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Sense of place

The term sense of place has been defined and used in many different ways by many different people. To some, it is a characteristic that some geographic places have and some do not, while to others it is a feeling or perception held by people (not by the place itself). It is often used in relation to those characteristics that make a place special or unique, as well as to those that foster a sense of authentic human attachment and belonging. Others, such as geographer Yi-Fu Tuan, have pointed to senses of place that are not inherently "positive," such as fear. Some students and educators engage in "place-based education" in order to improve their "sense(s) of place," as well as to use various aspects of place as educational tools in general.

Geographic place

To understand sense of place, the geographic concept of space needs first to be defined. Geographic space is the space that encircles the planet, through which biological life moves. It is differentiated from "outer space" and "inner space" (inside the mind). One definition of place, proposed by Tuan, is that a place comes into existence when humans give meaning to a part of the larger, undifferentiated space. Any time a location is identified or given a name, it is separated from the undefined space that surrounds it. Some places, however, have been given stronger meanings, names or definitions by society than others. These are the places that are said to have a strong "Sense of Place."

Cultural geographers, anthropologists, sociologists and urban planners study why certain places hold special meaning to particular people or peoples. Places said to have a strong "sense of place" have a strong identity and character that is deeply felt by local inhabitants and by many visitors. Sense of place is a social phenomenon that exists independently of any one individual's perceptions or experiences, yet is dependent on human engagement for its existence. Such a feeling may be derived from the natural environment, but is more often made up of a mix of natural and cultural features in the landscape, and generally includes the people who occupy the place. The sense of place may be strongly enhanced by the place being written about by poets, novelists and historians, or portrayed in art or music, and more recently, through modes of codification aimed at protecting, preserving and enhancing places felt to be of value (such as the "World Heritage Site" designations used around the world, the British "Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty" controls and the American "National Historic Landmark" designation).


Places that lack a "sense of place" are sometimes referred to as "placeless" or "inauthentic." Placeless landscapes are those that have no special relationship to the places in which they are located—they could be anywhere. Roadside strip shopping malls, gas/petrol stations and convenience stores, fast food chains, and chain department stores are often cited as examples of placeless landscape elements. Even some historic sites or districts that have been heavily commercialized (commodious) for tourism and new housing estates are sometimes defined as having lost their sense of place. A classic description of such placeless places is Gertrude Stein's "there is no there there".

A Small Place

A Small Place is an essay published in 1988 by Jamaica Kincaid. The work is an indictment of the Antiguan government, the tourist industry and Antigua's British colonial legacy.

After experiencing a frustrating and complex childhood, Jamaica Kincaid expresses her opinions about the life of Antigua, a small island, in her book, "A Small Place." Kincaid was born in Antigua and lived there until age 16, when she then moved to the United States. Reflecting back to her childhood, Kincaid shares her ideas about the American and European inhabitants. In this poetic style of writing, Kincaid grasps the reader's attention by vividly raising questions in our minds as she describes her own. The style she uses challenges the reader to look beyond the beauty of a place and explore the reality and truth behind that beauty. Kincaid begins the story with an outsider's point of view; a westerner expresses how wonderful Antigua is because of its Mill Reef Club right before Kincaid chimes in with the local's point of view. Two different opinions clash and leave the reader wondering, searching within oneself for answers.

Portions of the voiceover in the documentary Life and Debtcome directly from this book.

Book overview

First section

A Small Place is divided into four loosely-structured, untitled sections. The first section begins with Kincaid’s narration of the reader’s experiences and thoughts as a hypothetical tourist in Antigua. The reader, through Kincaid’s description, witnesses the great natural beauty of the island, while being sheltered from the harsher realities of the lives of those who must live there. Kincaid weaves into her narrative the sort of information that only an “insider� would know, such as the reason why the majority of the automobiles on the island are poorly running, expensive Japanese cars. Included in her guided tour are brief views of the mansions on the island, mostly gained through corruption or outright criminality. She also mentions the now-dilapidated library, still awaiting repairs after an earthquake ten years earlier. The tour continues at the hotel, and Kincaid concludes the section with a discussion of her view of the moral ugliness of being a tourist.

