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From Wikipedia


In chemistry, a mixture is a material system made up by two or more different substances which are (mixed) together but are not combined chemically. Mixture refers to the physical combination of two or more substances the identities of which are retained. The molecules of two or more different substances are mixed in the form of alloys, solutions, suspensions, and colloids.

Mixtures are the product of a mechanical blending or mixing of chemical substances like elements and compounds, without chemical bonding or other chemical change, so that each ingredient substance retains its own chemical properties and makeup. Nonetheless, despite there are no chemical changes to its constituents, the physical properties of a mixture, such as its melting point, may differ from those of the components. Some mixtures can be separated into their components by physical (mechanical or thermal) means. Azeotropes can be considered as a kind of mixture which usually pose considerable difficulties regarding the separation processes required to obtain their constituents (physical or chemical processes or, even a blend of them).

Mixtures can be either homogeneous or heterogeneous. A homogeneous mixture is a type of mixture in which the composition is uniform. A heterogeneous mixture is a type of mixture in which the composition can easily be identified, as there are two or more phases present. Air is a homogeneous mixture of the gaseous substances nitrogen, oxygen, and smaller amounts of other substances. Salt, sugar, and many other substances dissolve in water to form homogeneous mixtures. A homogeneous mixture in which there is both a solute and solvent present is also a solution.

The following table shows the main properties of the three families of mixtures.

The following table shows examples of the three types of mixtures.

Physics and Chemistry

A heterogeneous mixture is a mixture of two or more compounds. Examples are: mixtures of sand and water or sand and iron filings, a conglomerate rock, water and oil, a salad, trail mix, and concrete (not cement). Gy's sampling theory quantitatively defines the heterogeneity of a particle as:

h_i = \frac{(c_i - c_\text{batch})m_i}{c_\text{batch} m_\text{aver}} .

where h_i, c_i, c_\text{batch}, m_i, and m_\text{aver} are respectively: the heterogeneity of the ith particle of the population, the mass concentration of the property of interest in the ith particle of the population, the mass concentration of the property of interest in the population, the mass of the ith particle in the population, and the average mass of a particle in the population.

During the sampling of heterogeneous mixtures of particles, the variance of the sampling error is generally non-zero.

Pierre Gy derived, from the Poisson sampling model, the following formula for the variance of the sampling error in the mass concentration in a sample:

V = \frac{1}{(\sum_{i=1}^N q_i m_i)^2} \sum_{i=1}^N q_i(1-q_i) m_{i}^{2} \left(a_i - \frac{\sum_{j=1}^N q_j a_j m_j}{\sum_{j=1}^N q_j m_j}\right)^2 .

in which V is the variance of the sampling error, N is the number of particles in the population (before the sample was taken), q i is the probability of including the ith particle of the population in the sample (i.e. the first-order inclusion probability of the ith particle), m i is the mass of the ith particle of the population and a i is the mass concentration of the property of interest in the ith particle of the population.

It must be noted that the above equation for the variance of the sampling error is an approximation based on a linearization of the mass concentration in a sample.

In the theory of Gy, correct sampling is defined as a sampling scenario in which all particles have the same probability of being included in the sample. This implies that q i no longer depends on i, and can therefore be replaced by the symbol q. Gy's equation for the variance of the sampling error becomes:

V = \frac{1-q}{q M_\text{batch}^2} \sum_{i=1}^N m_{i}^{2} \left(a_i - a_\text{batch} \right)^2 .

where abatch is the concentration of the property of interest in the population from which the sample is to be drawn and Mbatch is the mass of the population from which the sample is to be drawn.

Frigorific mixture

A frigorific mixture is a mixture of two or more chemicals that reaches an equilibrium temperature that is independent of the temperature of any of its component chemicals before they are mixed. The temperature is also relatively independent of the quantities of mixtures as long as significant amounts of each original chemical are present in its pure form.

Liquid water and ice, for example form a frigorific mixture at 32 degrees Fahrenheit or 0 degrees Celsius. A mixture of ammonium chloride and ice form a frigorific mixture at -17.8 degrees Celsius or 0 degrees Fahrenheit. Other examples of frigorific mixtures include :


The most common use of a frigorific mixture is to melt ice. When salt is placed on ice when the ambient temperature is greater than −17.8 °C (0°F), then the salt melts some of the ice and the temperature drops to −17.8. Since the mixture is colder than the ambient, heat is absorbed and the temperature rises. This causes the salt to melt more of the ice to drive the temperature down again. The process continues until all of the salt is dissolved in the melted ice. If there is enough salt present, then all of the ice will be melted.

