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Question:I'm studying for my A&P exam and I know 3, changed in respiratory rate, cardiac output and blood pressure, but what brings about these changes and why do they take place?

Answers:When the body is under stress (exercising) it releases stress hormones such as epinephrine and norepinephrine. These hormones activate the sympathetic nervous system bringing about the physiological changes you mentioned. The body will also produce sweat to maintain temperature. The respiratory rate changes because as you use up energy in the form of ATP, you will be depleting your body of oxygen (since it is the ultimate oxygen receptor at the end of the electron transport chain, used to make ATP). So, as you use up more oxygen, you need to supply your cells of more oxygen, so your red blood cells will go to the lungs to get more oxygen and release more CO2. That also brings up the pH homeostasis of the blood. These are all long and involved processes, but I hope that me bringing up those few helped you.


Answers:yes there will be only 1 question from the whole text from the optional questions

Question:1.) What role does the athlete's cardiovascular fitness play in lactic acid buildup? 2.) What are the physiological factors that may alter the amount of lactic acid accumulation in the same athlete? Please give your source.

Answers:Contrary to what you might think, it is not lactate (lactic acid) buildup that causes muscle pain after exercise. But onto your question. Athletes function at a higher metabolic rate than normal people, and have more efficient cardiac output and circulation in general. As a result, lactate (a product of aerobic respiration) becomes a part of the Cori Cycle. This is basically a way the body transforms lactate (a 3 carbon sugar) into a much more useable form, glucose (a 6 hexose). This reaction occurs in the liver, whereas lactate formation occurs in the muscle cells. So, improved circulation in athletes allows them more efficient use of their lactate by improved Cori Cycle function. This pathway is heavily dependent on oxygen availability (and thus pH). Less availability of oxygen (quick need for a lot of energy, like a sprint) means that the muscle cells will use ANAEROBIC metabolism to get their energy. Formation of lactate is anaerobic.

Question:okay, yeah, my exams are from jan 13 - 15 and my two weaknesses are CP Algebra 1 and Honors Biology. do you have any tips of how to study for those two? i know about practice in algebra but what are good practice tips? then i have honors english and it is mainly about poetry so how would i go about studying that? - just definitions and terms or what? and also, what are tips for calming down? i freak out easily when under pressure and i'm under a lot of pressure, i can't afford to do bad or get C's on my report card. thanks :)

Answers:Ok. First, don't freak out. When you freak out, you forget that you should be studying. Second, don't get TOO calm that you don't think you have to study. Exercising and fresh air (if not too cold) can help with this. English during this year is mainly going to be terms... probably matching, and a few questions on what ever your class reads. Look up the poetry types and what not. Biology... I made a study guide for this that year. It comprised of the bold terms in the book as well as other things I didn't know. I got a 93 with that. Algebra, the only way to get good at math is practice. You should do a few problems nightly to prepare. And don't put off your weaknesses until the last minute or it will bite you.

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EECE 373 - Final Exam. Question 2 (Induction Motor) :A very standard induction motor exercise.