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Life expectancy

Life expectancy is the expected (in the statistical sense) number of years of life remaining at a given age. It is denoted by ex, which means the average number of subsequent years of life for someone now aged x, according to a particular mortality experience. (In technical literature, this symbol means the average number of complete years of life remaining, excluding fractions of a year. The corresponding statistic including fractions of a year, the normal meaning of life expectancy, has a symbol with a small circle over the e.) The life expectancy of a group of individuals is heavily dependent on the care.

The term that is known as life expectancy is most often used in the context of human populations, but is also used in plant or animal ecology; it is calculated by the analysis of life tables (also known as actuarial tables). The term life expectancy may also be used in the context of manufactured objects although the related term shelf life is used for consumer products and the terms "mean time to breakdown" (MTTB) and "mean time before failures" (MTBF) are used in engineering literature.

Interpretation of life expectancy

In countries with high infant mortality rates, the life expectancy at birth is highly sensitive to the rate of death in the first few years of life. Because of this sensitivity to infant mortality, simple life expectancy at age zero can be subject to gross misinterpretation, leading one to believe that a population with a low overall life expectancy will necessarily have a small proportion of older people. For example, in a hypothetical stationary population in which half the population dies before the age of five, but everybody else dies exactly at 70 years old, the life expectancy at age zero will be about 37 years, while about 25% of the population will be between the ages of 50 and 70. Another measure such as life expectancy at age 5 (e5) can be used to exclude the effect of infant mortality to provide a simple measure of overall mortality rates other than in early childhood—in the hypothetical population above, life expectancy at age 5 would be 65 years. Aggregate population measures such as the proportion of the population in various age classes should also be used alongside individual-based measures like formal life expectancy when analyzing population structure and dynamics.

One example of this common misinterpretation can be seen in the In Search of... episode "The Man Who Would Not Die" (About Count of St. Germain) where it is stated "Evidence recently discovered in the British Museum indicates that St. Germain may have well been the long lost third son of Rákóczi born in Transylvania in 1694. If he died in Germany in 1784, he lived 90 years. The average life expectancy in the 18th century was 35 years. Fifty was a ripe old age. Ninety... was forever." This ignores the fact that life expectancy changes depending on age and the one often presented is the "at birth" number. For example, a [http://www.utexas.edu/depts/classics/documents/Life.html Roman Life Expectancy table at the University of Texas] shows that at birth the life expectancy was 25 but if one lived to the age of 5 one's life expectancy jumped to 48. Similar papers such as [http://www.plimoth.org/discover/myth/dead-at-40.php Plymouth Plantation; "Dead at Forty"] and [http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0005140.html Life Expectancy by Age, 1850–2004] show dramatic increases in life expectancy after childhood.

Human life expectancy patterns

Humans live on average 31.88 years in Swaziland and 82.6 years in Japan, although Japan's recorded life expectancy may have been very slightly increased by counting many infant deaths as stillborn. The oldest confirmed recorded age for any human is 122 years (see Jeanne Calment). This is referred to as the "maximum life span", which is the upper boundary of life, the maximum number of years any human is known to have lived.

Life expectancy variation over time

The following information is derived from Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1961 and other sources, and unless otherwise stated represents estimates of the life expectancies of thepopulation as a whole. In many instances life expectancy varied considerably according to class and gender.

The life expectancies at birth listed below take account of infant mortality but not pre-natal mortality (miscarriage or abortion).

Sometimes, mainly in the past, life expectancy increased during the years of childhood, as the individual survived the high mortality rates then associated with childhood. Surviving childhood would dramatically affect life expectancy. For instance, the table above listed life expectancy at birth in Medieval Britain at 30. A male member of the English aristocracy at the same period could expect to live, having survived until the age of 21:

  • 43 years → 64 years total between 1200 and 1300
  • 24 years → 45 years total between 1300 and 1400 (due to the impact of the Black Death)
  • 48 years → 69 years total between 1400 and 1500
  • 50 years → 71 years total between 1500 and 1550.