Second section

The second section deals with Kincaid’s memories of the “old� Antigua, the colonial possession of Great Britain. Kincaid recalls the casual racism of the times, and the subservience of Antigua to England and, especially, to English culture. She delves briefly into the history of Barclay’s Bank and discusses the Mill Reef Club, an elite, all-white enclave built by wealthy foreigners. She describes and deplores the great hoopla made over the visit of Princess Margaret to the island when Kincaid was a child. Much of the section is concerned with the distortions that colonialism has created in the minds of the Antiguans; Antiguans do not tend to recognize racism as such, says Kincaid, and the bad behavior of individual English people never seems to affect the general reverence for English culture. For Kincaid, the problem is compounded by the fact that the people of Antigua can express themselves only in the language of those who enslaved and oppressed them. She then discusses the connection she sees between the colonial past of the island and its impoverished, corrupt present.

Third section

The third is longest section, deals with Antigua’s present and begins with Kincaid asking herself the disturbing question of whether, considering the state of the island today, things weren’t, in fact, better in the old days. As an example, she takes the state of the library, awaiting repairs after all these years and forced to reside in “temporary� quarters above a dry goods store. Kincaid has fond, if ambivalent, feelings toward the old library, which was a haven of beauty and an escape into reading for her as a child. She recalls the imperious ways of the head librarian (who suspected Kincaid, rightly, of stealing books), who is now sadly reduced to campaigning, mostly unsuccessfully, for funds to build a new library, while the collection decomposes in cardboard boxes. The rich members of the Mill Reef Club have the funds to help, but will do so only if the old library is rebuilt—a demand that Kincaid sees as having more to do with nostalgia for the colonial regime than with a true desire to help. Kincaid mentions the ironies involved in Antigua having a Minister of Culture without having a culture to administer. She also mentions her politically active mother’s run-in with the current Minister of Culture, who has allowed the library to languish. Education has clearly suffered on Antigua in the years since independence, and Kincaid ruefully notes the poor speech habits of the younger Antiguans. Kincaid discusses the way Antiguans experience the passage of time, and connects this to their oddly detached view of the corruption of their government. She then goes into a litany of the many abuses of power on the island, including misappropriation of funds, kickbacks, drug smuggling, and even political violence—all of which are known by the average Antiguan. Kincaid then discusses the political history of Antigua since independence, showing how power has rested in the same hands for most of the period, with one brief, unimpressive exception. Kincaid sees corruption as an ingrained element of political life on the island, so much so that government officials who do not steal are held in contempt as fools rather than admired for their honesty. She tells of the fears that many Antiguans have for the future and hints that open dictatorship or political upheaval may lie ahead.

Fourth section

The fourth, and final, section is a sort of coda to the piece, starting with an evocation of the intense physical beauty of the island. She describes the beauty as so extreme as to appear “unreal,� almost like an illustration or a stage-set. Kincaid says that the beauty of their surroundings is a mixed blessing to the Antiguans, who are trapped in an unchanging setting in which their poverty is part of the scenery. The slaves who were brought to Antigua by force were victims, and therefore noble—but their descendants, today’s Antiguans, are simple human beings, with all the problems and contradictions of human beings anywhere.

From Yahoo Answers

Question:i have a section of homework in the workbook where i am supposed to place descriptive adjectives within a sentence. however, the corresponding book does not address where to place them!!! here is an example sentence: Voici LA MAISON de mes grands-parents. (nouveau, joli) the words in capital letters are the words that we want to describe more and the words in the parenthesis are the ones we want to use to describe. so, i read some descriptive sentences randomly in the book and i am thinking that you just throw in the descriptive words right after the capital lettered words? am i missing something? or is this actually that simple? well how do i know when to place the adjectives before/after the noun? and what if i need to use 2 adjectives at once? like with the first example?

