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Ethanol fermentation, also referred to as alcoholic fermentation, is a biological process in which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose are converted into cellular energy and thereby produce ethanol and carbon dioxide as metabolic waste products. Because yeasts perform this process in the absence of oxygen, ethanol fermentation is classified as anaerobic. Ethanol fermentation occurs in the production of alcoholic beverages and ethanol fuel, and in the rising of breaddough.
The chemical process of fermentation of glucose
- C12H22O11 +H2O + invertase â†’ C6H12O6
- C6H12O6 + Zymase â†’ 2C2H5OH + 2CO2
- C6H12O6 + 2 ADP + 2 Pi + 2 NAD+â†’ 2 CH3COCOOâˆ’ + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H2O + 2H+
The chemical formula of pyruvate is CH3COCOOâˆ’. Pi stands for the inorganic phosphate. As shown by the reaction equation, glycolysis causes the reduction of two molecules of NAD+ to NADH. Two ADP molecules are also converted to two ATP and two water molecules via substrate-level phosphorylation. For more details, refer to the main article on glycolysis.
Effect of oxygen
The fermentation process does not require oxygen. If oxygen is present, some species of yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis,Kluyveromyces lipolytica) oxidize pyruvate completely to carbon dioxide and water. This process is called respiration. Thus these yeasts produce ethanol only in an anaerobic environment.
However, many yeasts such as the commonly used baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, prefer fermentation to respiration. These yeasts will produce ethanol even under aerobic conditions given the right sources of nutrition.
Ethanol fermentation is responsible for the rising of bread dough. Yeast organisms consume sugars in the dough and produce ethanol and carbon dioxide as waste products. The carbon dioxide forms bubbles in the dough, expanding it into something of a foam. Nearly all the ethanol evaporates from the dough when the bread is baked.
All alcoholic beverages, including those produced by carbonic maceration, are produced by ethanol fermentation by yeast. Wine and brandy are produced by fermentation of the natural sugars present in fruits, especially grapes. Beer and whiskey are produced by fermentation of grain starches that have been converted to sugar by the enzyme amylase, which is present in grain kernels that have been germinated. Amylase-treated grain or amylase-treated potatoes are fermented for the production of vodka. Rum is produced by fermentation of cane sugar. In all cases, the fermentation must take place in a vessel that allows carbon dioxide to escape, but prevents outside air from coming in, as exposure to oxygen would prevent the formation of ethanol.
Similar yeast fermentation of various carbohydrate products is used to produce much of the ethanol used for fuel.
Feedstocks for fuel production
In the United States, the main feedstock for the production of ethanol is currently corn. Approximately 2.8 gallons of ethanol are produced from one bushel of corn (0.42 liter per kilogram). While much of the corn turns into ethanol, some of the corn also yields by-products such as DDGS (distillers dried grains with solubles) that can be used as feed for livestock. A bushel of corn produces about 18 pounds of DDGS (320 kilograms of DDGS per metric ton of maize). Although most of the fermentation plants have been built in corn-producing regions, sorghum is also an important feedstock for ethanol production in the Plains states. Pear
A chemical equation is symbolic representation of a chemical reaction where the reactant entities are given on the left hand side and the product entities on the right hand side. The coefficients next to the symbols and formulae of entities are the absolute values of the stoichiometric numbers. The first chemical equation was diagrammed by Jean Beguin in 1615.
A chemical equation consists of the chemical formulas of the reactants (the starting substances) and the chemical formula of the products (substances formed in the chemical reaction). The two are separated by an arrow symbol (\rightarrow, usually read as "yields") and each individual substance's chemical formula is separated from others by a plus sign.
As an example, the formula for the burning of methane can be denoted:
- CH|4| + 2 O|2| \rightarrow CO|2| + 2 H|2|O
This equation would be read as "CH four plus O two produces CO two and H two O." But for equations involving complex chemicals, rather than reading the letter and its subscript, the chemical formulas are read using IUPAC nomenclature. Using IUPAC nomenclature, this equation would be read as "methane plus oxygen yields carbon dioxide and water."
This equation indicates that oxygen and CH4 react to form H2O and CO2. It also indicates that two oxygen molecules are required for every methane molecule and the reaction will form two water molecules and one carbon dioxide molecule for every methane and two oxygen molecules that react. The stoichiometric coefficients (the numbers in front of the chemical formulas) result from the law of conservation of mass and the law of conservation of charge (see "Balancing Chemical Equation" section below for more information).
Symbols are used to differentiate between different types of reactions. To denote the type of reaction:
- "=" symbol is used to denote a stoichiometric relation.
- "\rightarrow" symbol is used to denote a net forward reaction.
- "\rightleftarrows" symbol is used to denote a reaction in both directions.
- "\rightleftharpoons" symbol is used to denote an equilibrium.
