excretory system diseases and disorders

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From Wikipedia

Eye disease

This is a partial list ofhuman eye diseases and disorders.

The World Health Organization publishes a classification of known diseases and injuries called the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems or ICD-10. This list uses that classification.

H00-H06 Disorders of eyelid, lacrimal system and orbit

H10-H13 Disorders of conjunctiva

  • (H10) Conjunctivitis— inflammation of the conjunctiva
  • (H11.0) Pterygium— benign growth of the conjunctiva
  • (H11.3) Subconjunctival hemorrhage— burst blood vessels on conjunctiva
  • (H13.1*) Conjunctivitis in infectious and parasitic diseases classified elsewhere
    • Conjunctivitis (due to):
      • Acanthamoeba (B60.1+)
      • adenoviral follicular (acute) (B30.1+)
      • chlamydial (A74.0+)
      • diphtheritic (A36.8+)
      • gonococcal (A54.3+)
      • haemorrhagic (acute)(epidemic) (B30.3+)
      • herpesviral [herpes simplex] (B00.5+)
      • meningococcal (A39.8+)
      • Newcastle (B30.8+)
      • zoster (B02.3+)

H15-H22 Disorders of sclera, cornea, iris and ciliary body

Liver disease

Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a broad term describing any single number of diseases affecting the liver. Many are accompanied by jaundice caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the system. The bilirubin results from the breakup of the hemoglobin of dead red blood cells; normally, the liver removes bilirubin from the blood and excretes it through bile. Diseases Hepatitis, inflammation of the liver, caused mainly by various viruses but also by some poisons (e.g. alcohol), autoimmunity (autoimmune hepatitis) or hereditary conditions. Diagnosis is done by checking levels of Alanine transaminase Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a spectrum in disease, associated with obesity and characterized as an abundance of fat in the liver; may lead to a hepatitis, i.e. steatohepatitis and/or cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is the formation of fibrous tissue in the liver from replacing dead liver cells. The death of the liver cells can be caused by viral hepatitis, alcoholism or contact with other liver-toxic chemicals. Diagnosis is done by checking levels of Alanine transaminase and Asparatine transaminase (SGOT). Haemochromatosis, a hereditary disease causing the accumulation of iron in the body, eventually leading to liver damage. Cancer of the liver (primary hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic cancers, usually from other parts of the gastrointestinal tract). Wilson's disease, a hereditary disease which causes the body to retain copper. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, an inflammatory disease of the bile duct, likely autoimmune in nature. Primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune disease of small bile ducts. Budd-Chiari syndrome, obstruction of the hepatic vein. Gilbert's syndrome, a genetic disorder of bilirubin metabolism, found in about 5% of the population. Glycogen storage disease type II, the build-up of glycogen causes progressive muscle weakness (myopathy) throughout the body and affects various body tissues, particularly in the heart, skeletal muscles, liver and nervous system. There are also many pediatric liver disease, including biliary atresia, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, alagille syndrome, and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, to name but a few. Diagnostic Symptoms of a diseased liver The external signs include a coated tongue, itchy skin, excessive sweating, offensive body odor, dark circles under the eyes, red swollen and itchy eyes, acne rosacea, brownish spots and blemishes on the skin, flushed facial appearance or excessive facial blood vessels. Other symptoms include jaundice, dark urine, pale stool, bone loss, easy bleeding, itching, small, spider-like blood vessels visible in the skin, enlarged spleen, fluid in the abdominal cavity, chills, pain from the biliary tract or pancreas, and an enlarged gallbladder. The symptoms related to liver dysfunction include both physical signs and a variety of symptoms related to digestive problems, blood sugar problems, immune disorders, abnormal absorption of fats, and metabolism problems. The malabsorption of fats may lead to symptoms that include indigestion, reflux, deficit of fatsoluble vitamins, hemorrhoids, gall stones, intolerance to fatty foods, intolerance to alcohol, nausea and vomiting attacks, abdominal bloating, and constipation. Nervous system disorders include depression, mood changes, especially anger and irritability, poor concentration and "foggy brain", overheating of the body, especially the face and torso, and recurrent headaches (including migraine) associated with nausea. The blood sugar problems include a craving for sugar, hypoglycaemia and unstable blood sugar levels, and the onset of type 2 diabetes. Abnormalities in the level of fats in the blood stream, whether too high or too low levels of lipids in the organism. Hypercholesterolemia: elevated LDL cholesterol, reduced HDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, clogged arteries leading to high blood pressure heart attacks and strokes, build up of fat in other body organs (fatty degeneration of organs), lumps of fat in the skin (lipomas and other fatty tumors), excessive weight gain (which may lead to obesity), inability to lose weight even while dieting, sluggish metabolism, protuberant abdomen (pot belly), cellulite, fatty liver, and a roll of fat around the upper abdomen (liver roll) etc. Or too low levels of lipids: hypocholesterolemia: low total cholesterol, low LDL and VLDL cholesterol, low triglyderides. Liver function tests A number of liver function tests are available to test the proper function of the liver. These test for the presence of enzymes in blood that are normally most abundant in liver tissue, metabolites or products. Imaging Treatment of liver diseases The only real treatment for chronic liver disease at present is a liver transplant. However, there are some promising drugs currently being tested such as Sulfasalazine which have the potential to aid regeneration by blocking special proteins that stop liver regeneration. This can enable the liver to partially or totally regenerate. Unfortunately at present, this drug is not being used as it is in clinical trials. Other treatments involve using stem cells that could be injected into the patient's damaged liver and regenerate the organ, but this is in its infancy as well.