Answers:I wonder what book you have that do not explain the rules that you re supposed to follow to complete the homework Please, do not just throw in the descriptive words right after the capital lettered word! I am so sorry to let you know that if you think you re missing something you re right and it is not that simple. It s not even simple for French people. They observe the rules without even thinking about them because French is their native language but most of them could not explain those rules to you unless there s teachers of the French language. Before I start (if I haven t already done so, lol), let me point out that maison is a feminine word, so in your sentence, the adjectives associated with it would be nouvelle and jolie which are the feminine forms of nouveau and joli (Peaco1000, pay attention ). I m pretty sure it s a little trick just for your teacher to make sure you know the proper gender of the word maison . Nouveau is in fact a pretty tricky adjective. First, it s an irregular one, nouveau/nouvelle (new), like beau/belle (beautiful) or vieux/vieille (old). Second, it changes if it is placed before of after a word: une nouvelle maison, une maison neuve, un nouveau chapeau, un chapeau neuf. And third, nouveau is like beau or vieux and the forms nouvel , bel and vieil are used before a masculine singular noun beginning with a vowel or silent h (un bel oiseau, un nouvel arbre, un vieil hotel). All this sounds a little complicated but it s not if you think of the sounds. The word oiseau is masculine but un beau oiseau would just sounds wrong because you cannot make the words connect. It s like in English when you add the letter n to the article to make the connection with the next word starting with a vowel. You would not say a apple or a umbrella or a uncle , would you? an apple an umbrella and an uncle sounds much better. In English, you add a consonant letter in front of words starting with a vowel and in French, you use a form that sounds like the feminine form because the masculine form does not fit (but you still write it differently so people can make spelling mistakes nouvel/nouvelle, bel/belle, vieil/vieille) Now, for the adjectives being placed before or after the word really makes the beauty of the French language with the subtle changes in meanings. For example, if I say une femme pauvre (a poor woman), that would means she s needy and has no money. On the other hand, if I say une pauvre femme , that would means she s unfortunate, you want to pity her, something bad happened to her, like Anna Nicole Smith who is une pauvre femme but was certainly not une femme pauvre It is the same for nouveau-nouvel/nouvelle (before the noun) and neuf/neuve (after the noun): if I say une nouvelle maison it means that the house is new but it may be only new for my grands-parents because they just bought it (maybe they even bought an old house but it s their new address). On the other hand, it I say une maison neuve that means that house is brand new, that house was built recently. Anything neuf or neuve (always placed after the word) means that thing is brand new, has barely never been used before. If you say; I have a new address , you would always say J ai une nouvelle addresse . You will never say j ai une addresse neuve since an address is not an object or a thing that can wear out with use, same for a husband lol. One of the answerers before me (politoed316) mentioned the adjectives about colors being after the words. Yes, The White House is La Maison Blanche. It is true in everyday spoken and written language but if you put the adjectives for the colors in front of the words, then suddenly, the whole thing becomes poetic and literary, sometimes used in the names of towns, restaurants or resorts (Verte Vall e - Green Valley) or fairy tales (Blanche Neige Snow White), very much used in poetry: Oh ! sous le vert platane Sous les frais coudriers, Diane, Et ses grands l vriers ! (1/34th of Ballade la lune Alfred de Musset) http://poesie.webnet.fr/poemes/France/musset/1.html In case you would like to know what that means, platane is a plane tree, coudrier is a hazel tree. Diane is Diana, the virgin Goddess of the hunt in the Roman mythology and l vriers are those greyhounds that follow her everywhere. (oh! Under the green plane tree, under the fresh hazel trees, Diana and her big greyhounds). Just click on the link to get the 33 other parts ) Sous le vert platane is very poetic. Sous le platane vert is not, just normal, everyday talking. What you have to know and what your book failed to teach you is that most descriptive adjectives in French, unlike English adjectives, FOLLOW the noun they modify (which is why, after you read some descriptive sentences randomly in your book, you were thinking of just thowing in the adjective right after the noun). Unfortunately, like all French rules, you have exceptions. Here is the list of adjectives that are the exceptions, and unlike others, PRECEDE the nouns: (usually, adjectives with only one syllable are put before the noun) Beau, bon, court, gentil, grand, gros, jeune, joli, long, mauvais, m chant, nouveau, petit vieux. You will notice that both joli and nouveau are in that list so both adjectives precede the noun because they are exceptions (also as I mentioned before, nouveau/nouvelle would become neuf/neuve, after the noun) A note for jonsinher here: you would never say un homme beau in French. beau is one of those exceptions (see the list above) that precedes the nouns and since homme start with silent h, beau becomes bel to make the connection with homme : un bel homme, un bel oiseau, un bel appartement Now all that being said (and I hope read twice by you and assimilated and reread..), let s tackle your example sentence: Voici LA MAISON de mes grands-parents. (nouveau, joli) Both the adjectives nouveau and joli are part of the above list of 14 adjectives that are exceptions to the rule and therefore precede the noun, instead of following it, so I guess your teacher would like to test you and find out if you make them precede the noun because you know they are exceptions of it you just throw them after the noun because you just read descriptive sentences randomly in the book Voici la maison de mes grands-parents. = Here s my grands-parents house (kinda neat that grands-parents, even in the English language, is a French word ) If you want to add the adjective nouveau , you first have to think feminine form since maison is feminine. So you need to add nouvelle : Voici la nouvelle maison de mes grands-parents. If you want to add the adjective joli , you first have to think feminine form since maison is feminine. So you need to add jolie , which you would pronounce the same anyway since the last e is mute. Voici la jolie maison de mes grands-parents. The last line of your question asked what you should do if you need to use the two adjectives at once. So, here s the house. It s new and it s pretty. Since both nouvelle and jolie are adjectives that should precedes the noun, because they are exceptions to the rules, you should then write: Voici la jolie nouvelle maison de mes grands-parents or worse: Voici la nouvelle jolie maison de mes grands-parents . Both of those sentences would never ever be said by a French person but since they are following the rules, a French teacher who s not a French native would give you good grade for it (believe me, I am the teacher who teaches American French teachers.) OK, think about it in English for a minute: would you say Here s my grands-parents pretty new house . What about Here s


