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From Wikipedia

Fractional distillation

Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. It is a special type of distillation. Generally the component parts boil at less than 25 Â°C from each other under a pressure of one atmosphere (atm). If the difference in boiling points is greater than 25 Â°C, a simple distillation is used.

Laboratory setup

Fractional distillation in a laboratory makes use of common laboratory glassware and apparatuses, typically including a Bunsen burner, a round-bottomed flask and a condenser, as well as the single-purpose fractionating column.

Apparatus

Discussion

As an example, consider the distillation of a mixture of water and ethanol. Ethanol boils at 78.4 Â°C while water boils at 100 Â°C. So, by gently heating the mixture, the most volatile component will concentrate to a greater degree in the vapor leaving the liquid. Some mixtures form azeotropes, where the mixture boils at a lower temperature than either component. In this example, a mixture of 96% ethanol and 4% water boils at 78.2 °C, being more volatile than pure ethanol. For this reason, ethanol cannot be completely purified by direct fractional distillation of ethanol-water mixtures.

The apparatus is assembled as in the diagram. (The diagram represents a batch apparatus, as opposed to a continuous apparatus.) The mixture is put into the round bottomed flask along with a few anti-bumping granules (or a Teflon coated magnetic stirrer bar if using magnetic stirring), and the fractionating column is fitted into the top. As the mixture boils, vapor rises up the column. The vapor condenses on the glass platforms, known as trays, inside the column, and runs back down into the liquid below, refluxing distillate. The column is heated from the bottom. The efficiency in terms of the amount of heating and time required to get fractionation can be improved by insulating the outside of the column in an insulator such as wool, aluminium foil or preferably a vacuum jacket. The hottest tray is at the bottom and the coolest is at the top. At steady state conditions, the vapor and liquid on each tray are at equilibrium. Only the most volatile of the vapors stays ingaseous form all the way to the top. The vapor at the top of the column, then passes into the condenser, which cools it down until it liquefies. The separation is more pure with the addition of more trays (to a practical limitation of heat, flow, etc.) The condensate that was initially very close to the azeotrope composition becomes gradually richer in water. The process continues until all the ethanol boils out of the mixture. This point can be recognized by the sharp rise in temperature shown on the thermometer.

Typically the example above now only reflects the theoretical way fractionation works. Normal laboratory fractionation columns will be simple glass tubes (often vacuum jacketed, and sometimes internally silvered) filled with a packing, often small glass helices of 4 to 7 mm diameter. Such a column can be calibrated by the distillation of a known mixture system to quantify the column in terms of number of theoretical plates. To improve fractionation the apparatus is set up to return condensate to the column by the use of some sort of reflux splitter (reflux wire, gago, Magnetic swinging bucket, etc.) - a typical careful fractionation would employ a reflux ratio of around 10:1 (10 parts returned condensate to 1 part condensate take off).

In laboratory distillation, several types of condensers are commonly found. The Liebig condenser is simply a straight tube within a water jacket, and is the simplest (and relatively least expensive) form of condenser. The Graham condenser is a spiral tube within a water jacket, and the Allihn condenser has a series of large and small constrictions on the inside tube, each increasing the surface area upon which the vapor co


From Yahoo Answers

Question:An example of this may be : Act 'x' by person 'A' in the presence of variable 'xn' and/or person 'B' results in reaction 'y'. An example of this equation in real life could be person 'A' is seen cheating on person 'B' by 'B's friend 'xn' resulting in 'A'+'B's breakup. If this is the case what does it say about humans individually and as a whole? Please qualify your answer. Thanks.

Answers:It can never be done because human-beings have creativity and innovation which can never be calculated or cloned.It can be applied on almost every thing except human pattens of behavior that are liable to change.We can predict certain human behavioral patterns but when it comes to creativity and innovation the whole kingdom of science will fail.

Question:For example, could it be used to separate sand from water? Please explain. #2 - Could distillation be used to separate the components of a solution made by mixing 2 liquids? For example, could it be used to separate alcohol from water? Please explain! Thank you!!