From Yahoo Answers

Question:I'm looking for information (websites recommended) about the major/most common diseases of the Endocrine System and whether they are a result of Impairment, Deterioration, or Malfunction.

Answers:Try http://www.endocrineweb.com/ http://endocrine-disorders.health-cares.net/ But....an excellent book is 'Clinical Biochemistry' by Beckett, Walker, Ashby and Rae, 7th edn. It got me through my whole degree :)

Question:I'm doing a project for Anatomy and I was just thinking maybe someone on here would know about a rare disease of the digestive system.

Answers:I have a damaged para-sympathetic nervous system that is causing massive disgestive system problems...the doctors don't really have a clue whats going on...just that i cant take anti-cholinegeric compounds like buscapan or most laxatives...also it gives me something similar to hypnogognic jerks when i relax

Question:I need a list of the main ones......do you know them? Your help is very much appreciated! Have a wonderfully smashing day xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Answers:Hi the main ones are Cancer, Bowel, stomach, oesophagus Diverticulitis Irritable Bowel Syndrome Gastroenteritis Peptic ulcer Diarrhoea Cholecystitis Crohns Disease Coeliac disease Food intolerances Constipation Indigestion Acid reflux Polyps Cant think of anything else.

Question:please identify the causative factors for the following lymphatic system disorders, hodgkin's disease, non=hodgkin's lymphoma, and multiple myeloma thank you

Answers:NHL- 1) Chromosomal translocations, 2) Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, 3) Oncogenic virus (EBV, HTLV-I, HHV-B), 4) Aberrant somatic hypermutation MM- 1) immunoglobulin gene rearangement 2) genetic changes 3) Cell cycle dysregulation 4) Dysregulation of apoptosis 5) Infection with HHV-8 HL- No known cause, but everything I've told you before this can apply. If your instructor tries to pawn off the fact that Epstein-Barr is associated with it, tell him/her that up to 85% of the population is infected with EBV and there aren't a large population with HL. This is all I can remember from medical school, sorry Sincerely, Doc

From Youtube

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Spleen Disorders & Enzyme Therapy :www.takebackyourhealth.com The spleen is closely associated with the circulatory system, where it functions in the destruction and removal of worn-out red blood cells, helps to fight infections, and holds a reservoir of blood. It is located in the upper left part of the abdomen, behind the stomach, and just below the diaphragm. During times of stress when the oxygen content of the blood must be increased, the spleen reacts and releases its stored red blood cells into the blood stream. Surgical removal of the spleen due to injury or disease may increase one's susceptibility to infections. Enzyme Supplementation Suggestions High Potency Digestive Enzyme Formula with every meal High Protease Enzyme Formula three to four times daily pH Balancing Formula before bed www.takebackyourhealth.com