Answers:Taiga is a generic term for a type of conifer-dominated boreal forest found in northern environments. The word was first used to describe dense forests of spruce (eThe Taiga biome is the type of habitat in certain places, like mountain tops, deserts, and tropical forests, and is determined by the climate of the place. The taiga climate is for the most part dominated by cold artic air. Some of the biotic factors of the Taiga Biome are plants just to name a few: Balsam Fir, Black Spruce, Siberian Spruce, Jack Pine. Balsam Fir found in the northeastern North America from Virginia to Newfoundland.specially Picea abies) in northern Russia. Abiotic Factors Climate Taiga climate dominated by cold air from the artic circle. Temperatures are colder during night due to no cloud cover. Winter has its freezing cold temperature that lasts for six long months. Summer is a hot, short, and rainy season. Fall comes to be the shortest of all seasons. Spring brings flowers, frozen ponds and lakes melt, and animal come out of hibernation and from the south to live once again to do it all over the next following year. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Soil Type The soil type is thin, acidic, and not very nutrient it is also really rocky. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Temperature The lowest winter temperatures are around -65 degrees Fahrenheit and the Highest winter temperatures are around 30 degrees Fahrenheit .The average temperature for winter is 26.6 degrees Fahrenheit. During summer temperature are around 30 degrees Fahrenheit to 70 degrees Fahrenheit on up. The average summer temperature is over 50 degrees Fahrenheit. Temperatures range is -65 degrees Fahrenheit to 70 degrees Fahrenheit for most the year. Average. Temperatures are 32 degrees Fahrenheit per year. Rainfall The Average Rainfall for the Taiga climate is 12-33 inches. Most fall during the summer days of the year Location Locations are most typical in the Northern Hemisphere, due to the Southern Hemisphere s lack of land mass. Alaska, Canada, Scandinavia, Russia and China are most commonly known for a taiga culture.

Question:I need to know about the respiratory system kinda quickly, but not like, Magic School Bus simple, good enough to pass a grade 11 bio test xP. ya, so the respiratory system in our body ...

