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From Wikipedia

Nitrate test

A nitrate test is a chemical test used to determine the presence of nitrate ion in solution. Testing for the presence of nitrate via wet chemistry is generally difficult compared with testing for other anions, as almost all nitrates are soluble in water. In contrast, many common ions give insoluble salts, e.g. halides precipitate with silver, and sulfates precipitate with barium.

The nitrate anion is an oxidizer, and many tests for the nitrate anion are based on this property. Unfortunately, other oxidants present in the analyte may interfere and give erroneous results.

Brown ring test

A common nitrate test, known as the brown ring test can be performed by adding iron(II) sulfate to a solution of a nitrate, then slowly adding concentrated sulfuric acid such that the sulfuric acid forms a layer above the aqueous solution. A brown ring will form at the juction of the two layers, indicating the presence of the nitrate ion. Note that the presence of nitrite ions will interfere with this test.

The overall reaction is the reduction of the nitrate ion by iron(II) which is oxidised to iron(III) and formation of a nitrosyl complex.

NO3- + 3Fe2+ + 4H+→ 3Fe3+ + NO + 2H2O
[Fe(H2O)6]2+ + NO → [Fe(H2O)5(NO)]2+

Devarda's test

Devarda's alloy (Cu/Al/Zn) is a reducing agent. When reacted with nitrate in sodium hydroxide solution, ammonia is liberated. The ammonia formed may be detected by its characteristic odor, and by moist red litmus — very few gases other than ammonia evolved from wet chemistry are alkaline.

3 NO|3|- + 8 Al + 5 OH|- + 18 H|2|O → 3 NH|3 + 8 [Al(OH)|4|]|-

The aluminium does the reducing in this reaction.

Diphenylamine test

Diphenylamine may be used as a wet chemical test for the presence of the nitrate ion. In this test, a solution of diphenylamine and ammonium chloride in sulfuric acid is used. In the presence of nitrates, diphenylamine is oxidized, giving a blue coloration. This reaction has been used to test for organic nitrates as well, and has found use in gunshot residue kits detecting nitroglycerine and nitrocellulose.

Other oxidants such as chlorate, bromate, etc. interfere by similarly oxidizing diphenylamine. They may be removed by reduction with sodium sulfite. Where nitrite is present, a false negative result may be observed due to sulfite reducing nitrate in the presence of nitrite.

The diphenylamine test may be selective for nitrate by reducing nitrite with sodium azide, prior to treatment with sodium sulfite. Other derivatives have been reported as well.



From Yahoo Answers

Question:What is the chemical formula and net ionic equation? Please please help ASAP

Answers:Ni(NO3)2(aq) + 2 NaOH(aq) --> Ni(OH)2(s) + 2 NaNO3(aq) Since both of the reactants are soluble, the net ionic equation is Ni+2(aq) + 2(OH)-(aq) -->Ni(OH)2(s) Nickel hydroxide is an insoluble green precipitate.

Question:If nitric acid is added to the test tube, the amount of secreasesolid precipitate decreases. The best explanation for this is that the acid A)dilutes the solution making the precipitate dissolve. B)reacts with the copper(2) nitrate, pulling the equilibrum to the left. C)will dissolve most solids, including sodium nitrate. D)will react with the copper(2) hydroxide to form water and soluble copper (2) nitrate.

Answers:Cu(NO3)2 + 2 NaOH 2 NaNO3 + Cu(OH)2 Cu(OH)2 is insoluble in H2O, but soluble in acid So Cu(OH)2 precipitates, and the solution gets cloudy Adding HNO3 this happens Cu(OH)2 + HNO3 Cu(NO3)2 + 2 H2O Cu(NO3)2 is soluble in H2O, so the solution is clear again. A)dilutes the solution making the precipitate dissolve. B)reacts with the copper(2) nitrate, pulling the equilibrum to the left. C)will dissolve most solids, including sodium nitrate. D)will react with the copper(2) hydroxide to form water and soluble copper (2) nitrate D) YES If, you would like me to answer your questions in the future, request that I be one of your contacts. Then when you post a question, I will receive it via email. Otherwise I just search randomly for a question to answer. Thanks for the opportunity to be of help

Question:I need Silver nitrate (AgNO3 1%), Sodium hydroxide (NaOH 4%), Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 3%), and Hydrochloric acid (HCI 7%).. anyone know where I can buy them? But not online, a regular store nearby or something. Any help would be great!

Answers:Talk to someone who has access to a laboratory.

Question:a) What is the equation when 10cm3 sodium hydroxide reacts with dilute sulphuric acid until solution is neutral? b) What is the new equation when twice the volume of sulphuric acid is added? Name the new salt. c) give equations, methods and any chemicals needed to prepare i)calcium nitrate from calcium carbonate ii)calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide (in 2 steps)

Answers:Sulphuric acid is a diprotic acid (that means it has 2 H+ that can react) therefore t undergoes two step neutralisation when reacted with NaOH 1.) NaOH + H2SO4 NaHSO4 + H2O . Please note that this reaction does not give a neutral solution, That is at pH = 7.0. The solution is still strongly acidic. But I have answered in this way in view of your second question. The salt is called sodium hydrogen sulphate 2.) NaHSO4 + NaOH Na2SO4 + H2O This is the final end point, the solution will be neutral and the quantity of H2SO4 consumed in total will be twice that consumed in the first reaction. The saltformed is called sodium sulphate 3 .1 CaCO3 +2 HNO3 Ca(NO3)2 + CO2 + H2O React 1 mol CaCO3 with 2 mol HNO3 to give Ca(NO3)2 , carbon dioxide and water 3.2 The two steps are a) Ca(OH)2 + 2CO2 Ca(HCO3)2 That is calcium hydrogen carbonate which is formed as a first step. b) This will break down on drying to give the calcium carbonate Ca(HCO3)2(aq) CO2(g) + H2O(l) + CaCO3(s).

From Youtube

Reaction of Silver Nitrate with Sodium Hydroxide :to download this video please go to www.downloadvideos.co.nr . Sodium hydroxide solution is added to silver nitrate solution. A close up view of the reaction is shown. There is no narration.

How to Make Sodium Nitrate :this is one of the methods on how to make sodium nitrate, it is a useful oxidant if you dont have potassium hydroxide, you can substitute it with sodium hydroxide and will give same results just a different compound Ammonium nitrate + Sodium Hydroxide = Sodium Nitrate + Ammonium Hydroxide