Frigorific mixtures are commonly used in laboratories as a convenient way to generate reference temperatures for calibrating thermometers.

They are also useful for creating cold temperatures when mechanical refrigeration is not available.

They can be used to tightly fit two parts of machined metal, for example. One part is soaked in a frigorific mixture, causing it to cool and contract. The cooled part is then placed into the second part, which has not been cooled. As the first part warms, it expands to fit tightly within the second part.

From Yahoo Answers


Answers:Solution- sulphur in CS2 sugar syrup(liquid) sea water(liquid) air(gas) petroleum oil(liquid) vinegar(liquid) Colloidal-smoke(aerosol) milk of magnesia(sol) cheese(gel) sponge(foam) milk(emulsion) Suspension-sand in water chalk powder in water nimesulide suspension

Question:i need to no it for exam tomorrow so please help me. 10 points best answer

Answers:solutions are things in which the two things completely dissolve into eachother. The particles are all smaller than 10^-9 meters like sugar water, salty water, ect.. things like that. Heterogeneous mixtures include all colloids and suspensions Colloids are things like toothpaste, milk, some sodas, the particles are in between 10^-7 and 10^-9 meters in size. The main difference between this and suspension is that colloidal particles never settle to the bottom, they all travel in zigzag movements called brownian movement Suspensions are ones in which the particles are all larger than 10^-7 meters in diameter. The particles settle to the bottom, some examples are muddy water. Sandy water, the particles settle to the bottom eventually.

Question:Okay, I have a test in chemistry this Wednesday and I'm SUPER confused about all of these terms. Can someone PLEASE help me??

Answers:Solid, liquid, and gas are three phases of matter, determined by temperature and pressure. When a substance is solid it is locked into a specific form. This is the coldest form; heat is just a measurement of how much the atoms 'wiggle', and they are wiggling so little that they stay in a set pattern. As the atoms wiggle a little bit more they get enough energy to break free, but they are still somewhat attracted to one another, so they roll all over each other, and you get a liquid. As they get even more energy and move faster and faster they overcome that force of attraction and are moving so fast that they can't 'grab on' as they pass one another, and you get a gas. Pressure plays into it too. For example, water expands when it freezes, so if it is under a lot of pressure it won't freeze even if it's cold enough, because the pressure keeps it squished into liquid form. This is why there are some lakes miles under the ice in Antarctica; the water is below freezing, but the weight of the ice sheet stops it from freezing and expanding. Homogeneous and heterogeneous refer to mixtures. A mixture is a bunch of stuff which exists all mixed together but which doesn't combine chemically. A Homogeneous mixture is uniform; that is, the same all throughout. You won't see layers in this, everything is evenly spread out. Heterogeneous mixtures have more than one phase. There are further subdivisions. A colloid looks homogeneous, but, microscopically, it is heterogeneous. Milk is an example of a colloid. The particles which are dispersed in a colloid are very small (between one nanometer and one micrometer). In milk, these dispersed particles are little globs of fat which have been emulsified. Heterogeneous mixtures with particles larger than 1 micrometer are called suspensions. These particles are big enough to fall out all on their own; this is called sedimentation. An example would be flour mixed with water; the flour will all gather at the bottom if you let it sit long enough. Homogeneous mixtures with a solvent and a solute is called a solution. The solutes are particles smaller than one nanometer, and the solvent is the continuous medium (usually a liquid) which surrounds them, dissolving them. Salt water is an example of a solution. There are many different types of these (A colloid of a liquid dispersed in air is an aerosol, a suspension of a gas dispersed in a solid is a foam, etc.), but that's the basic gist of it.

Question:Describe each, base on particle size. Please give examples. 10 points for best answer P.S. open till 3 hours, it is my assigned work

Answers:A solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent. A common example is a solid, such as salt or sugar, dissolved in water, a liquid. Gases may dissolve in liquids, for example, carbon dioxide or oxygen in water. Liquids may dissolve in other liquids. A suspension is a heterogenous fluid containing solid particles that are sufficiently large for sedimentation. An example of a suspension would be sand in water. Unlike colloids, suspensions will eventually settle. A colloid is a type of mechanical mixture where one substance is dispersed evenly throughout another. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colloids#Classification_of_colloids

From Youtube

Mixture Problems :An example of solving mixture problems

Do It Yourself Suspension Lava Lamp :Here is a "groovy" way to study the properties of a suspension which you can do with some common household products. With water, oil, alka seltzer, food coloring, and an empty bottle, you can make your very own heterogeneous mixture suspension which very much resembles a lava lamp. Far out, man!