Physical state of chemicals is also very commonly stated in parentheses after the chemical symbol, especially for ionic reactions. When stating physical state, (s) denotes a solid, (l) denotes a liquid, (g) denotes a gas and (aq) denotes an aqueous solution.
If the reaction requires energy, it is indicated above the arrow. A capital Greek letter delta (\Delta) is put on the reaction arrow to show that energy in the form of heat is added to the reaction. h\nu is used if the energy is added in the form of light.
Balancing chemical equations
The law of conservation of mass dictates the quantity of each element does not change in a chemical reaction. Thus, each side of the chemical equation must represent the same quantity of any particular element. Similarly, the charge is conserved in a chemical reaction. Therefore, the same charge must be present on both sides of the balanced equation.
One balances a chemical equation by changing the scalar number for each chemical formula. Simple chemical equations can be balanced by inspection, that is, by trial and error. Another technique involves solving a system of linear equations.
Ordinarily, balanced equations are written with smallest whole-number coefficients. If there is no coefficient before a chemical formula, the coefficient 1 is understood.
The method of inspection can be outlined as putting a coefficient of 1 in front of the most complex chemical formula and putting the other coefficients before everything else such that both sides of the arrows have the same number of each atom. If any fractional coefficient exist, multiply every coefficient with the smallest number required to make them whole, typically the denominator of the fractional coefficient for a reaction with a single fractional coefficient.
As an example, the burning of methane would be balanced by putting a coefficient of 1 before the CH4:
- 1 CH|4| + O|2| \rightarrow CO|2| + H|2|O
Since there is one carbon on each side of the arrow, the first atom (carbon) is balanced.
Looking at the next atom (hydrogen), the right hand side has two atoms, while the left hand side has four. To balance the hydrogens, 2 goes in front of the H2O, which yields:
- 1 CH|4| + O|2| \rightarrow CO|2| + 2 H|2|O
Inspection of the last atom to be balanced (oxygen) shows that the right hand side has four atoms, while the left hand side has two. It can be balanced by putting a 2 before O2, giving the balanced equation:
- CH|4| + 2 O|2| \rightarrow CO|2| + 2 H|2|O
This equation does not have any coefficients in front of CH4 and CO2, since a coefficient of 1 is dropped.
An ionic equation is a chemical equation in which electrolytes are written as dissociated ions. Ionic equations are used for single and double displacement reactions that occur in aqueoussolutions. For example in the following precipitation reaction:
- CaCl2(aq) + 2AgNO3(aq) \rightarrow Ca(NO3)2(aq) + 2AgCl(s)
the full ionic equation would be:
- Ca2+ + 2Cl− + 2Ag+ + 2NO3− \rightarrow Ca2+ + 2NO3− + 2AgCl(s)
and the net ionic equation would be:
- 2Cl−(aq) + 2Ag+(aq) \rightarrow 2AgCl(s)
or, in reduced balanced form,
- Ag+ + Cl− \rightarrow AgCl(s)
In this aqueous reaction the Ca2+ an
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Answers:for anaerobic resp. you should be asking what is not needed. It occurs in the absence of molecular oxygen or 02, it looks like this for alcoholic fermentation: C6H12O6 === 2CO2 + 2C2H5OH result is 2 ATP Lactic Acid fermentation looks like this overall, however the actual mechanism is quite complex C6H12O6 == 2C3H6O3 result is 2 ATP The similarities between the two is that they both relases the same amount of energy in that they both phosphorrelate 2 ADP to 2 ATP, as well as ocuring only in the absence of molecular oxygen. The differences are apparent from the chemical formulas. In alcoholic fermentation ethanol is produced along with carbon dioxide. In lactic acid fermentation, which occurs in our muscles, you have lactic acid forming from the breakdown of glucose, as the name implies. This is important because our bodies would suffer irreparable tissue damage from the buildup of CO2 gas
Answers:Lactic acid fermentation In homolactic fermentation, one molecule of glucose is converted to two molecules of lactic acid: C6H12O6 2 CH3CHOHCOOH In heterolactic fermentation, with one molecule of glucose being converted to one molecule of lactic acid, one molecule of ethanol, and one molecule of carbon dioxide: C6H12O6 CH3CHOHCOOH + C2H5OH + CO2 Alcohol fermentation The chemical equation below summarizes the fermentation of glucose, whose chemical formula is C6H12O6. One glucose molecule is converted into two ethanol molecules and two carbon dioxide molecules: C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 H.
Answers:The step from pyruvate (CH3COO-) to Acetalaldehyde (CH2CHO) and CO2 is done by the enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase. The step from Acetalaldehyde to ethanol (CH3CH2OH) is Alcohol dehydrogenase. I do not have the chemical structures for the enzymes, because they would be way complicated, but I think what you are looking for is. C6H12O6 + 2ADP + 2 Pi = 2 CH3CH2OH + 2 CO2 + 2ATP + 2H20
Answers:C6H12O6 --> 2 CO2 + 2 C2H5OH In the cell, 2 ATP also get formed in the process