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From Wikipedia

Agricultural productivity

Agricultural productivity is measured as the ratio of agricultural outputs to agricultural inputs. While individual products are usually measured by weight, their varying densities make measuring overall agricultural output difficult. Therefore, output is usually measured as the market value of final output, which excludes intermediate products such as corn feed used in the meat industry. This output value may be compared to many different types of inputs such as labour and land (yield). These are called partial measures of productivity. Agricultural productivity may also be measured by what is termed total factor productivity (TFP). This method of calculating agricultural productivity compares an index of agricultural inputs to an index of outputs. This measure of agricultural productivity was established to remedy the shortcomings of the partial measures of productivity; notably that it is often hard to identify the factors cause them to change. Changes in TFP are usually attributed to technological improvements.

Importance of agricultural prosuctivity

The productivity of a region's farms is important for many reasons. Aside from providing more food, increasing the productivity of farms affects the region's prospects for growth and competitiveness on the agricultural market, income distribution and savings, and labour migration. An increase in a region's agricultural productivity implies a more efficient distribution of scarce resources. As farmers adopt new techniques and differences in productivity arise, the more productive farmers benefit from an increase in their welfare while farmers who are not productive enough will exit the market to seek success elsewhere.

As a region's farms become more productive, its comparative advantage in agricultural products increases, which means that it can produce these products at a lower opportunity cost than can other regions. Therefore, the region becomes more competitive on the world market, which means that it can attract more consumers since they are able to buy more of the products offered for the same amount of money.

Increases in agricultural productivity lead also to agricultural growth and can help to alleviate poverty in poor and developing countries, where agriculture often employs the greatest portion of the population. As farms become more productive, the wages earned by those who work in agriculture increase. At the same time, food prices decrease and food supplies become more stable. Labourers therefore have more money to spend on food as well as other products. This also leads to agricultural growth. People see that there is a greater opportunity earn their living by farming and are attracted to agriculture either as owners of farms themselves or as labourers.

However, it is not only the people employed in agriculture who benefit from increases in agricultural productivity. Those employed in other sectors also enjoy lower food prices and a more stable food sup. At the same time, they may see their wages rise as well.

Agricultural productivity is becoming increasingly important as the world population continues to grow. India, one of the world's most populous countries, has taken steps in the past decades to increase its land productivity. Forty years ago, North India produced only wheat, but with the advent of the earlier maturing high-yielding wheats and rices, the wheat could be harvested in time to plant rice. This wheat/rice combination is now widely used throughout the Punjab, Haryana, and parts of Uttar Pradesh. The wheat yield of three tons and rice yield of two tons combine for five tons of grain per hectare, helping to feed India's 1.1 billion people.

Agricultural productivity and sustainable development

Increase in agricultural productivity are often linked with questions about sustainability and sustainable development. Changes in agricultural practices necessarily bring changes in demands on resources. This means that as regions implement measures to increase the productivity of their farm land, they must also find ways to ensure that future generations will also have the resources they will need to live and thrive.

Productive farms

Nevertheless, for many farmers (especially in non-industrial countries) agricultural productivity may mean much more. A productive farm is one that provides most of the resources necessary for the farmer's family to live, such as food, fuel, fiber, healing plants, etc. It is a farm which ensures food security as well as a way to sustain the well-being of a community. This implies that a productive farm is also one which is able to ensure proper management of natural resources, such as biodiversity, soil, water, etc. For most farmers, a productive farm would also produce more goods than required for the community in order to allow trade.

Diversity in agricultural production is one key to productivity, as it enables risk management and preserves potentials for adaptation and change. Monoculture is an example of such a nondiverse production system. In a monocultural system a farmer may produce only crops, but no livestock, or only livestock and no crop.

The benefits of raising livestock, among others, are that it provides multiple goods, such as food, wool, hides, and transportation. It also has an important value in term of social relationships (such as gifts in


From Yahoo Answers

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Answers:They are much smaller....

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Answers:Water erosion can destroy your crops if not controlled. More importantly, it can destroy your land as well. It can take years of good conservation to get your soil back into production.

Question:I am trying to sort the following crops into three categories for crop rotation: 1-those that heavily use nitrogen. 2-those that use nitrogen to a lesser degree. 3-those that heavily GIVE nitrogen to the soil. The crops are as follows: coffee, tea, cotton, cashews, bananas, fruits, vegetables, potatoes, tobacco, and perhaps fruits (if most fruits can be generalized onto one of my three categories) Thanks.

Answers:Wrong answer above me. Grasses use Nitrogen, ie Corn, Wheat, Milo, etc which is Cat 1 Many Legumes fix nitrogen into the ground, ie Soybeans, Alfalfa, Clover, some are better than others. Cat 3 Your Cat 2 classification is based on how heavily the crop is intensly harvested. Wheat uses less Nitrogen than Corn as a basis if the lower yield and the land its grown on in the US whereas Wheat in Europe is fertilized more and is grown on different soil types. The Cat 2 classification may have to be abandoned because its based on soil type and farming intensity. Soil nitrogen Legumes in the rotation can be used to increase the available soil nitrogen. Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria called rhizobia form nodules on the roots of legume plants and convert or fix atmospheric nitrogen to organic nitrogen. The amount of nitrogen fixed varies with species, available soil nitrogen, and many other factors. Fixed nitrogen not removed from the land by harvest becomes available to succeeding crops as the legume tissues undergo microbial decomposition. When the legume crop is seeded, rhizobia inoculum should always be applied to the seed to ensure the most productive commercial strains are available to form nodules and that inoculating bacteria are always present. Even though indigenous bacteria may be present in the soil, research shows improved commercial strains of rhizobia have more capacity to fix nitrogen (28). Legumes have the capacity to fix large amounts of nitrogen. Research in Minnesota (16) indicated that alfalfa fixed an average of 172 pounds of nitrogen annually during the first two years of production. However, only a portion of the nitrogen fixed is available to the next crop because much is removed in the harvested alfalfa. Nitrogen credits of various legume crops are listed in Table 5. Table 5. Nitrogen credited to a subsequent crop of various legume crops, NDSU soil testing lab. Previous Crop Harvested Nitrogen Credit lbs N/A Alfalfa 50 Pinto bean 25 Soybean 40 Field pea 20 Lentil 20 Navy bean 25 Sweetclover 50

Question:Does and increase in temperature / climate have a positive or negative affect on crops or agriculture as a whole? -PLEASE AND THANK YOU ! :D

Answers:Really difficult question on the front. Rising temperatures deends on rate of temperature change. plants and animals can adapt to geologically slow (10,000 yr) changes, but have more difficulty adapting to man made climate change (200 yr). it would affect where specific crops are grown more heat tolerant ones could stay put less tolerant ones would have to follow the cooler climates. The ones that thrive in the cooler climates would eventually run out of habitat. The bigger problem with warming climates is the shift in seasons and rainfall. Where there are deserts there will be larger deserts and where there is minimal rainfall supported by irrigation there will be less rain and even less ground water for irrigation. So even more land that is currently suitable for farming (arable land) will disappear. definite negative effect on crops.

From Youtube

The effects of crops on climate change (University of Reading) :The effects of crops on climate change - part of our Research Showcase series. We spend a lot of time thinking how climate can affect crops but crops affect climate themselves. A substantial amount of the lands surface is used for crop and agricultural production: how we use that land can affect our climate. Altering the characteristics of the land's surface can alter the way in which water and heat flows from the land's surface to the atmosphere and back, and if this is a large enough change, it can ultimately affect the regional climate.