examples of types of motion
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Motion control is a sub-field of automation, in which the position and/or velocity of machines are controlled using some type of device such as a hydraulic pump, linear actuator, or an electric motor, generally a servo. Motion control is an important part of robotics and CNCmachine tools, however it is more complex than in the use of specialized machines, where the kinematics are usually simpler. The latter is often called General Motion Control (GMC). Motion control is widely used in the packaging, printing, textile, semiconductor production, and assembly industries.
The basic architecture of a motion control system contains:
- A motion controller to generate set points (the desired output or motion profile) and close a position and/or velocity feedback loop.
- A drive or amplifier to transform the control signal from the motion controller into a higher power electrical current or voltage that is presented to the actuator. Newer "intelligent" drives can close the position and velocity loops internally, resulting in much more accurate control.
- An actuator such as a hydraulic pump, air cylinder, linear actuator, or electric motor for output motion.
- One or more feedback sensors such as optical encoders, resolvers or Hall effect devices to return the position and/or velocity of the actuator to the motion controller in order to close the position and/or velocity control loops.
- Mechanical components to transform the motion of the actuator into the desired motion, including: gears, shafting, ball screw, belts, linkages, and linear and rotational bearings.
The interface between the motion controller and drives it controls is very critical when coordinated motion is required, as it must provide tight synchronization. Historically the only open interface was an analog signal, until open interfaces were developed that satisfied the requirements of coordinated motion control, the first being SERCOS in 1991 which is now enhanced to SERCOS III. Later interfaces capable of motion control include Profinet IRT, Ethernet Powerlink, and EtherCAT.
Common control functions include:
- Velocity control.
- Position (point-to-point) control: There are several methods for computing a motion trajectory. These are often based on the velocity profiles of a move such as a triangular profile, trapezoidal profile, or an S-curve profile.
- Pressure or Force control.
- Trans-mutational vector mapping.
- Electronic gearing (or cam profiling): The position of a slave axis is mathematically linked to the position of a master axis. A good example of this would be in a system where two rotating drums turn at a given ratio to each other. A more advanced case of electronic gearing is electronic camming. With electronic camming, a slave axis follows a profile that is a function of the master position. This profile need not be salted, but it must be an animated function.
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Answers:ball and socket, hinge, pivot, and glide Ball and Socket The ball and socket joint allows your arms and hips to move in many directions. Try it! Up Down, right left, and a full 360 rotation give you a lot of freedom to get you where you want to go! Examples include the shoulder and hip. Hinge Joint The bones in the knees, elbows, fingers, and toes move just like the hinges on a door. If you're not quite clear on how they work, find the closest door and swing it back and forth. Notice that movement is somewhat limited, and it can only swing back and forth. Now try the same thing on your knees, elbows, fingers, and toes. Pivot Joint The first two vertebrae in your neck and the joint beneath your elbow move in a semicircle motion by twisting against eachother. Try this first by holding your forearm and shoulder stationery, and notice that the bottom part of your arm can move in a semi circle back and forth. You can do the same thing with your vertebrae by holding the lower part of your neck, and rotating you head. Glide Joint The bones in the wrists and ankles slide against each other in a gliding motion. Try out this joint by holding either right above your wrist or ankle and moving it to the right and left, and up and down. The gliding joint gives your wrists and ankles lots of freedom so you can really move around
Answers:Hi Jane, its me, Amir!!!!!!!
Answers:I believe that quantitative motion is motion which can be described in precise mathematical terms.
Answers:If this is to due with physics corey is right, but it could also be vibrational, rotational, and free movment, these corisponde to the states solid, liquid, and gas