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A scientist in a broad sense is one engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge. In a more restricted sense, a scientist is an individual who uses the scientific method. The person may be an expert in one or more areas of science. This article focuses on the more restricted use of the word. Scientists perform research toward a more comprehensive understanding of nature, including physical, mathematical and social realms.
This is distinct from philosophers, those who use logic toward a more comprehensive understanding of intangible aspects of reality that lack a direct connection to nature, focusing on the realm of thought itself.
Scientists are also distinct from engineers, those who develop devices that serve practical purposes. When science is done with a goal toward practical utility, it is called 'applied science' (short of the creation of new devices that fall into the realm of engineering). When science is done with an inclusion of intangible aspects of reality it is called 'natural philosophy'.
Social roles that partly correspond with the modern scientist can be identified going back at least until 17th century natural philosophy, but the term scientist is much more recent. Until the late 19th or early 20th century, those who pursued science were called "natural philosophers" or "men of science".
English philosopher and historian of science William Whewell coined the term scientist in 1833, and it was first published in Whewell's anonymous 1834 review of Mary Somerville's On the Connexion of the Physical Sciences published in the Quarterly Review. Whewell's suggestion of the term was partly satirical, a response to changing conceptions of science itself in which natural knowledge was increasingly seen as distinct from other forms of knowledge. Whewell wrote of "an increasing proclivity of separation and dismemberment" in the sciences; while highly specific terms proliferated—chemist, mathematician, naturalist—the broad term "philosopher" was no longer satisfactory to group together those who pursued science, without the caveats of "natural" or "experimental" philosopher. Members of theBritish Association for the Advancement of Science had been complaining about the lack of a good term at recent meetings, Whewell reported in his review; alluding to himself, he noted that "some ingenious gentleman proposed that, by analogy with artist, they might form [the word] scientist, and added that there could be no scruple in making free with this term since we already have such words as economist, andatheist—but this was not generally palatable".
Whewell proposed the word again more seriously (and not anonymously) in his 1840 The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences:
We need very much a name to describe a cultivator of science in general. I should incline to call him a Scientist. Thus we might say, that as an Artist is a Musician, Painter, or Poet, a Scientist is a Mathematician, Physicist, or Naturalist.
He also proposed the term physicist at the same time, as a counterpart to the French word physicien. Neither term gained wide acceptance until decades later; scientist became a common term in the late 19th century in the United States and around the turn of the 20th century in Great Britain. By the twentieth century, the modern notion of science as a special brand of information about the world, practiced by a distinct group and pursued through a unique method, was essentially in place.
Science and technology have continually modified human existence. As a profession the scientist of today is widely recognized. Scientists include theoreticians who mainly develop new models to explain existing data and predict new results, and experimentalists who mainly test models by making measurements â€” though in practice the division between these activities is not clear-cut, and many scientists perform both tasks.
Mathematics is often grouped with the sciences. Some of the greatest physicists have also been creative mathematicians. There is a continuum from the most theoretical to the most empirical scientists with no distinct boundaries. In terms of personality, interests, training and professional activity, there is little difference between applied mathematicians and theoretical physicists.
Scientists can be motivated in several ways. Many have a desire to understand why the world is as we see it and how it came to be. They exhibit a strong curiosity about reality. Other motivations are recognition by their peers and prestige, or the desire to apply scientific knowledge for the benefit of people's health, the nations, the world, nature or industries (academic scientist and industrial scientist).
Scientists versus engineers
Engineers and scientists are often confused in the minds of the general public, with the former being closer to applied science. While scientists explore nature in order to discover general principles, engineers apply established principles drawn from science in order to create new inventions and improve upon the old ones. In short, scientists study things whereas engineers design things. However, there are plenty of instances where significant accomplishments are made in both fields by the same individual. When a scientist has also an engineering education, the same individual would explore principles in nature to solve problems and to design new technology. Scientists often perform some engineering tasks in designing experimental equipment and building From Yahoo Answers
Answers:NICOLAY GENNADIYEVICH BASOV and ALEKSANDR MIKHAILOVICH PROKHOROV (1964 Noble Prize) fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle. ROBERT B. LAUGHLIN, HORST L. STORMER and DANIEL C. TSUI (1998 Noble Prize) for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations. Albert Einstein received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect.
Answers:1)Father of physics: Newton 2)General and special relativity (among other things): Einstein After those first couple, there are a lot you could name. To give some credit to the classical age: Archimedes. Structure of the solar system: Copernicus and Kepler Structure of the universe: Hubble (and LeMaitre) Important bridge between Copernicus and Newton: Galileo E&M: Maxwell (w/ Ampere, Faraday, Gauss, Lorentz) Quantum mechanics: Schrodinger, Heisenberg (w/ Planck, Bohr, and others) Quantum field theory: Dirac (and Feynman who made it practical) Electroweak interaction: Glashow, Weinberg, Salaam Strong interaction: Gross, Politzer, Wilchek Discovery of the electron: Thomson Discovery of the nucleus: Rutherford Discovery of radioactivity: Curies(mostly M but also P) Great physics popularizers: Sagan (maybe Hawkings and Greene) Here's a survey: http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/print/851
Answers:Last time this was asked I answered with the names of 5 women scientists (Marie Curie, Lisa Meitner, Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, Elizabeth Garrett Anderson and Sophia Brahe), This time I shall choose 5 Indian scientists, for similar reasons. That we should not assume that all scientists are male or all scientists are Caucasians. ryabhata (AD 476 550) the first of the great mathematician-astronomers of the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy. Aryabhata's computation of Earth's circumference as 24,835 miles, was only 0.2% smaller than the actual value of 24,902 miles. Brahmagupta (AD 589 668) mathematician and astronomer. Some of the important contributions made by Brahmagupta in astronomy are: methods for calculating the position of heavenly bodies over time (ephemerides), their rising and setting, conjunctions, and the calculation of solar and lunar eclipses. He is credited with introducing the number zero into mathematics. Srinivasa Ramanujan Iyengar (1887 1920) mathematician widely regarded as one of the greatest mathematical minds in recent history. With almost no formal training in pure mathematics, he made substantial contributions in the areas of analysis, number theory, infinite series and continued fractions. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (1910 1995) awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physics for his theoretical work on the structure and evolution of stars. Satyendra Nath Bose (1894 1974) physicist, best known for his work on quantum mechanics, leading to the theory of the Bose-Einstein condensate. The boson is also named after him.
Answers:Stephen Hawking Hubert Reeves (Popular French Astro-physicist)