/?)
Answers:suppose y = log (3x+2), to attain an inverse, let's suppose x = log(3y+2) now let's solve for y x = log(3y+2) 10^x = 3y+2 10^x-2 = 3y (10^x-2)/3 = y for ln we know it is just log base e.