Answers:Okay then! =) This is actually a sum up: Internal or cellular respiration is the process by which glucose or other small molecules are oxidised to produce energy: this requires oxygen and generates carbon dioxide. External respiration (breathing) involves simply the stage of taking oxygen from the air and returning carbon dioxide to it. The respiratory tract, where external respiration occurs, starts at the nose and mouth. (Description of respiratory tract from nose to trachea here from overheads) (There is a brief complication where the airstream crosses the path taken by food and drink in the pharynx: air flows on down the trachea where food normally passes down the oesophagus to the stomach. ) The trachea (windpipe) extends from the neck into the thorax, where it divides into right and left main bronchi, which enter the right and left lungs, breaking up as they do so into smaller bronchi and bronchioles and ending in small air sacs or alveoli, where gaseous exchange occurs. The lungs are divided first into right and left, the left being smaller to accommodate the heart, then into lobes (three on the right, two on the left) supplied by lobar bronchi. Bronchi, pulmonary arteries and veins (which supply deoxygenated blood and remove oxygenated blood), bronchial arteries and veins (which supply oxygenated blood to the substance of the lung itself) and lymphatics all enter and leave the lung by its root (or hilum). Lymph nodes blackened by soot particles can often be seen here and the substance of the lung itself may be blackened by soot in city dwellers or heavy smokers. Each lobe of the lung is further divided into a pyramidal bronchopulmonary segments. Bronchopulmonary segments have the apex of the pyramid in the hilum whence they receive a tertiary bronchus, and appropriate blood vessels. The 10 segments of the right lung and eight of the left are virtually self contained units not in communication with other parts of the lung. This is of obvious use in surgery when appropriate knowledge will allow a practically bloodless excision of a diseased segment. Gaseous exchange relies on simple diffusion. In order to provide sufficient oxygen and to get rid of sufficient carbon dioxide there must be a large surface area for gaseous exchange a very short diffusion path between alveolar air and blood concentration gradients for oxygen and carbon dioxide between alveolar air and blood. The surface available in an adult is around 140m2 in an adult, around the area of a singles tennis court. The blood in the alveolar capillaries is separated from alveolar air by 0.6* in many places (1* = one thousandth of a mm) . Diffusion gradients are maintained by ventilation (breathing) which renews alveolar air, maintaining oxygen concentration near that of atmospheric air and preventing the accumulation of carbon dioxide the flow of blood in alveolar capillaries which continually brings blood with low oxygen concentration and high carbon dioxide concentration Haemoglobin in blood continually removes dissolved oxygen from the blood and binds with it. The presence of this tennis court, separated from the outside air by a very narrow barrier imposes demands on the respiratory tract. Outside air: varies in temperature. At the alveolar surface it must be at body temperature varies from very dry to very humid. At the alveolar surface it must be saturated with water vapour contains dust and debris. These must not reach the alveolar wall contains micro-organisms, which must be filtered out of the inspired air and disposed of before they reach the alveoli, enter the blood and cause possible problems. It is easy to see that the temperature and humidity of inspired air will increase as it passes down a long series of tubes lined with a moist mucosa at body temperature. The mechanisms for filtering are not so obvious. Mucus The respiratory tract, from nasal cavities to the smallest bronchi, is lined by a layer of sticky mucus, secreted by the epithelium assisted by small ducted glands. Particles which hit the side wall of the tract are trapped in this mucus. This is encouraged by: (a) the air stream changing direction, as it repeatedly does in a continually dividing tube. (b) random (Brownian) movement of small particles suspended in the airstream. The first of these works particularly well on more massive particles, the second on smaller bits Cilia Once the particles have been sidelined by the mucus they have to be removed, as indeed does the mucous. This is carried out by cilia on the epithelial cells which move the mucous continually up or down the tract towards the nose and mouth. (Those in the nose beat downwards, those in the trachea and below upwards). The mucus and its trapped particles are and bacteria are then swallowed, taking them to the sterilising vat of the stomach. Length The length of the respiratory tract helps in both bringing the air to the right temperat

Question:i want detail information on medicinal plants- botanical and common name, family, general description, climate places where found, image, uses can u please give me above information on at least 11 to 12 plants. i need it for the project. you can even recommend the site where i could get it. best answer will get 10 pts. so please please help me in the best way thanks in advance

Answers:Index of plants = links to profile: http://www.liveandfeel.com/ List of indications = link to helpful plants = links to profile: http://www.pfaf.org/leaflets/med_uses.php

From Youtube

Linkin Park - A Place For My Head (lyrics In vid and description) :I watch how the moon sits in the sky on a dark night Shining with the light from the sun But the sun doesn't give the light to the moon assuming, The moon's gonna owe it one It makes me think of how you act to me You do favors then rapidly You just turn around and start asking me, About things that you want back from me I'm so sick of the tension Sick of the hunger Sick of you acting like I owe you this Find another place to feed your greed While I find a place to rest I wanna be in another place I hate when you say you don't understand (You'll see it's not meant to be) I wanna be in the energy Not with the enemy A place for my head Maybe some day I'll be just like you and Step on people like you do Run away all the people I thought I knew I remember back then who you were You used to be calm used to be strong Used to be generous but you shouldve known That you'd wear out your welcome now you see how quiet it is all alone I'm so sick of the tension Sick of the hunger Sick of you acting like I owe you this Find another place to feed your greed While I find a place to rest I'm so sick of the tension Sick of the hunger Sick of you acting like I owe you this Find another place to feed your greed While I find a place to rest I wanna be in another place I hate when you say you don't understand (You'll see it's not meant to be) I wanna be in the energy Not with the enemy A place for my head You try to take the best of me, go away You try to take the best of me, go away You try ...

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