examples of vegetative reproduction
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Vegetative reproduction ( vegetative propagation, vegetative multiplication, vegetative cloning) is a form of asexual reproduction in plants. It is a process by which new individuals arise without production of seed s or spore s. It can occur naturally or be induced by horticulturists, in
Leaf vegetables, also called potherbs, green vegetables, greens, or leafy greens, are plant leavescooked and eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots. Although they come from a very wide variety of plants, most share a great deal with other leaf vegetables in nutrition and cooking methods.
Nearly one thousand species of plants with edible leaves are known. Leaf vegetables most often come from short-lived herbaceous plants such as lettuce and spinach. Woody plants whose leaves can be eaten as leaf vegetables include Adansonia,Aralia,Moringa,Morus, andToonaspecies.
The leaves of many fodder crops are also edible by humans, but usually only eaten under famine conditions. Examples include alfalfa, clover, and most grasses, including wheat and barley. These plants are often much more prolific than more traditional leaf vegetables, but exploitation of their rich nutrition is difficult, primarily because of their high fiber content. This obstacle can be overcome by further processing such as drying and grinding into powder or pulping and pressing for juice.
During the first half of the 20th century, it was common for greengrocers to carry small bunches of herbs tied with a string to small green and red peppers, known as "potherbs."
Leaf vegetables are typically low in calories, low in fat, high in protein per calorie, high in dietary fiber, high in iron and calcium, and very high in phytochemicals such as vitamin C, carotenoids, lutein and folic acid as well as Vitamin K.
Leaf vegetables may be stir-fried, stewed or steamed. Leaf vegetables stewed with pork are a traditional dish in soul food, and southern U.S. cuisine. They are also commonly eaten in a variety of South Asian dishes such as saag. Leafy greens can be used to wrap other ingredients like a tortilla. Most leaf vegetables can also be eaten raw, for example in sandwiches or salads. A green smoothie enables large quantities of raw leafy greens to be consumed by blending the leaves with fruit and water.
vegetative propagation the ability of plants to reproduce without sexual reproduction, by producing new plants from existing vegetative structures. Some plants, such as the Canada thistle and most bamboos, send out long underground stems that produce new plants, often at considerable distances from the original plant. Such plants can form enormous colonies of new plants within a relatively few years. Many trees, such as the beech and aspen, send up root sprouts, and large colonies of new trees thus arise. In other trees, the lower branches may produce roots where they rest upon the ground, and new trees are produced. The leaves of some plants produce buds at their edges, which develop in turn into miniature plants that fall off and take root. Specialists in the fields of agriculture and horticulture take advantage of the regenerative ability of plants through such techniques as the rooting of cuttings; grafting and budding of fruit trees; layering, or inducing the tips of branches to produce new plants; the cutting apart of clusters of perennials , such as rhubarb, into individual plants; the cutting of plants (such as the common potato) into pieces that are then planted separately, each with a bud ( "eye" ); and numerous other techniques. The vegetative propagation of economically important and useful plants is now so widespread that most horticultural varieties are now only reproduced clonally, especially since many of them breed true from seed.
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Answers:vegetative propagation, the ability of plants to reproduce without sexual reproduction, by producing new plants from existing vegetative structures. Some plants, such as the Canada thistle and most bamboos, send out long underground stems that produce new plants, often at considerable distances from the original plant. Such plants can form enormous colonies of new plants within a relatively few years. Many trees, such as the beech and aspen, send up root sprouts, and large colonies of new trees thus arise. In other trees, the lower branches may produce roots where they rest upon the ground, and new trees are produced. The leaves of some plants produce buds at their edges, which develop in turn into miniature plants that fall off and take root. Specialists in the fields of agriculture and horticulture take advantage of the regenerative ability of plants through such techniques as the rooting of cuttings; grafting and budding of fruit trees; layering, or inducing the tips of branches to produce new plants; the cutting apart of clusters of perennials perennial, any plant that under natural conditions lives for several to many growing seasons, as contrasted to an annual or a biennial. Botanically, the term perennial Advantages and Disadvantages of Vegetative Propagation Advantages The offsprings are genetically identical and therefore advantageous traits can be preserved. Only one parent is required which eliminates the need for special mechanisms such as pollination, etc. It is faster. For example, bacteria can multiply every 20 minutes. This helps the organisms to increase in number at a rapid rate that balances the loss in number due to various causes. Many plants are able to tide over unfavourable conditions. This is because of the presence of organs of asexual reproduction like the tubers, corm, bulbs, etc. Vegetative propagation is especially beneficial to the agriculturists and horticulturists. They can raise crops like bananas, sugarcane, potato, etc that do not produce viable seeds. The seedless varieties of fruits are also a result of vegetative propagation. The modern technique of tissue culture can be used to grow virus-free plants. Disadvantages The plants gradually lose their vigour as there is no genetic variation. They are more prone to diseases that are specific to the species. This can result in the destruction of an entire crop. Since many plants are produced, it results in overcrowding and lack of nutrients.
Answers:Leaves, stems & roots. Although their major functions are not reproductive, there are examples where these structures carry on asexual reproduction by vegetative propagation.
Answers:actually, there are 9 kinds of asexual reproduction: *Binary fission-Many single-celled organisms (unicellular), such as Achaea, bacteria, and protists, reproduce asexually through binary fission *Budding Some cells split via budding (for example baker's yeast), resulting in a 'mother' and 'daughter' cell. *Vegetative reproduction Vegetative reproduction is a type of asexual reproduction found in plants where new independent individuals are formed without the production of seeds or spores. *Spore formation Many multicellular organisms form spores during their biological life cycle in a process called sporogenesis. *Fragmentation Fragmentation is a form of asexual reproduction where a new organism grows from a fragment of the parent. Each fragment develops into a mature, fully grown individual. *Parthenogenesis Parthenogenesis is a form of agamogenesis in which an unfertilized egg develops into a new individual. Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in many plants, invertebrates (e.g. water fleas, aphids, stick insects, some ants, bees and parasitic wasps), and vertebrates (e.g. some reptiles, amphibians, fish, very rarely birds). Agamogenesis Main article: Agamogenesis Agamogenesis is any form of reproduction that does not involve a male gamete. Examples are parthenogenesis and apomixis. *Apomixis Apomixis in plants is the formation of a new sporophyte without fertilization. It is important in ferns and in flowering plants, but is very rare in other seed plants. In flowering plants, the term "apomixis" is now most often used for agamospermy, the formation of seeds without fertilization, but was once used to include vegetative reproduction. *Nuclear Embryony Nucellar embryony occurs in some citrus seeds. Male apomixis can occur in rare cases, such as the Saharan Cypress where the genetic material of the embryo are derived entirely from pollen. The term "apomixis" is also used for asexual reproduction in some animals, notably water-fleas, Daphnia.
Answers:Sexual reproduction involves taking two "half-cells" (aka gametes) and merging them together into a "whole-cell" (aka zygote) that develops into an embryo. This allows the organism to reshuffle the genetic deck with each offspring - it gets half from one parent and half from the other. Asexual reproduction is simply the derivation of a new, essentially identical individual from a parent. Cloning, in other words. No genetic variation required.