While different sample attributes and sizes, methodologies, and theoretical assumptions produce sometimes notable variations, in general, interpretations of the available data indicate that the occurrence of older age became more common late in human evolution. This increased longevity is attributed by some writers to cultural adaptations rather than phylogenetic change, although some research indicates that during the Neolithic Revolution there was a selection effect of extrinsic mortality risk upon genotypic expressions favouring increased longevity in subsequent populations. Nevertheless, all researchers acknowledge the effect of cultural adaptations upon life expectancy.

During the early 1600s in England, life expectancy was only about thirty-five years, and two-thirds of all children died before the age of four. The average life expectancy in Colonial America was under 25 years in the Virginia colony, and in New England about 40% of children failed to reach adulthood. During the Industrial Revolution, the life expectancy of children increa

Life skills

Life skills are a set of human skills acquired via teaching or direct experience that are used to handle problems and questions commonly encountered in daily human life.

Definition

The World Health Organization defines life skills as "abilities for adaptive and positive behaviour that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life." In primary and secondary education, life skills may refer to a skill set that accommodates more specific needs of modern industrialized life; examples include money management, food preparation, hygiene, basic literacy and numeracy, and organizational skills. Life skills are sometimes, but not always, distinguished from occupational skills.

Subsets

The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) divide life skills into subsets of categories:

Learning to know: Cognitive abilities

Decision making / problem solving skills

  • Information gathering skills
  • Evaluating future consequences of present actions for self and others
  • Determining alternative solutions to problems
  • Analysis skills regarding the influence of values and attitudes of self and others on motivation

Critical thinking skills

  • Analyzing peer and media influences
  • Analyzing attitudes, values, social norms and beliefs and factors affecting these
  • Identifying relevant information and information sources

Learning to be: Personal abilities

Skills for increasing internal locus of control

Skills for managing feelings

Skills for managing stress

Learning to live together: Interpersonal abilities

Interpersonal communication skills

Negotiation and refusal skills

Empathy

  • Ability to listen to and understand another's needs and circumstances and express that understanding

Cooperation and teamwork

  • Expressing respect for others' contributions and different styles
  • Assessing one's own abilities and contributing to the group

Advocacy skills



From Yahoo Answers

Question:An algorithm is a step by step representation of a program. But I want an algorithm for any other day-to-day life activity. For example, Algorithm to make a call. (plz give any other algorithm as such with step by step representation) THANX IN ADVANCE.

Answers:Well, a recipe could be considered an algorithm for cooking a particular food. So if you want, I'll give you an algorithm for my grandma's meatloaf.

Question:people's daily life is around water. Mostly, the first thing we did in the morning is to wash our face, which needs water. say some examples about water in our daily life to show why it is so important for our daily life

Answers:Well basically your body is made up of 85% water. This gets depleted when you urinate or sweat, if you don't refill this quota of water you will suffer from whats called Dehydration. Also water acts as a cleanser which is a property that only it posses.

Question:I have a project on chemical changes in our every day life. can some one specifically tell me some chemical changes and why they are chemical changes? example: a nail rusts it is a chemical reaction because rusting is a chemical change/reaction and it is a new substance and it is irreversible. oh and is breaking down food with saliva a chemical chenga?if so why?

Answers:Burning a log of wood Mixing an acid with a base, producing water and a salt. Photosynthesis - a process in which carbon dioxide and water are changed into sugars by plants. Cracking heavy hydrocarbons to create lighter hydrocarbons (part of the process of refining oil). Cooking examples: popcorn, cake, pancakes, and eggs Oxidation examples: rust or tarnishing Combustion Mixing chemicals Rotting of fruit

Question:PLEASE HELP!!

Answers:1 - Wake up in the morning - do I pop up or roll to the side an push myself up? Understanding stress due to gravity and use of leveraging as a mechanical advantage to reduce stress on the back. 2 - I take a walk and am climbing a steep hill with a sandy surface - do I climb on my toes or use the full surface of my shoes? Understanding viscosity and friction and mechanics of moving a mass up a grade. 3 - I am making a hot cup of coffee which seems to spill every time I walk with it. Why? Understanding how viscosity of water changes with heat and not filling the cup as high as I would for a frapachino. Bonus: A boy has run off with my purse. I pick up a rock. Do I throw it at his head or above his head? Understanding mechanics and trajectories.