Answers:1: Yes, the mixture of sand and water can be heated to drive off the water as vapour. If the water is required, the process can be carried out as a simple distillation process where the separated water vapour (steam) can be recondensed. (The easiest way is to filter the sand out of the mixture and dry it). 2: Alcohol and water solution (mixture) can also be separated by the same process according to the difference in the boiling temperatures of the alcohol and water. (This is the process used to produce Ethanol (drinking alcohol) from a fermented sugar solution) The temperature of the system must be carefully controlled at the boiling temperature of the lightest component by a 'Reflux System' which will condense and return heavier vapour from the distillate to the distillation flask. The rest of the vapour, high in the lighter fraction, goes on to the condensation and recovery stage. For purity, the condensate should be re-distilled 2 or 3 times.

Question:Hi I am in need of desperate help with chemistry... So we did a simple distillation of an unknown alcohol and after the distillation, we were to identify what the alcohol is.. My result was that i got my first drop of distillate at around 89degrees and then the temperature increased by about 2degrees C as more distillate was obtained... now, we were given some boling point temperatures of some alcohols and since I got the first drop at 89, I concluded that my alcohol is 1-propanol + water which has a boiling point of 88. When we graph the data with temperature and the volume of distillate, it obviously is almost a straight line because temperature only changed by like 2degrees C. I'm not too sure, what to discuss for this lab other than that the boiling point was similar... what's up with the temperature increasing a little... or is that a big reading error? Is it an azeotrope? If so, how do I determine from the data and the graph that it is an azotrope...? and also, the little bit of the mixture left in the still pot turned pink after the distillation... WHAT IS GOING ON????????? Please help me understand my results/graph to interpret the data... I would REALLY appreciate it... Thanks.

Answers:it is hard to guess what you were supposed to do in this lab I am sure they gave you a pure alcohol or almost pure, so you must have distilled it all at the same temperature. Not necessarily your first drop was your alcohol, it could, and it usually is impurity! You must use the temperature at which MOST of your liquid distilled. Ideally it should be simply constant, with some impurities distilling before and after the alcohol at lower and higher temperatures respectively. So record this 'main' temperature and compare it with the boiling points of given alcohols. If it was possible that they gave you an azeotropic mixture like moist ethanol or something, do the same thing, just look for a boiling point of possible azeothropes instead of pure alcohols in your tables.

Question:i was absent for chemisty for one day because im on the soccer team and we had a game during this period. i dont have the book. The rest of my answers i found online. But I just need to know the MEANING and EXAMPLES of these 3 words please.. this is not a question like other people post for homework, but this is for me to know for tomorrows first test.

Answers:Distillation is the process of purifying a specific chemical from a solution using heating methods that take an advantage of different boiling points of chemicals within a solution. You heat a compound to the boiling point of a particular chemical within a solution and collect the extract by allowing the gaseous vapors to recondense into liquids. Ductility describes a (solid) material's ability to deform without breaking. Malleability is the ability of a solid to bend or be hammered into other shapes without breaking. Examples include iron, gold, copper, and lead.

From Youtube

Simple Batch Distillation of a Partially Miscible Binary Mixture :demonstrations.wolfram.com The Wolfram Demonstrations Project contains thousands of free interactive visualizations, with new entries added daily. Consider a partially miscible binary mixture composed of n -butanol and water; this mixture presents a heteroazeotrope with a boiling temperature of 93.49 C and a water mole fraction of approximately 0.2285. The Non-Random Two-Liquid (NRTL) model develo... Contributed by: Housam Binous

Distilled Demographics: The Birth Rate :The birth rate is one of the most basic and important measures in demography. Birth rates affect public policy and budgeting for education and health systems, and can have major impacts on the wellbeing of a country's population. In this video, PRB senior demographer Carl Haub explains how "crude" birth rates, the total fertility rate, and replacement-level fertility rates are measured, and using examples from various countries, why these measures matter for public health and economic development. By comparing these measures across different countries as examples, we can see how birth rates matter for all of us.